Genus:
Solanum L.

Solanum americanum Mill.

This species is accepted, and its native range is New World. It is used as animal food, a poison and a medicine, has environmental uses and for food.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2600 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, subarbusto, arbusto
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Caribbean, Orinoquia, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–2600 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Atlántico, Bogotá DC, Bolívar, Boyacá, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Risaralda, San Andrés y Providencia, Santander, Tolima, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Herb, Shrub, Subshrub.
Conservation
National Red List of Colombia (2021): Potential LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Type
Type: specimen in Herb. Miller (BM, lectotype, fide Edmonds (1972), photo) of a plant cultivated in the Chelsea Physic Garden, London (England), said to have come from Virginia (United States, North America).
Morphology General
Erect or widely spreading annual to short-lived perennial, (10)20–76(150) cm tall, sometimes flushed purplish, glabrescent to moderately pubescent with simple, curved, usually appressed, eglandular hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary c.  1 mm in diameter, ± globose, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 1. 3–4 mm long, straight or obscurely sigmoidal, the stigma level with the tip of the anthers or protruding by up to 1. 2 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits shiny, black or purplish-black, with shiny, opaque 4–7(8) mm in diameter, globose or slightly depressed-globose, with or without sclerotic granules, glabrous, edible when mature Fruits shiny, black or purplish-black, with shiny, opaque 4–7(8) mm in diameter, globose or slightly depressed-globose, with or without sclerotic granules, glabrous, edible when mature.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 24–70(100) per berry, with light bone-colour and often flushed with purple, 0.8–1. 5 mm long, ± ovate in outline, pitted all over Seeds 24–70(100) per berry, with light bone-colour and often flushed with purple, 0.8–1.5 mm long, ± ovate in outline, pitted all over.
Note
Chromosome number: 2n=24 Edmonds in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 75: 143 (1977) recognized 2 varieties under S. americanum, viz.: var. americanum, pilose, and var. patulum (L.) Edmonds, more glabrous. Common name: “American Black Nightshade” or “Glossy Nightshade”.
Ecology
One of the most widespread species of Solanaceae, widely distributed from tropical to warm-temperate regions, and at higher altitudes when closer to the Equator, usually as a weed. Deep forest, riverine vegetation, dry thickets on littoral dunes and dry grassland, mountain slopes, waste and cultivated ground in gardens and fields; up to 1460 m.
Distribution
Zambia Malawi Mozambique ZAM N, ZAM W, ZAM N, ZAM W, ZAM E, MAL N, MOZ T, MOZ MS, MOZ GI, MOZ M
Morphology General Habit
Erect or widely spreading annual to short-lived perennial, (10)20–76(150) cm tall, sometimes flushed purplish, glabrescent to moderately pubescent with simple, curved, usually appressed, eglandular hairs.
Morphology Branches
Branches ± angular to narrowly winged, the ridges or wings smooth or with widely spaced, short teeth or prickle-like hairs. Branches ± angular to narrowly winged, the ridges or wings smooth or with widely spaced, short teeth or prickle-like hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves solitary or occasionally geminate; petiole 0.45–5 cm long, ± narrowly winged particularly distally; lamina 1.8–12 × 0.8–5.5 cm, elliptic to ovate-lanceolate or ovate, base truncate or rounded to cuneate, oblique, ± decurrent into the petiole, apex obtuse or acute, ± acuminate, entire to sinuate, rarely sinuate-dentate, ciliolate, both surfaces often sparsely pubescent, glabrescent. Leaves solitary or occasionally geminate; petiole 0.45–5 cm long, ± narrowly winged particularly distally; lamina 1. 8–12 × 0.8–5.5 cm, elliptic to ovate-lanceolate or ovate, base truncate or rounded to cuneate, oblique, ± decurrent into the petiole, apex obtuse or acute, ± acuminate, entire to sinuate, rarely sinuate-dentate, ciliolate, both surfaces often sparsely pubescent, glabrescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes lateral, unbranched, ± umbelliform, (1)3–6(10)-flowered; peduncle 0.2–2.8 cm long, slender, deflexed in bud, erect or ascending later, in fruit elongated to 3.7 cm; pedicels 2–7 mm long, slender, in fruit elongated to 14 mm, usually erect and splayed, occasionally reflexed. Cymes lateral, unbranched, ± umbelliform, (1)3–6(10)-flowered; peduncle 0.2–2.8 cm long, slender, deflexed in bud, erect or ascending later, in fruit elongated to 3.7 cm; pedicels 2–7 mm long, slender, in fruit elongated to 14 mm, usually erect and splayed, occasionally reflexed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 1–2(2.5) mm long, campanulate, in fruit somewhat enlarged; lobes 0.2–1.2 × 0.2–1 mm, oblong, semi-elliptic or ovate to lanceolate, rounded to acute, sparsely pubescent to glabrous, in fruit elongated to 1.5 × 2 mm, often strongly reflexed. Calyx 1–2(2.5) mm long, campanulate, in fruit somewhat enlarged; lobes 0.2–1. 2 × 0.2–1 mm, oblong, semi-elliptic or ovate to lanceolate, rounded to acute, sparsely pubescent to glabrous, in fruit elongated to 1. 5 × 2 mm, often strongly reflexed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, cream or yellowish, with or without a conspicuous yellow-green eye, sometimes flushed with purple, mauve or blue, 1.6–4(5) mm across, rotate to deeply stelliform; lobes 1.5–3.5 × 0.5–1.7 mm, oblong or ovate to lanceolate, obtuse or acute, puberulous outside. Corolla white, cream or yellowish, with or without a conspicuous yellow-green eye, sometimes flushed with purple, mauve or blue, 1. 6–4(5) mm across, rotate to deeply stelliform; lobes 1. 5–3.5 × 0.5–1. 7 mm, oblong or ovate to lanceolate, obtuse or acute, puberulous outside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamen filaments 0.3–1.5 mm long; anthers 0.7–1.5(2) mm long, oblong. Stamen filaments 0.3–1. 5 mm long; anthers 0.7–1. 5(2) mm long, oblong
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary c. 1 mm in diameter, ± globose, glabrous; style 1.3–4 mm long, straight or obscurely sigmoidal, the stigma level with the tip of the anthers or protruding by up to 1.2 mm.
Cytology
Chromosome number: 2n=24.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 0 - 2600 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Conservation
Least concern.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Short-lived herb, procumbent to erect, 0.3–1.5 m high, glabrescent to moderately pilose with appressed eglandular hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate to subopposite; petiole 0.8–3 cm long; blade ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, decurrent on petiole, (2–)3–6.2(–12.5) x 1.1–4(–6.6) cm, glabrescent to densely pilose, base cuneate, margins entire to sinuate or occasionally with deep obtuse lobes, apex acute to acuminate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences simple, umbel-like, 3–6(–10)-flowered, often extra-axillary; peduncles 0.5–1.1 cm long, extending to 1.5–2.8 cm in fruit; pedicels up to 14 mm long in fruit, usually erect, but often reflexed and nodding in Flora area
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 1.1–1.8(–2.4) mm long; sepals broadly ovate, 0.4–1 mm x 0.6–1 mm at base, enlarging to 0.8–1.5 x 1–2.5 mm in fruit, usually reflexed, but sometimes appressed to fruit in Flora area
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, occasionally with purple tinge, with translucent to yellow-green basal star; petals 2–4 mm long, spreading
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers yellow, 0.7–1.5(–2) mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 1.2–3.5(–4.5) mm long, exserted up to 2.5 mm beyond anthers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits black, rarely dark green, falling from calyces when ripe, 4–7(–8) mm in diam. Seeds 0.8–1.3(–1.5) mm long.
Distribution
N1; S1, 2; widespread in Africa, in the Mediterranean region, SW Europe, warmer parts of Asia, Australia, New Zealand, South (where probably indigenous), Central and warmer parts of North America.
Ecology
Altitude range 50–1600 m.

