Family:
Malvaceae Juss.
Genus:
Sida L.

Sida rhombifolia L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders, as animal food, a poison and a medicine, has social uses and for food.

[FWTA]

Malvaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A widespread perennial weed
Note
Requiring further taxonomical study throughout its range.There appear to be three varieties in our area: — Sida rhombifolia var. α, Sida rhombifolia var. β and Sida rhombifolia var. γ

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 0 - 1800 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb or subshrub.
Conservation
Least concern.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.

[FZ]

Malvaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

Morphology General Habit
Annual or biennial herb or suffrutex or shrublet, up to c. 1 m. tall; erect, often ± virgate, usually not much branched; stems terete, grey or brown, stellate-pubescent to stellate-tomentose, ultimately glabrescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina 2–6 × 0·5–2·5 cm., oblong to lanceolate-oblong or somewhat rhomboid, shortly and sparsely stellate-pubescent or almost glabrous on the darker upper surface, shortly stellate-pubescent to velutinous on the pale lower surface, apex usually obtuse to rounded or rarely acute, margin finely crenate or subserrate, base broadly cuneate to rounded; petiole usually less than 5 mm. long; stipules c. 5. mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers pale yellow to cream, axillary, solitary; pedicels rarely exceeding 20 mm. long in flower and 35 mm. long in fruit.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 4–5 mm. long, saucer- to cup-shaped, divided to about 1/3, stellate-velutinous or more sparsely pubescent, 10-nerved; lobes triangular, acute, sometimes mucronate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals c. 8 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal tube glabrous or sparsely glandular-papillose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Mericarps 8–12, c. 4 mm. long, birostrate, with awns usually connivent until dehiscence of the fruit, glabrous except for the usually shortly pubescent awns.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds smooth and glabrous except for the pubescent area around the hilum.

[FTEA]

Malvaceae, Bernard Verdcourt & Geoffrey Mwachala. Pavonia, B Verdcourt; Kosteletzkya, OJ Blanchard Jr.; Gossypium, P Fryxell & B Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

Type
Type: ? Jamaica, Linn. Herb. 886.3 (LINN!, lecto.) (left hand side fruiting specimen) (see note)
Morphology General Habit
Perennial often subshrubby herb 0.3–2(–3) m tall.
Morphology Stem
Stems usually erect or ascending, stellate-pubescent or tomentose
Morphology Leaves
Leaves oblanceolate to ovate, elliptic or rhombic (some Asiatic infraspecific taxa have obcuneate leaves with a retuse apex), 0.5–13 × 0.3–6 cm, rounded to acuminate at the apex, cuneate to rounded at base, finely stellate-pubescent, with simple hairs or almost glabrous above, usually more densely so beneath, the hairs often of different sizes (densely tomentose in some New World varieties), serrate except near base sometimes; petiole 0.2–2.5 cm long; stipules linear, 3–8(–12) mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary and/or in short axillary cymes sometimes aggregated at apex of shoots; pedicel 0.2–3.5(–6) cm long including up to 1.3 cm long joint; calyx 5–8 mm long, always 10-ribbed at base, the ribs distinctly yellowish, at least when dry, with scattered small and larger stellate hairs and sometimes long hairs, divided to middle into broadly ovate-triangular lobes, sometimes ciliate, glabrous inside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white or pale yellow to apricot, sometimes reddish or purplish at base, 6–12 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal column 1–3 mm long, with stalked glands and simple hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Mericarps (7–)8–14, (2–)3–3.5 mm long, ± smooth to slightly or strongly reticulate-ribbed on back and sides and the outer margins often ± serrate in some varieties, glabrous, glandular or puberulous, dehiscent or indehiscent, the beak part with 1–2 short or long awns or without awns but splitting and appearing birostrate but with nothing or scarcely anything projecting beyond the outline of the mericarp (in one South American variety the awns are very long, pubescent and flexuous).

