Genus:
Rumex L.

Rumex acetosella L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. Eurasia. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders, as a poison and a medicine and for food.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 300 - 3900 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

Type
Type from Europe. Type from Europe.
Morphology General Habit
A small perennial, dioecious, rarely polygamous herb, green or glaucous, with a branched rhizome producing adventitious shoots, sometimes stoloniferous
Morphology Stem
Stem erect or decumbent, up to 30 cm tall
Morphology Leaves
Leaves acid tasting, in a basal rosette as well as along the stems; lamina (0.7)1.5–6 × 0.5–2.5 cm, linear-ovate to ovate, acute at the apex, often hastate or sagittate with spreading or forward-pointing lobes, more rarely cuneate or rounded at the base, petiolate; petiole up to 4(12) mm long
Morphology Leaves Ocrea
Ocrea 4–5 mm long, hyaline, silvery, lacerate at the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers pedicellate, in whorls up to 5 mm in diameter in the axil of hyaline bracts, arranged in racemes; racemes ± lax and branched forming terminal panicles, leafless or nearly so Male flowers 2–2.5 mm in diameter; outer perianth segments 1.25–1.75 × 0.5–0.75 mm, oblong-lanceolate, the inner (0.7)1–2(2.5) × 0.6–1.3(1.8) mm, greenish-brown, becoming tinged with red; anthers up to 1.5 mm long, yellow, longer than filaments
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Outer perianth segments of female flowers up to 1 × 0.75 mm, acute, greenish, with a membranous margin, the inner closely appressed to and slightly accrescent with the nut
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nut light brown, (1)1.2–1.5(1.7) × 0.8–1.2(1.5) mm, sharply trigonous, ± wrinkled and papillose.
Ecology
Common weed in cultivated lands, grasslands, in wet places and sandy banks of watercourses; 1500–2000 m.
Note
Wild (1955) notes as of importance as a weed only in the eastern border region of Zimbabwe. Subsp. angiocarpus is recognized by its mature inner perianth segments joined to the nut. This character is ± conspicuous in all the female specimens examined, except Fries, Norlindh & Weimarck 3463 (K) from Nyangani Mt., in which the segments are not clearly adnate.
Distribution
SW Europe and N Africa, introduced in almost all temperate regions of the world. Mozambique ZIM E, MOZ MS Zimbabwe

[FTEA]

Polygonaceae, R. A. Graham. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A slender perennial, with erect or decumbent stems, seldom exceeding 30 cm. tall, arising from a basal tuft of leaves.
Morphology Leaves Ocrea
Ocreae hyaline, 4–5 mm. long, readily tearing.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves long-petioled, hastate, often narrowly so, apically subacute, basally decurrent; the terminal lobe seldom exceeding 4 cm. in length; basal lobes much shorter, narrow, spreading outward and often turning forward; immature leaves often unlobed, linear.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence slender, paniculate, much-branched, leafless; the flowers borne in close fascicles up to 5 mm. apart.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers 2–2.5 mm. across, the outer tepals oblong-lanceolate, partly appressed to the inner; inner tepals greenish-brown becoming tinged with red. Anthers yellow, 1 mm. long, longer than the filaments. Inner tepals of ♀ flowers closely appressed to and accrescent with the nut; outer tepals small, lanceolate.
sex Male
Male flowers 2–2.5 mm. across, the outer tepals oblong-lanceolate, partly appressed to the inner; inner tepals greenish-brown becoming tinged with red. Anthers yellow, 1 mm. long, longer than the filaments.
sex Female
Inner tepals of ♀ flowers closely appressed to and accrescent with the nut; outer tepals small, lanceolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Nut light brown, sharply trigonous, ± 1 mm. long and approximately as broad.
Habitat
A weed in experimental grass plots; 2400 m.
Distribution
Europe and temperate Asia, North and South Africa, temperate Americaintroduced into our area. K3

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Introduced and naturalised in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Ecology
Alt. 300 - 3900 m.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean, Caribbean. Elevation range: 300–3900 m a.s.l. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bogotá DC, Boyacá, Cauca, Cesar, Cundinamarca, Sucre.
Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, desert, artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Sangre de toro

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
acedera, acederilla, acederita, barrabacillo, barrabás, barrabasillo, envidia, fredolina, lamparilla, lengüilla, romacilla, sangre de toro, sangretoro, toritos, yerba envidia

[UPB]
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

[UPFC]
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, Chita, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Finland, France, Free State, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Hungary, Iceland, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Madeira, Magadan, Manchuria, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Tuva, Ukraine, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, California, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Crozet Is., Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Falkland Is., Florida, Georgia, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Kerguelen, Labrador, Louisiana, Maine, Manitoba, Marion-Prince Edward, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Peru, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Réunion, Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, South Georgia, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Svalbard, Tennessee, Texas, Tristan da Cunha, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yukon, Zimbabwe

Spanish
Sangre de toro.