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: cultivated Chelsea Physic Garden, introduced from Virginia, Miller s.n. (BM!, holo)
Morphology General
Annual herb, 0.3–1.5 m high, occasionally suffrutescent at base, erect, procumbent or scrambling, spreading up to 2 m; stems green to densely purple, angular or smooth with edentate or slightly dentate ridges, all parts pilose with appressed eglandular hairs, often glabrescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves often membranaceous, light to dark green, sometimes densely purple, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate or ovate, (1.9–)3–8(–15) × 1.1–4.8(–10.8) cm, sometimes smaller on short-shoots, bases cuneate and decurrent, margins entire, sinuate or sinuate-dentate with deep usually obtuse lobes, apices acute to acuminate; surfaces pilose to glabrescent; petioles 0.3–4(–6) cm. Inflorescences simple condensed umbellate cymes, rachides absent or < 2 mm, usually extra-axillary, 3–7(–10)-flowered; peduncles erect and 0.4–2(–3.5) cm long in flower, 1.2–2.8 cm long in fruit; pedicels erect to reflexed and 3–9 mm long in flower, typically erect and splayed and 7–14 mm in fruit but often reflexed and nodding in the Flora area; axes pilose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate, 1.1–2(–2.5) mm long, pilose externally; lobes broadly ovate, 0.5–1.1 × 0.5–1 mm, acute to obtuse, often unequal; enlarging to 0.7–1(–1.5) × 1–1.5 mm in fruit when usually reflexed away from berry bases
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, sometimes with purple tinge and occasionally purple median veins to the lobes, with translucent to yellowish-green basal star, deeply stellate, 6–10(–12) mm diameter, tube 0.5–1(–1.3) mm long; lobes spreading to reflexed, ovate with acute apices, 2.5–4(–5) × 1.5–2.5 mm, shortly pilose externally with papillate margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments free for 0.5–1.4 mm, villous internally; anthers yellow, 0.8–1.5(–2) × 0.5–0.7 mm, connivent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary brownish, 0.5–1 × 0.5–0.9 mm; style 2–3(–4.2) mm long, lower half shortly pilose, exserted up to 1 mm before anthesis after which absent, straight or geniculate; stigma capitate, 0.2–0.3 mm diameter
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Berries typically borne erect but fruiting pedicels sometimes reflexed in the Floral area, black to purplish-black (occasionally dark green outside Africa) with shiny opaque cuticle, globose, rarely broadly ovoid, 4–7(–9) mm diameter, surrounded basally by reflexed calyx lobes; deciduous from calyces
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds (3–)15–80(–101) per berry, yellow, light or dark brown, obovoid, discoidal to orbicular, 0.8–1.4 (1.8) × 0.8–1.3 mm, reticulate; sclerotic granules present (when up to 4 per berry) or absent
Figures
Fig 17/12–14, p 126
Ecology
Common weed of cultivation (maize and cassava plots, banana plantations, gardens), old cultivation areas, waste land and disturbed places, grassland, open bush and forest clearings, shrubland, stony cleared land, and upland rain forest; sea-level to 3200 m
Note
Several duplicates of the type collection of S. imerinense have been traced and although the specimens have sinuate-dentate leaf margins and some reflexed fruiting pedicels, the remaining inflor- and infruct-escence characters are identical to those found in S. americanum. Although a type specimen of S. sancti-thomae has not yet been seen, the plant habit and tiny flowers described in the protologue suggest conspecificity with S. americanum. This is probably the most widespread and morphologically variable species in the section Solanum and is diploid (2n=2x=24). A more complete list of synonyms of this cosmopolitan species is given in Edmonds (1972) and Mansfeld (2001). The species is typically characterised by umbellate cymes of very small flowers, which are succeeded by small globose berries typically on erect, spreading or splayed pedicels. In Africa the fruiting pedicels are often reflexed and indeed Henderson (1974) recognised a similar variant as the subsp. nutans in Australia. However, extensive growth of many duplicates of S. americanum collected from throughout world indicated that many of the features characterising the species can be extremely variable including fruiting pedicels which can often be reflexed in field-grown plants, but erect in glasshouse- grown ones. Moreover, in some plants, the lower pedicel of the inflorescence can arise up to 2 mm below the condensed umbel. Other characters showing great variation include plant habit; pigmentation; leaf size, shape, and margin shape; flower colour and size; berry shape, colour and sclerotic granule presence or absence (cf. Jardine & Edmonds in New Phytol., 73: 1259 (1974) & Edmonds in J.L.S., 76: 27 (1978)). A number of infraspecific variants of this species have been formally described. Edmonds (1971, 1977) recognised two ecogeographical varieties of this species in South America with var. americanum being pilose and var. patulum (L.) Edmonds being glabrescent. This distinction is not so apparent elsewhere in the world including Africa, where both types occur and are best identified as S. americanum sensu lato . Though sclerotic granules are generally absent from the berries of South American plants of this species, they are often found in the African representatives. Olet (2004) recognised two morphological forms of S. americanum in Uganda, which she proposed could be given infraspecific recognition, though her molecular work suggested that there might be three groups, one of which could have been composed of hybrid plants. The synonymy of S. nodiflorum with S. americanum was based on examination on the type material of both species (Edmonds, 1971). Using material of this taxon from throughout the world, Manoko (2007) & Manoko et al. (2007) concluded from their molecular and crossability results that these two species were distinct. However, it is thought that the material which they identified as S. americanum, derived from the USA, is the distinct species S. ptycanthum Dunal. The clustering behaviour of all their other accessions, with the exception of a few from Brazil, confirmed their conspecificity, and in my view support their identification as S. americanum sensu stricto. There are reports of the use of this species as a vegetable in Uganda (U 1), Kenya (K 3) and Tanzania (T 2, 3 & 6) including its sale in local markets. It is also frequently used as a vegetable in Madagascar and for its fruits, though there are reports of the toxic alkaloids in the raw fruits causing nausea, diarrhoea, constipation, apathy, circulatory or respiratory problems (cf. D’Arcy & Rakotozafy, 1994). There are a number of specimens in SW Ethiopia and East Africa which appear florally intermediate between this taxon and the next species S. tarderemotum, which usually has slightly larger flowers and lax cymose many-flowered inflorescences in which the fruiting pedicels are reflexed. A new species S. umalilaense Manoko (Manoko et al. in Manoko, Syst. Study of African Solanum L. Sect. Solanum (Solanaceae), Chap. 4: 69–73 of Doctoral Thesis presented to Radboud University, Njimegen (2007) was recently described for tetraploid plants possibly endemic to the Umalila Forest Reserve region of the southern highlands of Tanzania. This was previously identified as affin. S. americanum, with which it is superficially similar. However, among the characters by which Manoko differentiated it are terminal inflorescences, shortly accrescent fruiting calyces, and small yellowish translucent berries which remain attached to the plants at maturity; its distinction from other African section Solanum species was supported by his AFLP analyses. It is species A in Schippers (2004), and the type material cited was Gereau et al. 5084 (DSM, holo.; K!, MO, NHT, iso.). This taxon is a popular vegetable which is extensively grown by the Umalila people. It is thickly sown in large plots, and the leaves harvested three to four weeks after planting until flowering commences when they become too bitter. It is widely sold in local markets. Morphologically the plants are somewhat intermediate between the diploid S. americanum and tetraploid S. tarderemotum. It could be an autopolyploid form of the former, but recent (2010) field work suggests that it is a good species which is widespread in cultivation, though no wild populations were found (van der Weerden, pers. comm.). Further experimental work on these collections is currently underway before the new species is formally published. It is probable that S. triangulare is synonymous with S. americanum. The protologue is brief but the possible holotype has a similar inflorescence structure with erect pedicels and bears tiny flowers with the corolla being described as pale violet and the anthers ± 1mm long. The specimen later cited by Dunal (1852) for this species – Gaudichaud s.n. (G-DC) is not conspecific and seems to belong to S. villosum subsp. miniatum. It is generally accepted that Schultes’ S. dillenii, though based on Dillenius’ Solanum procerius patulum vulgaris fructu was described from a mixture of specimens – representing some quite different species (see Thellung in Botan. Exch. Club Reports, 8: 186 (1926–1928); Polgár in Botan. Közlemenyek 23: 3 (1926) & in Acta Hort. Got. 13: 281 (1939)). To clarify the confusion surrounding this species, Polgár later described the Swedish adventive which he thought identical to the Dillenian plant as S. dillenianum (see above). The protologue and morphology of the holotype of S. depilatum clearly demonstrates its conspecificity with S. americanum, though sclerotic granules are absent from the berries in this case.
Distribution
Range: Generally considered to be an adventive in much of the Old World Flora districts: U1 U2 U4 K1 K3 K4 K ?6, K7 T2 T3 T6 T7 Z Range: Madagascar, W Indian Ocean Islands, Europe, the Mediterranean, Asia, Malesia, N, C and S America, the West Indies, New Zealand, New Guinea and Australia. Controversy surrounds its place of origin Range: Cape Verde, Senegal, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, São Tóme, Bioko, CongoKinshasa, Burundi, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
charrul, chumbalo, hierbamora, hierbamora blanca, tomaticos, yerbamora