[KBu]

Verdcourt, B. (2004). The Variation of Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae) in East Africa. Kew Bulletin, 59(2), 233-239. doi:10.2307/4115855

Morphology General Habit
Perennial often subshrubby herb 0.3 - 2(- 3) m tall; stems usually erect or ascending, stellate pubescent or tomentose
Morphology Leaves
Leaves oblanceolate to ovate, elliptic or rhombic (some Asiatic infraspecific taxa have obcuneate leaves with a retuse apex), 0.5 - 13 x 0.3 - 6 cm, rounded to acuminate at the apex, cuneate to rounded at the base, finely stellate-pubescent, with simple hairs or almost glabrous above, usually more densely so beneath, the hairs often of different sizes (densely tomentose in some New World varieties), serrate save sometimes near base; petioles 0.2 - 2.5 cm long; stipules linear, 3 - 8(- 12) mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary and/or in short axillary cymes, sometimes aggregated at apex of shoots; pedicels 0.2 - 3.5(- 5) cm long including up to 1.3 cm long joint
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5 - 8 mm long, always 10-ribbed at base, the ribs distinctly yellowish, at least when dry, with scattered small and larger stellate hairs and sometimes long hairs, divided to middle into broadly ovate-triangular lobes, sometimes ciliate, glabrous inside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Column
Staminal column 1 - 3 mm long, with stalked glands and simple hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white or pale yellow to apricot, sometimes reddish or purplish at base, 6 - 12 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Mericarps (7 -) 8 - 14, (2 -)3 - 3.5 mm long, ± smooth to slightly or strongly reticulate-ribbed on back and sides and the outer margins often ± serrate in some varieties, glabrous, glandular or puberulous, dehiscent or indehiscent, the beak part with 1- 2 short or long awns or without awns but splitting and appearing birostrate but with nothing or scarcely anything projecting beyond the outline of the mericarp (in one South American variety the awns are very long, pubescent and flexuous).
Type
?Jamaica, Linnaean Herb. 866.3, left hand fruiting specimen (lectotype LINN, selected by Rodrigo 1944).

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
escoba, escoba amarilla, escoba babosa, escoba cimarrona, escoba negra, escobabosa, escobadura, escobilla, escobilla babosa, escobo, escobo amarillo, escubilla, escubilla babosa

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1800 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, subarbusto
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Caribbean, Orinoquia, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–1800 m a.s.l. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlántico, Bogotá DC, Bolívar, Boyacá, Caldas, Caquetá, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Chocó, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Norte de Santander, Risaralda, San Andrés y Providencia, Santander, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vichada.
Habit
Herb, Subshrub.
Conservation
National Red List of Colombia (2021): Potential LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Escoba, Escoba babosa, Escoba cimarrona, Escoba negra, Escobadura, Escobilla, Escobo, Escobo amarillo

[UPB]
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.

Native to:

Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Congo, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Marianas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alabama, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Azores, Bahamas, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Canary Is., Caroline Is., Central American Pac, Chile Central, Colombia, Comoros, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Jamaica, Kansas, Korea, Leeward Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Mozambique Channel I, Nauru, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Pitcairn Is., Portugal, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Samoa, Sinai, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Carolina, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is.

Spanish
Escoba cimarrona, escobadura, escoba, escobo amarillo, escoba babosa, escobo, escoba negra, escobilla, escobo.

