Family:
Fabaceae Lindl.

Xylia Benth.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar, India to Indo-China.

[FZ]

Leguminosae, J.P.M. Brenan. Flora Zambesiaca 3:1. 1970

Morphology General Habit
Trees, unarmed.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 2-pinnate; petiole bearing a gland at its apex at the junction of the solitary pair of pinnae; pinnae each with few to many pairs of leaflets.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences of round heads, pedunculate, axillary, or supra-axillary, solitary or paired or sometimes in threes, sometimes ± racemosely aggregated on short shoots.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers male or hermaphrodite, sessile or pedicellate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx gamosepalous with 5 lobes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla with 5 lobes ± united below, ± pubescent or puberulous outside.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 10, fertile; anthers each with a caducous apical gland (rarely and only in extra-African species absent).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods normally obliquely obovate to oblanceolate or dolabriform, compressed, woody, dehiscing from the apex downwards into 2 recurving valves.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds lying transversely or obliquely in the pod, each sunk in a depression in the valve, compressed, usually brown, glossy, unwinged, without endosperm.

[FTEA]

Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
Trees, unarmed
Morphology Leaves
Leaves bipinnate; petiole bearing a gland at its apex at the junction of the solitary pair of pinnae; pinnae each with few to many pairs of leaflets
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences of round heads, pedunculate, axillary, solitary or paired, or sometimes in threes, sometimes ± racemosely aggregated on short shoots
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers ♂ or hermaphrodite, sessile or pedicellate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx gamosepalous with 5 lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla with 5 lobes ± united below, ± pubescent or puberulous outside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 10, fertile; anthers each with a caducous apical gland (rarely and only in extra-African species absent)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods normally obliquely obovate to oblanceolate or dolabriform, compressed, woody, dehiscing from apex downwards into 2 recurving valves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds lying transversely in the pod, each sunk in a depression in the valve, compressed, usually brown, glossy, unwinged, without endosperm.

[LOWO]

Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

Note

The tribe Mimoseae (sensu Bentham, 1875) is retained here simply as a matter of convenience. All recent phylogenetic analyses indicate that Ingeae and Acacieae are derived from within Mimoseae (Chappill & Maslin, 1995; Käss & Wink, 1996; Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003; Herendeen et al., 2003a), making it a paraphyletic group at best. The most recent studies indicate that it may not even be monophyletic with respect to the Caesalpinioideae (Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003).

Although the outline of a new tribal classification of the mimosoids is emerging, we await better-supported phylogenies (based on more extensive data) before formalising new stable and useful groups. Some parts of the classification proposed here are better supported than others. Notably, the basal branches in Fig. 24 are poorly supported in most analyses and the relationships among the groups are likely to change as we acquire more data. As presently indicated (Luckow et al., 2003), the type genus Mimosa falls within the derived Piptadenia group which is in turn sister, and basally branching, to elements of Acacia and Ingeae (Fig. 24). A more narrowly circumscribed Mimoseae sens. strict. will thus leave the bulk of Mimoseae sens. lat. (i.e., as treated here) in need of new tribal allocation. The most conspicuous difference between the classification presented here and that of Lewis & Elias (1981) is the inclusion of tribe Parkieae within Mimoseae. The former was circumscribed based on imbricate aestivation of the calyx, and was considered the basal tribe within the Mimosoideae (Elias, 1981a). Recent phylogenetic analyses (Chappill & Maslin, 1995; Luckow et al., 2000; Bruneau et al., 2001; Luckow et al., 2003; Herendeen et al., 2003a), indicate that the two genera in the Parkieae, Parkia and Pentaclethra, are not sister taxa (Fig. 24). Pentaclethra is nested within Mimoseae in Luckow et al. (2000), but is either sister to caesalpinioid taxa in Bruneau et al. (2001) and Herendeen et al. (2003a), or part of a basal polytomy with Mimoseae and caesalpinioid taxa (Luckow et al., 2003). Both Parkia and Pentaclethra are included in the tribe Mimoseae pending additional data and tribal recircumscription.

Recent work (Luckow et al., submitted a) also indicates that the monospecific tribe Mimozygantheae should be subsumed in the Mimoseae near Piptadeniopsis and Prosopidastrum, currently in the Prosopis group. Otherwise, the informal groups within the Mimoseae recognised by Lewis & Elias (1981) are relatively well-supported by current phylogenies and only a few departures have been made from their system. Where relationships are either poorly supported or unresolved, the classification of Lewis & Elias (1981) is retained. The Xylia group is dismantled and the Adenanthera group recircumscribed to include Calpocalyx and Xylia . Desmanthus has been removed from the Dichrostachys group, as has Neptunia, in agreement with recent molecular and morphological phylogenetic studies (Harris et al., 1994; Hughes, 1998; Luckow, 1995, 1997). A new group is erected to accommodate Piptadeniastrum which is well separated from Newtonia in the most recent phylogeny (Luckow et al., 2000; 2003), and another to accommodate Cylicodiscus, which is more closely related to the clade containing the Prosopis, Leucaena, Dichrostachys, and Piptadenia groups than it is to the Newtonia group. Neptunia is well supported as sister to Prosopidastrum in recent analyses (Luckow et al., 2003) and is included in the Prosopis group here. Relationships of genera in the Prosopis group are not resolved, but the group is retained here as there is no evidence that it is not monophyletic. Genera newly described since 1981 include Alantsilodendron, Calliandropsis, Kanaloa, and Lemurodendron. Alantsilodendron and Calliandropsis are placed in the Dichrostachys group, and Kanaloa in the Leucaena group based on phylogenetic analyses (Hughes, 1998; Luckow, 1997; Luckow et al., 2000). Lemurodendron is tentatively included in the Newtonia group as suggested by Villiers & Guinet (1989). As treated here the Mimoseae comprises 40 genera and from (859)– 869–(879) species.

Placed in a strongly supported clade with Pseudoprosopis and Calpocalyx (Luckow et al., 2003), in the Adenanthera group
Habit
Trees
Ecology
Tropical rain forest and riverine forest, seasonally dry forest, woodland and bushland
Distribution
Africa (1 sp. each in W and WC regions, i.e. Congo [Kinshasa]; SE Africa, 3 spp. in Zanzibar-Inhambane and 1 sp. in Zambezian regions); N Madagascar (2 spp.); S Asia (1 sp.) but introduced in E Africa, Indo-China and Malesia

[LOWO]
Use
Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) Taub. (= X. dolabriformis Benth.), commonly known as pyinkado, pynkado, irul, sokram, cam xe or Burmese ironwood , was one of the most important timber trees in Myanmar [Burma] (particularly for railway sleepers); other timber uses include construction, flooring, boat building, furniture, posts and wheels; this and other species are also used for fuelwood, medicine, soap, human food (roasted seeds), tannins and oil (from seeds)

Native to:

Bangladesh, Cambodia, Ghana, Guinea, India, Ivory Coast, Laos, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Northern Provinces, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Thailand, Vietnam, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Gambia, Philippines, Solomon Is., Uganda

Xylia Benth. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in J. Bot. (Hooker) 4: 417 (1842)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00997-6. Scientific Data 8: 215.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Trans. Linn. Soc. 30: 373 (1875).
  • in Benth. & Hook. f. Gen. Pl. 1: 594 (1865)

Flora Zambesiaca

  • in Hook., Journ. Bot. 4: 417 (1842).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • in Hook., Journ. Bot. 4: 417 (1842)

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Legumes of the World Online

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0