[UPFC]
Vernacular
Yerba mora, Yerbamora

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.

[UPB]
Use Gene Sources
Crop wild relatives which may possess beneficial traits of value in breeding programmes (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Inflammation
Infructescences - Used in poultices for the treatment of skin inflammation (Lagos-López 2007). Leaves - Used in poultices and topical medications as an anti-inflammatory (Lagos-López 2007). Infructescences - Used in poultices and in topical medications as an anti-inflammatory (Lagos-López 2007). Leaves - Used in poultices in the treatment of skin inflammation (Lagos-López 2007).
Use Medicines Sensory System Disorders
Leaves - Used in poultices in the treatment of conjunctivitis (Lagos-López 2007). Infructescences - Used in poultices for the treatment of conjunctivitis (Lagos-López 2007). Leaves - Used in poultices (Lagos-López 2007).

Native to:

Alabama, Alberta, Argentina Northeast, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, California, Cayman Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming

Introduced into:

Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Chad, Chatham Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Comoros, Congo, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Queensland, Réunion, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Tuamotu, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Small-flowered Nightshade
Spanish
Yerbamora.

Solanum americanum Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2017 Wheeler, J.M. [ANU5730], New Guinea K001168080 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Lau, S.-.K. [209], China K001152446 lectotype Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Collins, F.S. [281], Bermuda K000676981 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Abrams, L. [2570], USA K001159727 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Tsang, W.-.T. [412], China K001152449 isotype Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Lewis, W.H. [388], Panama K001164882 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Thompson, J.W. [3729], USA K001159683 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Baker, C.F. [231], USA K001159685 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Amer, T. [s.n.], USA K001159887 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 s.coll [69], Bermuda K000676980 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Franceschi, F. [16], Guadeloupe K001159729 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Brown, S. [198], Bermuda K000676982 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Thompson, J.W. [3802], USA K001159684 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 s.coll [s.n.] K001159882 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Burch, D. [1033], Panama K001164883 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Lyall [s.n.], USA K001159880 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Wolley-Dod, A.H. [336], USA K001159731 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Kitching, L. [s.n.], USA K001159886 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Gentry, H.S. [4232], Canada K001159884 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Killip, E.P. [41162], USA K001159703 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Moldenke, H.N. [442], USA K001159885 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Hansen, G. [1175], USA K001159686 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 Fosberg, F.R. [11337], Pitcairn K000649667 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 s.coll [s.n.] K001155554 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 St John, H. [16199], French Polynesia K001155555 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 St John, H. [16070], French Polynesia K001155556 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 Florence, J. [4365], French Polynesia K001155560 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 Forbes, C.N. [2348.O.], USA K001155594 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 Heller, A.A. [2509], USA K001155599 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 St John, H. [15195], Pitcairn K000649666 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 Leland, B. [78], French Polynesia K001155553 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 St John, H. [15383] K001155557 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 Quayle, E.H. [209], French Polynesia K001155552 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 Degener, O. [34133], USA K001155596 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 Florence [10290], French Polynesia K001155551 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 Rock, J.F.C. [3165], USA K001155601 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 Florence [10774], French Polynesia K000649669 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 Florence, J. [4154], French Polynesia K001155561 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 Cowan, R.S. [629], USA K001155597 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 Sykes, W.R. [1804/CI], Cook Is. K001155562 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 St John, H. [15044], Pitcairn K000649668 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 St John, H. [14659], French Polynesia K001155558 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 Gillespie, J.W. [4348], Fiji K001155595 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 Heller, A.A. [2867], USA K001155600 Yes
Jan 1, 2015 Schäfer, P. [5306], French Polynesia K001155559 Yes
Jan 1, 2014 Kaune, S.M. [616], USA K001159879 Yes
Jan 1, 2011 Lambdon, P.W. [A036], United Kingdom K000369885 Yes
Sep 1, 2009 Komaromi, R. [61], Cameroon K000023420 Yes
Nov 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [7117], Cameroon K000541992 Yes
Jan 1, 2008 Cable, S. [498], Cameroon K000518862 Yes
Jul 1, 2006 Malcomber, S. [1716], Madagascar K000212422 Yes
Jun 16, 2006 Kessler et al. [PK 3103], Sulawesi K000224070 Yes
Jun 15, 2006 Reynoso [21644], Philippines K000224050 Yes