Sida rhombifolia L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 7, 2017 Hinton, G.B. [10745], Mexico K001105289 No
Jan 7, 2017 Hinton, G.B. [11445], Mexico K001105265 No
May 16, 2016 Hawkes, J.G. [2063], Honduras K001259182 No
Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [186], Cape Verde K001134098 Yes
May 1, 2009 Vu Xuan Phuong et al. [HNK 98], Vietnam K000610618 No
May 1, 2009 Vu Xuan Phuong et al. [HNK 595], Vietnam K000610619 No
May 1, 2009 Nguyen Van Du et al. [HNK 1869], Vietnam K000610621 No
May 27, 2008 Jones [450], Sabah K000224917 Unknown type material No
May 27, 2008 Phuong, V.X. et al. [595], Vietnam K000224916 Unknown type material Yes
May 27, 2008 Clunie-Ross [126], Vanuatu K000224918 Unknown type material Yes
Dec 1, 2006 Amith, J. [1173], Mexico K001105231 No
Dec 1, 2006 Amith, J. [1050], Mexico K001105232 No
Feb 7, 2006 Reynoso et al. [14806], Philippines K000223828 No
Feb 7, 2006 Kulip [141062], Sabah K000223830 No
Feb 7, 2006 Mohtar et al. [56167], Sarawak K000223831 No
Feb 7, 2006 Wace [C 12], Christmas I. K000223832 No
Feb 7, 2006 Billy Bau [83060], Papua New Guinea K000223833 No
Jan 1, 2004 Sanders, A.C. [11788], Mexico K001105259 No
Nov 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [7917 A], Cameroon K000198136 No
Nov 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [9308], Cameroon K000198135 No
Dec 1, 2000 Zapfack, L. [828], Cameroon K000337659 No
Dec 1, 2000 Kamundi, D. [631], Cameroon K000337656 No
Dec 1, 2000 Pollard, B.J. [378], Cameroon K000337655 No
Dec 1, 2000 Zapfack, L. [827], Cameroon K000337654 No
Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [2337], Cameroon K000337660 No
Dec 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [3426], Cameroon K000337657 No
Mar 1, 1997 Buzgo, M. [633], Cameroon K000337658 No
Jan 1, 1993 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [357], Cameroon K000086077 No
Jan 1, 1987 Tenorio L., P. [9820], Mexico K001105260 No
Jan 1, 1937 Matuda, E. [96], Mexico K001105234 No
Darko, K.O. [521], Ghana 8858.000 No
Bally, P.R.O. [5376], Kenya 8860.000 No
Rogers [20463] K000240413 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1862], Myanmar K001114481 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [1770], Mexico K001105220 No
Bourgeau, E. [1571], Mexico K001105244 No
Hernández A., C. [124], Mexico K001105278 No
Botteri [762], Mexico K001105274 No
Botteri [761], Mexico K001105272 No
Sachet, M.-H. [315], Mexico K001105275 No
Burchell [4585], Brazil K001214813 Yes
Krapovickas, A. [42051], Brazil K001214820 Yes
Burchell [9010], Brazil K001214808 Yes
Burchell [828], Brazil K001214811 Yes
Eiten, G. [1698], Brazil K001214843 Yes
Lima, A. [s.n.], Brazil K001214845 Yes
s.coll. [1310], Brazil K001214857 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [4659], Mexico K001105222 No
Bourgeau, E. [1721], Mexico K001105245 No
Drumond [s.n.], USA K001105243 No
Hinton, G.B. [1685], Mexico K001105219 No
Cervi, A.C. [7161], Brazil K001214800 Yes
Harley, R.M. [1122], Brazil K001214821 Yes
Pringle, C.G. [8490], Mexico K001105288 No
Burchell [9765], Brazil K001214810 Yes
Moseley [s.n.], Cape Verde K001035835 No
Griffith [s.n.], Brazil K001214853 Yes
Harris [3000], Brazil K001214817 Yes
Rambo, B. [46071], Brazil K001214861 Yes
Maitland, T.D. [118], Cameroon K000105296 No
Burchell [2448], Brazil K001214804 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [5852], Mexico K001105223 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1862] K001114483 Yes
Burchell [s.n.], Brazil K001214814 Yes
Marquez R., W. [281], Mexico K001105276 No
Nash, G.B. [2399], USA K001105285 No
Gouin [s.n.], Mexico K001105238 No
Botteri [756], Mexico K001105225 No
Burchell [8643], Brazil K001214806 Yes
Burchell [8696], Brazil K001214829 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1862] K001114485 Yes
Costa, M.A.S. [500], Brazil K001214801 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001214846 Yes
s.coll. [1305], Brazil K001214850 Yes
Lindeman, J.C. [13221], Brazil K001214860 Yes
Rose, J.N. [5352], Mexico K001105268 No
