Xanthium strumarium L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 987 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is S. Central & S. Europe to China and Indo-China, Taiwan, NW. Africa. It is an annual and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome. It is used as a medicine and for food.

Distribution

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Bulgaria, Cambodia, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Corse, Czechoslovakia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, France, Greece, Hainan, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Italy, Kriti, Krym, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Manchuria, Mongolia, Morocco, Myanmar, North Caucasus, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Qinghai, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, Sinai, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Central European Rus, Cyprus, Egypt, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Korea, Lesser Sunda Is., Madeira, Marquesas, Netherlands, New Guinea, North European Russi, Poland, Primorye, Tunisia

Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

Classification

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PAFTOL

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • GCC (2011). Global Compositae Checklist http://compositae.landcareresearch.co.nz/.
  • Ghafoor, A. & al. (2021). Flora of Pakistan 224: 1-310. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A., Edmondson, J.R. & Hind, D.J.N. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Iraq 6: 1-458. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1992). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 6: 1-428. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Komiljon, T., Natalya, B., Avazbek, B., Dilnoza, A., Ziyoviddin, Y., Deng, T. & Sun, H. (2020). Flora of the Dzhizak Province, Uzbekistan: 1-523. China Forestry Publishing House.
  • Kotiya, A., Solanki, Y. & Reddy, G.V. (2020). Flora of Rajasthan: 1-769. Rajasthan state biodiversity board.
  • Kozhevnikov, A.E., Kozhevnikov, Z.V., Kwak, M. & Lee, B.Y. (2019). Illustrated flora of the Primorsky Territory, Russian Far East: 1-1124. National institute of biological resources.
  • Krasnoborov, I.M. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 13: 1-499. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Liogier, A.H. (1996). Flora de la Española 8: 1-588. Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo.
  • Mehboob-ur-Rahman (2012). Wild plants of Swat, Pakistan 1: 1-281. Department of botany, govt. Jehanzeb post graduate college.
  • Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkowa, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M (2020). Vascular plants of Poland an annotated checklist: 1-526. W. Szafer institute of botany, Polish academy of sciences, Krakow, Poland.
  • Muer, T., Sauerbier, H. & Cabrara Calixto, F. (2020). Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Madeiras: 1-792. Verlag und Versandbuchhandlung Andreas Kleinsteuber.
  • Probatova, N.S. & al. (2006). Flora Rossiĭskogo Dal'nego Vostoka. Dopolneniya i izmeneniya k izdaniyu Sosudistye rasteniya sovetskogo Dal'nego Vostoka t. 1-8 (1985-1996): 1-454. Russian academy of sciences Far Eastern branch.
  • Pruski, J.F. (ed.) (2018). Flora Mesoamericana 5(2): 1-608. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Schäfer, H. (2021). Flora of the Azores a field guide: 1-445. Margraf Publishers GmbH.
  • Stace, C. (2019). New Flora of the British Isles ed. 4: 1-1266. C & M Floristics.
  • Tomasello, S. (2018). How many names for a beloved genus? Coalescent-based species delimitation in Xanthium L. (Ambrosiinae, Asteraceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 127: 135-145.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2011). Asteraceae. Flora of China 20-21: 1-992. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zhao, Y.Z., Zhao, L.Q. & Rui, C. (eds.) (2019). Flora Intramongolica, edition 3, 5: 1-451. Typis Intramongolicae popularis, Huhhot.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2021). https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.9.e75590. epublication.