Jun 15, 2006 Barbon et al. [1832], Philippines K000224051 Yes
Jun 15, 2006 Barbon et al. [9142], Philippines K000224053 Yes
Jan 1, 2006 Cuming, H. [649], Philippines K000195888 Yes
Jan 1, 2006 Ryan, P. [289], Cameroon K000109673 Yes
Jan 1, 2006 Etuge, M. [1556], Cameroon K000109680 Yes
Jan 1, 2006 Kamundi, D. [673], Cameroon K000460273 Yes
Jan 1, 2006 Loher, A. [4380], Philippines K000196867 Yes
Jan 1, 2006 Cheek, M. [7470], Cameroon K000109674 Yes
Jan 1, 2006 Biye, E. [55], Cameroon K000109672 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Baron, R. [860], Madagascar K000212264 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Hodgkin, H.T. [82], Madagascar K000212267 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Humbert, H. [11309], Madagascar K000212307 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Decary, M. [6656], Madagascar K000212312 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Croat, T.B. [28684], Madagascar K000212299 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Hodgkin, H.T. [23], Madagascar K000212266 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Henderson, R.J. [H518], Queensland K001080528 isotype Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Decary [755], Madagascar K000212308 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Balfour, I.B. [s.n.], Mauritius K000212302 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Ponsonby, L. [26], Madagascar K000212263 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Hildebrandt, J.M. [3796], Madagascar K000212303 Unknown type material Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Baron, R. [1916], Madagascar K000212265 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Humbert, H. [19091], Madagascar K000212311 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Balfour, I.B. [s.n.], Madagascar K000212301 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 s.coll. [1744], Madagascar K000212305 No
Feb 1, 2004 Olet, E.A. [066], Uganda K000787982 Yes
Feb 1, 2004 Olet, E.A. [001], Uganda K000823772 Yes
Jan 1, 2004 Spruce, R. [3983], Peru K000201910 Yes
Jan 1, 2004 Spruce, R. [39833984], Peru K000201911 Yes
Jun 1, 2000 Eiten, G. [6239], Brazil K000903967 Yes
Jun 1, 2000 Eiten, G. [7211], Brazil K000903966 Yes
Jun 1, 2000 Eiten, G. [7876], Brazil K000903972 Yes
Jun 1, 2000 Berg, C.C. [P19836], Brazil K000903960 Yes
Jun 1, 2000 Bolland, G. [s.n.], Brazil K000903971 Yes
Jun 1, 2000 Irwin, H.S. [30413a], Brazil K000903963 Yes
Jun 1, 2000 Campbell, D.G. [P22040], Brazil K000903958 Yes
Jun 17, 1997 Henz [29638], Brazil K000903968 Yes
Jan 1, 1997 Hinton, G.B. [5709], Mexico K000063643 Yes
Jan 1, 1997 Calzada, J.I. [1848], Mexico K000063636 Yes
Jan 1, 1997 Arsène, G., Mexico K000063638 Yes
Jan 1, 1997 Langlassé, E. [606], Mexico K000063639 Yes
Jan 1, 1997 Palmer, E. [554], Mexico K000063640 Yes
Jan 1, 1997 Palmer, E. [11], Mexico K000063642 Yes
Jan 1, 1997 Palmer, E. [959], Mexico K000063644 Yes
Jan 1, 1997 Botteri, M. [846], Mexico K000063641 No
Jan 1, 1993 Decary, R. [6179], Madagascar K000212313 Yes
Jan 1, 1993 Humbert, H. [19707], Madagascar K000212306 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Palmer, E. [40], Mexico K000063646 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Moran, R.V. [6914], Mexico K000063649 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Hartweg, C.T. [202], Mexico K000063651 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Palmer, E. [27], Mexico K000063653 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Menendez, F. [216], Mexico K000063654 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Gaumer, G.F. [479], Mexico K000063655 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Mexico K000063658 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Hernández A, C. [90], Mexico K000063659 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Zola Baez, M.G. [428], Mexico K000063660 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Prance, G.T. [6797], Brazil K000903973 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Gaumer, G.F., Mexico K000063656 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Gaumer, G.F. [61], Mexico K000063657 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Fosberg, F.R. [57408], Brazil K000903959 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Prance, G.T. [58736], Brazil K000903974 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Jonsson, G. [893], Brazil K001058021 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Krapovickas, A. [33562], Brazil K000903956 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Gentry, H.S. [1269], Mexico K000063647 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Moran, R.V. [6448], Mexico K000063650 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Palmer, E. [934], Mexico K000063645 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Márquez, W. [677], Mexico K000063648 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Nee, M. [16674], Mexico K000063652 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Rosas R., M. [52], Mexico K000063637 Yes
Jan 1, 1987 Nee, M. [34965], Brazil K000903961 Yes
Jan 1, 1984 Sperling, C.R. [5653], Brazil K000903957 Yes
Jan 1, 1982 Harley, R.M. [22926], Brazil K000903962 Yes
Jan 1, 1981 Migeod, F. W. H. [88], Cameroon K000028581 Yes
Jan 1, 1981 Ngomba, J.N. [2], Cameroon K000028580 Yes
Jan 1, 1981 Ngomba, J.N. [3], Cameroon K000028579 Yes
Jan 1, 1976 Croat, T.B. [28489], Madagascar K000212298 Yes
Jan 1, 1976 Croat, T.B. [28440], Madagascar K000212300 Yes
Jan 1, 1970 Lindeman, J.C. [1955], Brazil K000903964 Yes
Jan 1, 1968 Irwin, H.S. [19170], Brazil K000903969 Yes
Jan 1, 1966 Eiten, G. [4753], Brazil K000903965 Yes
Jan 1, 1965 Klein, R. [5448], Brazil K001058035 Yes
Jun 28, 1905 Banlugan, G. [72719], Philippines K000195886 Yes
Jun 28, 1905 Merrill, E.D. [361], Philippines K000195893 Yes
Jun 28, 1905 Williams, R.S. [1079], Philippines K000195900 No
Jun 28, 1905 Jacobs, M. [7173], Philippines K000195885 Yes
Jun 28, 1905 Elmer, A.D.E. [17677], Philippines K000195883 Yes