Riedel [259], Brazil K001214844 Yes
Krapovickas, A. [43959], Brazil K001214823 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1862] K001114482 Yes
Pabst, G.F. [9257], Brazil K001214818 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [471], Mexico K001105217 No
Mueller, F. [42], Brazil K001214852 Yes
Lowe, J. [4168], Brazil K001214824 Yes
Dusén, P. [9150], Brazil K001214828 Yes
Eiten, G. [10326], Brazil K001214859 Yes
s.coll. [1305], Brazil K001214854 Yes
Marquez R., W. [519], Mexico K001105279 No
Burchell [8652], Brazil K001214834 Yes
Burchell [4512], Brazil K001214833 Yes
Meissner [14], Mexico K001105235 No
Santoro, J. [816], Brazil K001214819 Yes
Bourgeau, E. [34], Mexico K001105237 No
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1862], India K001114486 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1862] K001114484 Yes
Brunt, M.A. [696], Cameroon K000105294 No
Bourgeau, E. [2641], Mexico K001105242 No
Burchell [8680], Brazil K001214835 Yes
Burchell [6971], Brazil K001214838 Yes
Tweedie [s.n.], Argentina K001214848 Yes
Mexia, Y. [4513], Brazil K001214825 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [15635], Brazil K001214812 Yes
Burchell [739], Brazil K001214809 Yes
Nicolás, F. [817], Mexico K001105228 No
Morton, C.V. [2533], Mexico K001105283 No
Burchell [2160], Brazil K001214836 Yes
Hage, J.L. [231], Brazil K001214858 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1862], India K001114487 Yes
Arséne, F. [s.n.], Mexico K001105246 No
Friedrichsthal [s.n.], Guatemala K001105269 No
Dunlap [30], Cameroon K000105309 No
Botteri [758], Mexico K001105239 No
Anthony, A.W. [327], Mexico K001105247 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001214856 Yes
Brunt, M.A. [251], Cameroon K000105295 No
Sands, M.J.S. [1371], Papua New Guinea K000607642 No
Gourlay, W.B. [48], Mexico K001105263 No
Migeod, F. [245], Cameroon K000105313 No
Bourgeau, E. [562], Mexico K001105236 No
Bartolomeu, J.G. [15198], Brazil K001214802 Yes
Maitland, T.D. [254], Cameroon K000105300 No
Parry, C.C. [86], Mexico K001105270 No
Hora, F.M.D. [16], Brazil K001214816 Yes
Morton, J.K. [0s.n.], Cameroon K000105312 No
Maitland, T.D. [809], Cameroon K000105310 No
Burchell [6971], Brazil K001214839 Yes
Hill, S.R. [12906], Brazil K001214855 Yes
Ortega, R. [30], Mexico K001105280 No
Langlassé, E. [649], Mexico K001105227 No
Gay, J. [s.n.], Peru K001105240 No
Hinton, G.B. [13136], Mexico K001105264 No
Palmer, E. [202], Mexico K001105287 No
González Ortega, J. [530], Mexico K001105226 No
González Ortega, J. [5336], Mexico K001105229 No
Burchell [9766], Brazil K001214807 Yes
Swainson [s.n.], Brazil K001214827 Yes
Gómez Chalaga, B. [387], Mexico K001105230 No
Rambo, B. [45777], Brazil K001214863 Yes
Nicolás, F. [768], Mexico K001105267 No
Rosa R., M. [1], Mexico K001105281 No
Botteri [757], Mexico K001105271 No
Maitland, T.D. [0s.n.7], Cameroon K000105305 No
Burchell [s.n.], Brazil K001214830 Yes
Burchell [4511], Brazil K001214837 Yes
Armstrong [s.n.], Brazil K001214831 Yes
Burchell [8688], Brazil K001214840 Yes
Burchell [2448], Brazil K001214805 Yes
Galeotti, H. [4076], Mexico K001105284 No
Hinton, G.B. [4033], Mexico K001105221 No
Rambo, B. [46596], Brazil K001214842 Yes
Hoehne, W. [13448], Brazil K001214803 Yes
Fryxell, P.A. [728], Mexico K001105282 No
Burchell [s.n.], Brazil K001214832 Yes
Botteri [759], Mexico K001105273 No
Mexia, Y. [4513], Brazil K001214826 Yes
Salzmann [s.n.], Brazil K001214849 Yes
Burchell [8688], Brazil K001214841 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [109], Mexico K001105218 No
Hinton, G.B. [5721], Mexico K001105224 No
Gardner [323], Brazil K001214851 Yes
Virgo, K.J. [181], Mexico K001105262 No
Krukoff, B.A. [1230], Brazil K001214815 Yes
s.coll. [7], Cape Verde K001134099 Yes
Pringle, C.G. [4291], Mexico K001105286 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001214862 Yes
Lyonnet [215], Mexico K001105233 No
Hinton, G.B. [12490], Mexico K001105261 No
Bourgeau, E. [2907], Mexico K001105241 No
Moseley [s.n.], Cape Verde K001035834 No