  • Ghafoor, A. & al. (2021). Flora of Pakistan 224: 1-310. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Komiljon, T., Natalya, B., Avazbek, B., Dilnoza, A., Ziyoviddin, Y., Deng, T. & Sun, H. (2020). Flora of the Dzhizak Province, Uzbekistan: 1-523. China Forestry Publishing House.
  • Kotiya, A., Solanki, Y. & Reddy, G.V. (2020). Flora of Rajasthan: 1-769. Rajasthan state biodiversity board.
  • Kozhevnikov, A.E., Kozhevnikov, Z.V., Kwak, M. & Lee, B.Y. (2019). Illustrated flora of the Primorsky Territory, Russian Far East: 1-1124. National institute of biological resources.
  • Schäfer, H. (2021). Flora of the Azores a field guide: 1-445. Margraf Publishers GmbH.
  • von Raab-Straube, E. (ed.) (2005-2022). The Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/query.asp.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, (2000) Author: by H. Beentje [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • D.J.N. Hind in Fl. Masc. 109: 218, t. 75 (1993).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 987 (1753).
  • Oliv. & Hiern, Flora of Tropical Africa 3: 371 (1877).
  • Wild in Kirkia 6: 3 (1967).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Ulian, T., Sacandé, M., Hudson, A., & Mattana, E. (2017). Conservation of indigenous plants to support community livelihoods: the MGU–Useful Plants Project. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60:668-683.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Sep 1, 2012 Gardner, G. [524] Brazil K000895500 Unknown Type Material Yes
Sep 1, 2012 Gardner, G. [524] Brazil K000895499 Unknown Type Material Yes
Jul 1, 2012 Burchell [4911] Brazil K000955673 Yes
Jul 1, 2012 Burchell [2741] Brazil K000955675 Yes
Medlam, L. [s.n.] United Kingdom K001045252 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.] K001065894 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [s.n.] K001065888 Type Yes
Kotschy [319] Sudan K000410238 Type Yes
Sledge, W.A. [H2258 1933] United Kingdom K001045248 No
Baker, C.F. [1760] United States K001065883 Unknown Type Material Yes
Mc Callum Webster, M. [5165] United Kingdom K001045247 No
Sherff, E.E. [5012] K001065885 Unknown Type Material Yes
Hoehne, W. [544] Brazil K001031231 Yes
Burchell, J. [2901] Brazil K000955674 Yes
[Bulbley], E. [s.n.] India K001065887 Unknown Type Material Yes
Herb. Lousley, J.E. [s.n.] United Kingdom K001045249 No
Graham, R.A.; Dorny, J.G. [1423 [Dorny] United Kingdom K001045250 No
[Helderich] [s.n.] K001065891 Unknown Type Material Yes
van der Maesen, L.J.G. Iraq K001768879 Yes
Schimper [1958] Ethiopia K000410237 Unknown Type Material Yes
[Heldreich] [s.n.] K001065892 Unknown Type Material Yes
Amaral, I.L. [107061] Brazil K001031230 Yes
Hunt, T.C. [s.n.] United Kingdom K001045251 Yes
Ricketts, V.I. [V-C 5] United Kingdom K001045256 No
Ricketts, V.I. [V-C 5] United Kingdom K001045255 No
Schimper [1343] Ethiopia K000410236 Type Yes
McCallum Webster, M. [2181] United Kingdom K001045254 Yes
Douglas, D. [s.n.] K001065884 Isotype Yes
Sherff, E.E. [3094] United States K001065882 Unknown Type Material Yes
Talbot [s.n.] Italy K001065893 Type Yes
Medlin, L.J. [s.n.] United Kingdom K001045253 Yes
Oldham, R. [851] Japan Xanthium japonicum K001065889 Type Yes
Oldham, R. [883] Japan Xanthium japonicum K001065890 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3181] India Xanthium indicum K001118705 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3181] India Xanthium indicum K001118708 Unknown Type Material Yes
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 3181] Xanthium indicum K001118704 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3181] Xanthium indicum K001118707 Unknown Type Material Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3181] Burma Xanthium indicum K001118706 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3181] Xanthium indicum K001118709 Unknown Type Material Yes
May 1, 1931 Salzmann [s.n.] Algeria Xanthium brasilicum K000410239 Unknown Type Material Yes

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Plants and People Africa

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    • © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0