Jun 28, 1905 Barbon, E.B. [PPI1565], Philippines K000195896 Yes
Jun 28, 1905 Elmer, A.D.E. [8105], Philippines K000195892 No
Jun 28, 1905 Merrill, E.D. [464], Philippines K000195887 Yes
Jun 28, 1905 Borden, T.E. [2070], Philippines K000195891 No
Jun 28, 1905 Conklin, H.C. [79580], Philippines K000195895 Yes
Jun 28, 1905 Elmer, A.D.E. [8788], Philippines K000195899 Yes
Jun 28, 1905 Sulit, M.D. [16987], Philippines K000195879 Yes
Jun 28, 1905 Barnes, F.T. [955], Philippines K000195894 Yes
Jun 28, 1905 Elmer, A.D.E. [15697], Philippines K000195898 Yes
Jun 27, 1905 Carvalho, ? [4305], Equatorial Guinea K000658420 Yes
Jun 14, 1905 Sellow, F. [s.n.], Brazil K000196566 Yes
Jun 3, 1905 Migeod, F.W.H. [358], Cameroon K000028577 Yes
Jun 3, 1905 Migeod, F.W.H. [358], Cameroon K000028578 Yes
Gandoger, M. [17], Tunisia K001152243 Yes
Whiting, M.M. [100], China K001152438 Yes
Lim, B.K. [1440], China K001152444 Yes
Tsang, W.T. [331], China K001152445 Yes
Chien, S.-.S. [395], China K001152448 Yes
Hu, S.Y. [5432], Hong Kong K001152455 Yes
Balgooy, van [3555], Indonesia K001153375 Yes
Beaman, J.H. [8216], Malaysia K001153379 Yes
Hoare, A. [125], Malaysia K001153391 Yes
Beaman, J.H. [6908], Malaysia K001153392 Yes
Henderson, R.J. [1358], Australia K001153844 Yes
Keighery, G.J. [5018], Australia K001153846 Yes
Henderson, R.J. [H1572], Australia K001153853 Yes
Symon, D.E. [s.n.], Australia K001153862 Yes
s.coll [830], Australia K001153871 Yes
Barry, R. [9], Australia K001153873 Yes
Burkett, A. [7643], Argentina K001166687 Yes
Pedersen, T.M. [3079], Argentina K001166690 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001168073 Yes
Greenaway, J. [50], Montserrat K000703053 Yes
Kerfoot, O. [638], Kenya K001156766 Yes
Zunguza, D. [597], Mozambique K001158361 Yes
Swynnerton, C.F.M. [481] K001158368 Yes
Renvoize, S.A. [885], Seychelles K001158893 Yes
Gwynne [875], Seychelles K001158896 Yes
Calzada, J.I. [JIC 24498], Mexico K001160017 Yes
Simonis, J.E. [125], Paraguay K001161270 Yes
Wood, J.R.I. [13577], Bolivia K001162640 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001162664 Yes
Jenman [4510], Guyana K001162671 Yes
Gardner [1788], Brazil K000903970 Yes
Whistler, A. [8858], Samoa K000658394 Yes
Willis, J.C. [s.n.], British Indian Ocean Territory K000679159 Yes
Montes, J.E. [3431], Argentina K001166683 Yes
Giraldi, J. [s.n.], China K001152451 Yes
Burne, E. [86], Somalia K001156033 Yes
Cárdenas, M. [2154], Bolivia K001162642 Yes
Beaman, J.H. [10798], Malaysia K001153377 Yes
s.coll [123], Tanzania K001156780 Yes
Türckheim, H. von [8554], Guatemala K001160024 Yes
Edwards, D.C. [3104], Kenya K001156760 Yes
s.coll [22] K001158888 Yes
Merton [7022], Seychelles K001158891 Yes
Shabani, S. [335], Tanzania K001156773 Yes
Heringer, E.P. [15204], Brazil K001161284 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [9141], Brazil K001058025 Yes
Henderson, R.J. [H1303], Australia K001153843 Yes
Baxter, P. [s.n.], Australia K001153847 Yes
Lowe, J. [4153], Brazil K001161260 Yes
Anderson, D.J. [s.n.], China K001152442 Yes
Millar [15825], Papua New Guinea K001153697 Yes
Bruce, E.M. [524], Tanzania K001156782 Yes
Zarucchi, J.L. [4198], Colombia K001162643 Yes
s.coll [7407], Australia K001153870 Yes
Kisalye, N. [515] K001156758 Yes
Duaneh, J. [444], Malaysia K001153381 Yes
Womersley, J.S. [24678], Papua New Guinea K001153696 Yes
Milne-Redhead, E. [10387], Tanzania K001156790 Yes
Duaneh, J. [319], Malaysia K001153384 Yes
Zak, V. [1980], Ecuador K001162660 Yes
Herb. Berro, M.B. [6777], Uruguay K001166686 Yes
Soakai, E. [364], Tonga K001155598 Yes
Kairo, A. [60], Papua New Guinea K001153693 Yes
s.coll. [4269], Madagascar K000212304 Yes
Fan, C.-.S. [179], China K001152440 Yes
Symon, D.E. [s.n.], Australia K001153863 Yes
Crovetto-Leguizamon, M. [5714], Argentina K001166688 Yes
Cuming, H. [999], Peru K001162654 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001156017 Yes
Tressens, S.G. [3100], Argentina K001166692 Yes
Dowson, W.J. [299], Kenya K001156763 Yes
Clubbe, C. [CC 76] K000775148 Yes
Stoddart, D.R. [1021], Seychelles K001168087 Yes
Beaman, J.H. [9048], Malaysia K001153378 Yes
Wood, J.R.I. [16605], Bolivia K000441077 Yes
Richards, H.M. [4426], Zambia K001158365 Yes
Lugo, S.H. [6082], Ecuador K001162650 Yes
Stoddart, D.R. [1443], Seychelles K001158887 Yes
Johnstone, R. [2311], Australia K001153864 Yes
Shabani [513], Tanzania K001156779 Yes
Conn, B. [323], Papua New Guinea K001153694 Yes
Hooker, J.D. [s.n.], Australia K001153872 Yes
Parodi, L.R. [9346], Argentina K001166685 Yes
Ren-xin, X. [40], China K001152436 Yes
Richards, M. [24130], Tanzania K001156781 Yes
Blackmore, S. [77428], Seychelles K001158889 Yes
Clarkson, J.R. [9357], Australia K001153840 Yes
Symon, D.E. [4879], Australia K001153855 Yes
s.coll [1], Dominica K001160986 Yes
Robertson, S.A. [3093], Seychelles K001158884 Yes
Herb. Sagot [453], French Guiana K001162674 Yes
Schipp, W.A. [842], Belize K001160020 Yes
Milne-Redhead, E. [10430], Tanzania K001156768 Yes
Milliken [219], Venezuela K001162645 Yes
Schäfer, P.A. [7053], Mozambique K001158360 Yes
Hu, S.Y. [7009], Macao K001152456 Yes
Schinini, A. [6806], Argentina K001166693 Yes
Gaumer, G.F. [479] K001160018 Yes
Lei, C.I. [159], China K001152439 Yes
s.coll [1362] K001168082 Yes
Bryant, M. [124], Dominica K001160987 Yes
Everist, S.L. [10054], Australia K001153848 Yes
Johnson, L. [1272], Australia K001153879 Yes
Coville, F.V. [1256], USA K001159881 Yes
Coveny, R. [6398], Australia K001153874 Yes
Conn [88], Papua New Guinea K001153695 Yes
Hugh, H. [1593], Peru K001162653 Yes
Hoare, A. [16], Malaysia K001153390 Yes
Iltis, H.H. [744], USA K001168088 Yes
Henderson, R.J. [1414], Australia K001153845 Yes
Renvoize, S.A. [1258], Seychelles K001158892 Yes
Steenis, C.G.G.J. [7839], Indonesia K001153393 Yes
Saint Clair Thompson, G.W. [854], Tanzania K001156786 Yes
Jenman [5131], Guyana K001162670 Yes
Hassler, E. [12197], Paraguay K001161274 Yes
Grossweiler, J. [464], Angola K001029759 Yes
Steyermark, J.A. [88968], Venezuela K001162648 Yes
Everist, S.L. [5606], Australia K001153859 Yes
Tucker, J.M. [714], El Salvador K001160023 Yes
Balansa, B. [2108], Paraguay K001161268 Yes