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 1862] K001114480 Yes
Arsene, G. [5560], Mexico K001105266 No
Irwin, H.S. [3804], Brazil K001214822 Yes
Chazaro B., M. [147], Mexico K001105277 No
Frame, D. [145], Brazil K001214864 Yes
Bolivia K001378774 Yes
n/a K001378821 Yes
Colombia K001487377 Yes
Colombia K001487378 Yes
Peru K001487380 Yes
Peru K001487381 Yes
Peru K001487382 Yes
Ecuador K001487383 Yes
Ecuador K001487384 Yes
Ecuador K001487385 Yes
Ecuador, Peru K001487386 Yes
Ecuador, Peru K001487387 Yes
Ecuador, Peru K001487388 Yes
Ecuador, Peru K001487389 Yes
Ecuador, Peru K001487390 Yes
Ecuador, Peru K001487391 Yes
Ecuador, Peru K001487392 Yes
Ecuador, Peru K001487393 Yes
Ecuador, Peru K001487394 Yes
n/a K001487395 Yes
n/a K001487396 Yes
n/a K001487397 Yes
n/a K001487398 Yes
n/a K001487399 Yes
n/a K001487400 Yes
n/a K001487401 Yes
n/a K001487402 Yes
n/a K001487403 Yes
n/a K001487404 Yes
n/a K001487405 Yes
n/a K001487406 Yes
n/a K001487407 Yes
n/a K001487408 Yes
n/a K001487409 Yes
Panama, Galapagos, Colombia K001487410 Yes
Panama, Galapagos, Colombia K001487411 Yes
Panama, Galapagos, Colombia K001487412 Yes
Panama, Galapagos, Colombia K001487413 Yes
Panama, Galapagos, Colombia K001487414 Yes
Panama, Galapagos, Colombia K001487415 Yes
Panama, Galapagos, Colombia K001487416 Yes
Panama, Galapagos, Colombia K001487417 Yes
Panama, Galapagos, Colombia K001487418 Yes
Panama, Galapagos, Colombia K001487419 Yes
Panama K001487420 Yes
Panama K001487421 Yes
Panama K001487422 Yes
Panama K001487423 Yes
Panama K001487424 Yes
N/A K001487425 Yes
N/A K001487426 Yes
N/A K001487427 Yes
N/A K001487428 Yes
N/A K001487429 Yes
N/A K001487430 Yes
N/A K001487431 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 684 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2001). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. I Boissiera 57: 1-396.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berhaut, J. (1979). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 6: 1-636. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1987). Flore des Mascareignes 51-62: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Brandão, J.L. & al. (2017). Synopsis of Sida (Malvaceae, Malvoideae, Malveae) in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil Phytotaxa 307: 205-227.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Cervantes Aceves, N. (1992). La Familia Malvaceae en el Estado de Jalisco, Mexico: 1-393. Editorial Universidad de Guadalajara.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Chayamarit, K. & Balslev, H. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Thailand 14(2): 185-358. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1997). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 11: 1-420. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Florence, J. (2004). Flore de la Polynésie Française 2: 1-503. IRD editions, Paris.
  • Flores-Palacios, A., Martínez-Gómez, J.E. & Curry, R.L. (2009). La vegetación de isla Socorro, archipiélago de Revillagigedo, México Boletin de la Sociedad Botanica de México 84: 13-23.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoly, J. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo): Familles des Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae Taxonomania 29: 1-41.
  • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Monro, A.K., González, F., Santamaría, D., Chacón, O., Rodríguez, A., Solano, D. Zamora, N. & Correa, M. (2011). A first checklist to the vascular plants of La Amistad International Park (PILA), Costa Rica-Panama Phytotaxa 322: 1-283.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Verloove, F. (2017). New xenophytes from the Canary islands (Gran Canaria and Tenerife; Spain) Acta Botanica Croatica 76: 120-131.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vascular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Xuyen, D.T. (2013). A synopsis of tribe Abutileae from Vietnam Thai Journal of Botany 5: 143-169.
  • Xuyên, Ð.T. (2017). Th?c V?t Chí Vi?t Nam. Flora of Vietnam 14: 1-314. Nha` xua^´t ba?n khoa ho?c va` ky~ thua^?t, Ha` No?^i.
  • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chev. Bot. 58.
  • F.T.A. 1: 181
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 684 (1753)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2001). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. I Boissiera 57: 1-396.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berhaut, J. (1979). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 6: 1-636. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1987). Flore des Mascareignes 51-62: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Cervantes Aceves, N. (1992). La Familia Malvaceae en el Estado de Jalisco, Mexico: 1-393. Editorial Universidad de Guadalajara.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
  • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1997). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 11: 1-420. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Florence, J. (2004). Flore de la Polynésie Française 2: 1-503. IRD editions, Paris.
  • Flores-Palacios, A., Martínez-Gómez, J.E. & Curry, R.L. (2009). La vegetación de isla Socorro, archipiélago de Revillagigedo, México Boletin de la Sociedad Botanica de México 84: 13-23.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
  • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoly, J. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo): Familles des Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae Taxonomania 29: 1-41.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Monro, A.K., González, F., Santamaría, D., Chacón, O., Rodríguez, A., Solano, D. Zamora, N. & Correa, M. (2011). A first checklist to the vascular plants of La Amistad International Park (PILA), Costa Rica-Panama Phytotaxa 322: 1-283.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
  • Paña-Chocarro, M.C., Espada-Mateos, C., Vera, M., Céspedes, G. & Knapp, S. (2010). Updated checklist of vascular plants of the Mbaracayú Forest Nature Reserve (Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú), Paraguay Phytotaxa 12: 1-224.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Sachet, M.-H. (1962). Flora and vegetation of Clipperton island Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, IV, 31: 249-307.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vascular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Xuyen, D.T. (2013). A synopsis of tribe Abutileae from Vietnam Thai Journal of Botany 5: 143-169.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Blumea 14: 193 (1966)
  • Bol. Soc. Bot. Ser. 2, 54: 65–85 (1980)
  • Boulos, Fl. Egypt 2: 101, t. 25, fig. 6 (2000)
  • Exell & Mendonça C.F.A. 1: 149 (1937)
  • F.A.C. 10: 172 (1963)
  • F.T.A. 1: 181 (1868)
  • F.Z. 1: 480, t. 92A (1961)
  • Fawcett & Rendle, Fl. Jamaica 5: 117, fig. 46 (1926)
  • Fl. Brasil. 12 (3): 338 (1891)
  • Fl. Eth. & Eritr. 2 (2): 254 (1995)
  • Fl. Mascarenes 51 Malvacées: 15 (1987) pro parte
  • K.B. 38: 41 (1983) pro parte
  • K.B. 59: 233 (2004).
  • Keay, F.W.T.A. ed 2, 1: 339 (1958)
  • Rev. Mus. de la Plata, Bot. 6: 173, t. 28 (1944)
  • Sivarajan & Pradeep, Malv. S. Pen. India: 245, figs. 82, 87, 109 A–B (1996)
  • Sp. Pl.: 684 (1753)
  • T.T.C.L.: 307 (1949)

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2015). Listado de especies de Productos No Maderables del caribe colombiano. 366 registros, aportados por: Garcia, H. (Contacto del Recurso), López Camacho, R. (Creador del recurso), Espitia Palencia, L. (Proveedor del metadatos). Versión 2.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_bst-caribe_plantae_2015
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2019). Lista de especies vedadas por la resolución 213 de 1977. 8256 especies. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_plantaspriorizadas_2019
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • Plants for malaria, plants for fever: Medicinal species in Latin America, a bibliographic survey: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Bulletin

    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/