Rumex acetosella L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Cope, T.A. [RBG 113], Great Britain K000914102 Yes
Rico, L. [1231], Bolivia K000295076 No
Cope, T.A. [RBG 487], Great Britain K000914103 Yes
Day, C.D. [222], Turkey K000341705 No

First published in Sp. Pl.: 338 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Akeroyd, J.R. (2013). Docks and Knotweeds of Britain and Ireland: 1-258. Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1997). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 11: 1-420. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1967). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 2: 1-581. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Graham, R.A. (1958). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Polygonaceae: 1-40.
  • Gremmen, N.J.M. (1982). The vegetation of the Subantarctic islands Marion and Prince Edward: 1-149. Dr W. Junk publishers. The Hague, Boston, London.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1983). Flora of Bhutan 1(1): 1-186. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jonsell, B. (ed.) (2000). Flora Nordica 1: 1-344. The Bergius Foundaton.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Krasnoborov, I.M. & Malyshev, L.I. (2003). Flora of Siberia 5: 1-305. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Meades, S.J. & Brouillet, L. (2019). Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador https://www.newfoundland-labradorflora.com/checklist/.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Park, C.W. (ed.) (2018). Flora of Korea 3: 1-131. National Institute of Biological Resources.
  • Rechinger, K.H. & Schiman-Czeika, H. (1968). Flora Iranica 56: 1-88. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Rodríguez, R., Grau, J., Baeza, C. & Davies, A. (2008). Lista comentada de las plantas vasculares de los Nevados de Chillan, Chile Gayana. Botánica 65: 153-197.
  • Saldivia, P. & Rojas, G. (2008). Nuevos registros y antecedentes de la familia Cactaceae para Chile en la region de Aisen Gayana. Botánica 65: 198-208.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tupitsyna, N.N. (2012). Revision of Polygonaceae Juss. in the flora of southern part of Krasnoyarsk region Turczaninowia 15(2): 44-48.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2003). Flora of China 5: 1-505. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2020). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 19(1): 1-378. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.or

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Bot. Not. 1899: 41 (1899).
  • Burtt Davy, Fl. Pl. Ferns Transvaal, part 1: 171, fig. 17 (1926).
  • F.C. 5, 1: 475 (1912).
  • F.T.E.A., Polygonaceae: 5 (1958).
  • Feddes Repert. 95: 54 (1984).
  • Sp. Pl.: 338 (1753).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Akeroyd, J.R. (2013). Docks and Knotweeds of Britain and Ireland: 1-258. Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1997). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 11: 1-420. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2005). Flora of North America North of Mexico 5: 1-656. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Graham, R.A. (1958). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Polygonaceae: 1-40.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1983). Flora of Bhutan 1(1): 1-186. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hultén, E.O.G. (1960). Flora of the Aleutian Islands and westernmost Alaska Peninsula: with notes on the flora of Commander Islands, ed. 2: 1-376. Weinheim : J. Cramer ; New York : Hafner Pub. Co.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jonsell, B. (ed.) (2000). Flora Nordica 1: 1-344. The Bergius Foundaton.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1989). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 4: 1-380. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Krasnoborov, I.M. & Malyshev, L.I. (2003). Flora of Siberia 5: 1-305. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Litvinskaya, S.A. & Murtazaliev, R.A. (2013). Flora of the Northern Caucasus: An Atlas and Identification Book: 1-688. Fiton XXI.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2012). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 13 Taxon 61: 889-902.
  • Meades, S.J. & Brouillet, L. (2019). Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador https://www.newfoundland-labradorflora.com/checklist/.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Rechinger, K.H. & Schiman-Czeika, H. (1968). Flora Iranica 56: 1-88. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Rodríguez, R., Grau, J., Baeza, C. & Davies, A. (2008). Lista comentada de las plantas vasculares de los Nevados de Chillan, Chile Gayana. Botánica 65: 153-197.
  • Saldivia, P. & Rojas, G. (2008). Nuevos registros y antecedentes de la familia Cactaceae para Chile en la region de Aisen Gayana. Botánica 65: 198-208.
  • Tupitsyna, N.N. (2012). Revision of Polygonaceae Juss. in the flora of southern part of Krasnoyarsk region Turczaninowia 15(2): 44-48.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2003). Flora of China 5: 1-505. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • C. H. Wright in Fl. Cap. 5 (1): 475 (1912).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 338 (1753).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • Plants for malaria, plants for fever: Medicinal species in Latin America, a bibliographic survey: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Neotropikey

    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/