Lewis, W.H. [2955], Panama K001162661 Yes
Hepper, F.N. [6132], Yemen K001151852 Yes
Hubbard, C.E. [2508], Australia K001153861 Yes
McConish, J.D. [46], Australia K001153877 Yes
D'Arcy, W.G. [6052], Panama K001162663 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [13755], Brazil K001058034 Yes
Longman, H.A. [s.n.], Australia K001153860 Yes
Nee, M. [31258], Venezuela K001162647 Yes
Ruiz-Teran, L. [11959], Venezuela K001162668 Yes
Krapovickas, A. [20006], Argentina K001166684 Yes
Ramosa Ventura, L.J. [1143], Mexico K001160016 Yes
Willis, J.C. [s.n.], British Indian Ocean Territory K000679158 Yes
Sibil, J. [317], Malaysia K001153383 Yes
Milne-Redhead, E. [10440], Tanzania K001156769 Yes
Philcox, D. [3986], Brazil K001058024 Yes
Rao, M.K. [64], India K001168075 Yes
Krapovickas, A. [41990], Brazil K001058020 Yes
Shabetal, J.R. [4861180], Egypt K001151851 Yes
Eiten, G. [10152], Brazil K000903955 Yes
Oliver, R.L. [2677], Panama K001162662 Yes
Hassler, E. [3104], Paraguay K000532497 isolectotype Yes
Clarkson, J.R. [5498], Australia K001153838 Yes
Henderson, R.J. [H544], Australia K001153849 Yes
Goring, V. [2], Hong Kong K001152454 Yes
s.coll [183], Costa Rica K001160025 Yes
Schwarz, G.J. [4554], Argentina K001166681 Yes
Sibil, J. [252], Malaysia K001153382 Yes
Holst, C. [2840] K001156784 Yes
McDonald, T.J. [548], Australia K001153854 Yes
Stoddart, D.R. [1053], Seychelles K001168085 Yes
Rodway, J.A. [1092], Australia K001153866 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [18095], Brazil K001058027 Yes
Rao, M.K. [56], India K001168079 Yes
Peck, M.E. [189], Belize K001160019 Yes
Grimshaw, J.M. [JMG94145], Tanzania K001156778 Yes
Hassler, E. [622], Paraguay K001161269 Yes
Archbold, M.E. [2545], Tanzania K001156783 Yes
Nash, R.C. [R4] K001160021 Yes
McDaniel, S. [30219], Peru K001162659 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [9186], Brazil K001058028 Yes
Schomburgk [s.n.], Guyana K001058029 Yes
Rodd, A. [1751], Australia K001153878 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [18123], Brazil K001058033 Yes
Steward, A.N. [9691], China K001152447 Yes
Bunting, G.S. [105], Venezuela K001162646 Yes
Harrison, S.G. [502], Guyana K001162673 Yes
Hunt, D.R. [6479], Brazil K001058032 Yes
Schinini, A. [18228], Argentina K001166680 Yes
Bakia, A. [603], Malaysia K001153388 Yes
Hartweg, K.T. [262], Mexico K001160022 Yes
Herb Morrison, A. [19014], Australia K001153839 Yes
Gardner [1788], Brazil K000532496 syntype Yes
Henderson, R. [H299], Australia K001153841 Yes
Stoddart, D.R. [1383], Seychelles K001158895 Yes
Plowman, T.C. [2709], Argentina K001166679 Yes
Kisena [529], Tanzania K001156776 Yes
Mori, S.A. [11624], Brazil K001161264 Yes
Henderson, R.J. [1357] K001168084 Yes
Lugo, S.H. [4291], Ecuador K001162652 Yes
Philcox, D. [4732], Brazil K001058026 Yes
s.coll [69/306], Australia K001153881 Yes
Balsinhas, A. [647], Mozambique K001158364 Yes
Hutchinson, P.C. [3458], Peru K001162658 Yes
Rodway, J.A. [2258], Australia K001153869 Yes
Keighery, G.J. [1282], Australia K001153836 Yes
Miller, A.G. [7715], Oman K001151853 Yes
Harley, R.M. [22191], Brazil K001161263 Yes
Brunet [37], Seychelles K001158885 Yes
Fosberg, F.R. [48896], Seychelles K001158894 Yes
Lugo, S.H. [6094], Ecuador K001162651 Yes
Rodway, G. [1334], Australia K001153867 Yes
Jenman [4573], Guyana K001162669 Yes
Henderson, R.J. [H564], Australia K001153852 Yes
Zunguza, D. [113], Mozambique K001158362 Yes
Lugas, L. [2760], Malaysia K001153389 Yes
Henderson, R. [H298], Australia K001153842 Yes
Proctor [4149], Seychelles K001158883 Yes
Covalo, P. do [80], Brazil K001161259 Yes
Vanni, R. [731], Argentina K001166689 Yes
Vanni, R. [804], Argentina K001166694 Yes
Vandenberg, J. [40062], Papua New Guinea K001153700 Yes
Robertson, S.A. [3015], Seychelles K001158882 Yes
Duaneh, J. [320], Malaysia K001153385 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001168074 Yes
Ekman, E.L. [815], Argentina K001166682 Yes
Green, P.S. [1571], Australia K001153880 Yes
Quarín, C. [357], Argentina K001166691 Yes
Robertson, S.A. [2781], Seychelles K001158881 Yes
Lugo, S.H. [4003], Ecuador K001162649 Yes
Millett [s.n.], China K001152452 Yes
Sibil, J. [171], Malaysia K001153376 Yes
Harley, R.M. [27292], Brazil K001161262 Yes
Radcliffe-Smith, A. [3884], Oman K001151854 Yes
Rodway, J.A. [1377], Australia K001153868 Yes
Chun, N.-.K. [40185], Hong Kong K001152450 Yes
Rao, M.K. [54], India K001168077 Yes
Balgooy, van [3555], Indonesia K001153374 Yes
Soibeh, D. [51], Malaysia K001153387 Yes
Hu, S.Y. [6781], Hong Kong K001152453 Yes
Flenley, J.R. [2192], Papua New Guinea K001153698 Yes
Symon, D.E. [4779], Australia K001153857 Yes
Stoddart, D.R. [1003], Seychelles K001158890 Yes
Henderson, R.J. [1356] K001168083 Yes
Lawlor, D.W. [410], Nigeria K001155674 Yes
Henderson, R.J. [1361] K001168081 Yes
Andrews, F.W. [A1415], Sudan K001156018 Yes
Tweed, R.D. [s.n.], Argentina K001166695 Yes
Henderson, R.J. [H563], Australia K001153850 Yes
Rao, M.K. [58], India K001168076 Yes
s.coll [R.B168], Guyana K001161256 Yes
Glover, E.C. [3608], Kenya K001156767 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [10990], Brazil K001058022 Yes
Herb. Gay, J. [s.n.] K001168072 Yes
Henderson, R.J. [H559], Australia K001153851 Yes
Willis, J.C. [s.n.], British Indian Ocean Territory K000679157 Yes
Fanshawe, D.B. [F1085], Zambia K001158366 Yes
Hooker, W.J. [s.n.], New Zealand K001152443 Yes
Lorence, D.H. [M179], Mauritius K000679160 Yes
Haegi, L. [1607], Australia K001153876 Yes
Harley, R.M. [27292], Brazil K001161265 Yes
Coveny, R. [6486], Australia K001153875 Yes
Jansen, P.C.M. [8065], Mozambique K001158363 Yes
Beaman, J.H. [9079], Malaysia K001153380 Yes
Arvidsson, I. [191], Mauritius K001152242 Yes
Renvoize, S.A. [3329], Argentina K001166678 Yes
Symon, D.E. [4880], Australia K001153856 Yes
Hildebrandt, J.M. [3401a], Madagascar K001168086 Yes
Badcock, W.J. [145], Bolivia K001162641 Yes
Anderson, A.B. [1920], Colombia K001162644 Yes
Argent, G. [6362], Brazil K001058031 Yes
Cavalerie, J. [7581], China K001152441 Yes
Prévost, M.-F. [3911], French Guiana K001161257 Yes
Flenley, J.R. [2192], Papua New Guinea K001153699 Yes
Stoddart, D.R. [7238a], Mauritius K001158886 Yes
Schunke Vigo, J. [6077], Peru K001162656 Yes
Lejeune [55], Congo K001155834 Yes
Hunt, D.R. [6329], Brazil K001058023 Yes
Rao, M.K. [57], India K001168078 Yes
Seemann, B.C. [535], Panama K001162665 Yes
Iltis, H.H. [407], Peru K001162657 Yes
Kenneally, K.F. [6095], Australia K001153837 Yes
Zhong-tao, W. [870016], China K001152437 Yes
Hill, B. [328], Kenya K001156764 Yes
Plowman, T.C. [4831], Peru K001162655 Yes
Amaral, I.L. [808], Brazil K001161261 Yes
Cunningham, I. [s.n.], Australia K001153858 Yes
Corcoran, M.R. [MARC 42] K000703047 Yes
Sibil, J. [48], Malaysia K001153386 Yes
Rodway, J.A. [735], Australia K001153865 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [5865], Brazil K001058030 Yes
Welwitsch [6102], Angola K001029775 Yes
Heath, A. [ARH1023], Botswana K001158367 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Andrieux, G. [183], Mexico Solanum pterocaulum K000063832 No
Hinton, G.B. [7566], Mexico Solanum pterocaulum K000063829 Yes
Balls, E.K. [B5646], Mexico Solanum pterocaulum K000063830 Yes
Wynd, F.L. [567], Mexico Solanum pterocaulum K000063831 Yes
Balls, E.K. [B5067], Mexico Solanum pterocaulum K000063828 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] Solanum pterocaulum K001160677 Yes
Coulter, T. [1231], Mexico Solanum pterocaulum K000063827 Yes
Galeotti, H.G. [s.n.] Solanum pterocaulum K001160675 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] Solanum pterocaulum K001160676 Yes
Ruimveldt Managers yard [252], Guyana Solanum curtipes K001163792 Yes
Cardenas, M. [2053], Bolivia Solanum americanum var. nodiflorum K001162700 Yes
Taylor, T.W. [TT131] Solanum americanum var. nodiflorum K001162702 Yes
White, O.E. [1091], Bolivia Solanum americanum var. nodiflorum K001162701 Yes
Sastre, C. [284], French Guiana Solanum americanum var. nodiflorum K001161258 Yes
Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C33], United Kingdom Solanum ptychanthum K001169846 Yes
Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C33/6], United Kingdom Solanum ptychanthum K001169854 Yes
Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C33/9], United Kingdom Solanum ptychanthum K001169855 Yes
Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C116] Solanum ptychanthum K001169863 Yes
Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C116] Solanum ptychanthum K001169859 Yes
Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C33], United Kingdom Solanum ptychanthum K001169851 Yes
Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C122] Solanum ptychanthum K001169861 Yes
Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C116] Solanum ptychanthum K001169858 Yes
Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C33], United Kingdom Solanum ptychanthum K001169853 Yes
Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C122] Solanum ptychanthum K001169862 Yes
Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C122] Solanum ptychanthum K001169860 Yes
Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C116] Solanum ptychanthum K001169856 Yes
Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C33/15], United Kingdom Solanum ptychanthum K001169849 Yes
Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C33/12], United Kingdom Solanum ptychanthum K001169848 Yes
Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C33], United Kingdom Solanum ptychanthum K001169850 Yes
Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C33], United Kingdom Solanum ptychanthum K001169847 Yes
Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C33/3], United Kingdom Solanum ptychanthum K001169852 Yes
Herb Edmonds, J.M. [C122] Solanum ptychanthum K001169857 Yes
Jan 1, 2006 Hildebrandt [3796], Madagascar Solanum imerinense K000212337 Yes
Jan 1, 2006 Hildebrandt [3796], Madagascar Solanum imerinense K000212339 Yes
Jan 1, 2006 Hildebrandt [3796], Madagascar Solanum imerinense K000212338 No
Jan 1, 2006 Hildebrandt [3796], Madagascar Solanum imerinense K000212340 Yes
Pringle, C.G. [4948], Mexico Solanum oleraceum K000063808 Yes
Bourgeau, E. [115], Mexico Solanum oleraceum K000063809 Yes
Schaffner, J.G. [692], Mexico Solanum oleraceum K000063810 Yes
Parker [s.n.], Brazil Solanum oleraceum K000532493 Yes
Graeffe [1480], Samoa Solanum oleraceum K001155566 Yes
Cheeseman, T.F. [618], Cook Is. Solanum oleraceum K001155568 Yes
Parry, C.C. [634], Mexico Solanum oleraceum K000063812 Yes
Whitmee, S.J. [185], Samoa Solanum oleraceum K001155567 Yes
Greene, B.D. [21], Cuba Solanum oleraceum K001160615 Yes
Kerber, E. [177], Mexico Solanum oleraceum K000063811 No
Salvin, O. [s.n.], Guatemala Solanum oleraceum K001160614 Yes
Bateson, G. [121], Papua New Guinea Solanum oleraceum K001153777 Yes
Schaffner, J.G. [691], Mexico Solanum oleraceum K000063813 No
s.coll [s.n.], Mexico Solanum oleraceum K001160617 Yes
Hutchison, P.C. [3853], Peru Solanum inconspicuum K001164180 Yes
Prior, A. [s.n.], Jamaica Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160989 Yes
Sandwith, N.Y. [970], St. Kitts & Nevis Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160992 Yes
Nicholson [s.n.], Antigua & Barbuda Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160995 Yes
Simmonds, U.W. [14404], Trinidad & Tobago Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161013 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], Trinidad & Tobago Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161014 Yes
Beard, P. [1383], St. Vincent & the Grenadines Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160999 Yes
Small, J.K. [8805], Bahamas Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161011 Yes
Fishlock, W.C. [T8], British Virgin Is. Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160998 Yes
Valeur, E.J. [1021], Dominican Republic Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161004 Yes
Brace [251], Bahamas Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161001 Yes
Valeur, E.J. [1021], Dominican Republic Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161003 Yes
Hermann, H.A. van [633], Cuba Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161005 Yes
Hermann, H.A. van [527], Cuba Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161007 Yes
Curran, H.M. [64], Netherlands Antilles Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160994 Yes
Sintenis, P. [3513], Puerto Rico Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161002 Yes
Purseglove, I.W. [P6309], Trinidad & Tobago Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161016 Yes
Wright, C. [383], Cuba Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161006 Yes
Fishlock, W.C. [8], British Virgin Is. Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160997 Yes
Hahn, L. [325], Martinique Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160996 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], Jamaica Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160988 Yes
Wilson, P. [7832], Bahamas Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161009 Yes
Broadway, W.E. [6307], Trinidad & Tobago Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161015 Yes
Ekman, E.L. [H12038], Dominican Republic Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161000 Yes
Northrop, J.I. [557], Bahamas Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161008 Yes
Wilson, P. [8213], Bahamas Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161010 Yes
Wight, A.E. [111], Bahamas Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001161012 Yes
Sandwith, N.Y. [972], St. Kitts & Nevis Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160993 Yes
Beard, P. [1271], Grenada Solanum nigrum var. americanum K001160991 Yes
Furuse, M. [42704], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152484 Yes
Furuse, M. [42704], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152483 Yes
Furuse, M. [26892], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152479 Yes
Furuse, M. [46168], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152477 Yes
Furuse, M. [46072], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152476 Yes
Furuse, M. [44637], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152485 Yes
Furuse, M. [40677], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152486 Yes
Furuse, M. [42834], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152482 Yes
Murata, G. [20136], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152488 Yes
Furuse, M. [42834], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152481 Yes
Furuse, M. [4837], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152487 Yes
Furuse, M. [26892], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152475 Yes
Furuse, M. [26892], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152480 Yes
Furuse, M. [46168], Japan Solanum photeinocarpum K001152478 Yes
Deighton, F.C. [5660], Sierra Leone Solanum nodiflorum 17715.000 No
Linden, J. [250], Mexico Solanum nodiflorum K000063837 Yes
Lange, J.M.C. [s.n.] Solanum nodiflorum K001151543 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] Solanum nodiflorum K001151545 Yes
Leyland, M. [C9], Saudi Arabia Solanum nodiflorum K001151675 Yes
Lousley, J.E. [605], United Kingdom Solanum nodiflorum K001151540 Yes
Blom, C.H. [s.n.], Sweden Solanum nodiflorum K001151321 Yes
Conn, B.J. [491] Solanum nodiflorum K001153773 Yes
Chase, M.W. [2372K], United Kingdom Solanum nodiflorum K001169722 Yes
Sands, M.J.S. [333], Indonesia Solanum nodiflorum K001153536 Yes
Tucker, J.M. [776], El Salvador Solanum nodiflorum K001160562 Yes
Conn, B.J. [490] Solanum nodiflorum K001153772 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom Solanum nodiflorum K001151542 Yes
Trott, A.C. [29], Saudi Arabia Solanum nodiflorum K001151676 Yes
Ball, J. [s.n.] Solanum nodiflorum K001160561 Yes
Kairo, A. [10639], Papua New Guinea Solanum nodiflorum K001153776 Yes
Townsend, C.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom Solanum nodiflorum K001151539 Yes
Dancer, T. [s.n.], Jamaica Solanum nodiflorum K001161234 Yes
Kairo, A. [10641], Papua New Guinea Solanum nodiflorum K001153775 Yes
Symon, D.E. [10628], Papua New Guinea Solanum nodiflorum K001153774 Yes
Braun, A.K.H. [s.n.] Solanum nodiflorum K001151544 Yes
Webster, M.M. [2208], United Kingdom Solanum nodiflorum K001151541 Yes

First published in Gard. Dict. ed. 8: n.° 5 (1768)

Accepted by

  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Florence, J., Waldren, S. & Chepstow-Lusty, A.J. (1995). The flora of the Pitcairn islands: a review Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 56: 79-119.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Liogier, A.H. (1994). Flora de la Española 6: 1-517. Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2020). Flore du Gabon 55: 1-137. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Särkinen, T. & al. (2018). A revision of the Old World black nightshades (Morelloid clade of Solanum L., Solanaceae) PhytoKeys 106: 1-223.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.

Not accepted by

  • Nowak, A. & Nobis, M. (eds.) (2020). Illustrated Flora of Tajikistan and adjacent areas 2: 367-766. PAN, Polish academy of sciences. [Cited as Solanum nigrum.]

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    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

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    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

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    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

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    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

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    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Living Collection Database

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  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

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    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
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    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

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    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/