Genus:
Juniperus L.

Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endl.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to Zimbabwe, SW. Arabian Peninsula.

[FZ]

Cupressaceae, John Lewis. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Morphology General Habit
Straight evergreen trees up to 40 m. tall; bark papery, reddish-brown.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves on young plants in threes, subulate, spine-tipped, with an elongate gland abaxially; mature foliage of decussate scale-like leaves, varying in size as the individual ages down to 1 mm. long, abaxial gland elliptic.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Cones
Male cones c. 3 mm. long, elliptic; scales c. 10, each bearing 2–3 pollen-sacs.
sex Male
Male cones c. 3 mm. long, elliptic; scales c. 10, each bearing 2–3 pollen-sacs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Strobili
Female strobili of 6–8 scales.
sex Female
Female strobili of 6–8 scales.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Ripe fruit c. 6 mm. in diam., globose, blue-black, with the tips of the scales just distinguishable.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Mature seeds 5 mm. long, 1 or 2, brown; aborted seeds 1–3, smaller.<div>

[EDGE]

Forest, F. et al. 2018. Gymnosperms on the EDGE. Scientific Reports 8: 6053. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-24365-4.

Conservation
Juniperus procera is rated as Least Concerned (LC) according to IUCN Red List criteria and has received a EDGE score of 1.14, which places it in position 915 on the EDGE Gymnosperm list. It has a Evolutionary Distinctiveness of 7.47, ranked 660. More information on the EDGE Gymnosperm project here https://www.edgeofexistence.org.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Tree to 40 m tall, in Somalia rarely above 15 m and often just 3–4 m tall
Morphology General Bark
Bark papery, greyish- or reddish-brown
Morphology Leaves
Leaves on young plants in threes, needle-shaped, to 10 mm long, with an elongate gland beneath; mature leaves scale-like, opposite, acute, with narrow translucent margins and an elliptic gland
Morphology Reproductive morphology Cones
Female cones of 6–8 scales, c. 6 mm in diam. and blue-black when mature Male cones c. 3 mm long, with c. 10 scales; each bearing 2–3 pollen sacs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Mature seeds 5 mm long.
Distribution
N1–3 East Africa and S Arabia
Ecology
Altitude range 1350–2000 m.
Vernacular
African pencil cedar (English), deyib (Somali).
Note
Closely related to the East Mediterranean J. excelsa Bieb., and Kerfoot in RBG Edinburgh 41: 483 (1984) even treated J. procera as a synonym of this. As the substantiating data have not yet been published I prefer to continue to use J. procera. J. procera was also regarded as a distinct species by Farjon in Edinb. J. Bot. 49: 267–271 (1993). J. procera is a timber tree of major economic importance, particularly in Kenya. The Somali stands are generally small and scattered and in need of protection.

Native to:

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endl. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Feb 1, 2010 Katende, A.B. [1930], Uganda K000554188 No
Dec 1, 2001 Snowden, J.D. [930], Uganda K000089963 No
Dec 1, 2001 Robson, N.K.B. [448], Malawi K000089975 No
Dec 1, 2001 Wesche, K. [2025], Kenya K000075183 No
Dec 1, 1999 Fagg, C.W. [58], Somalia K000089868 No
Dec 1, 1999 Thulin, M. [6066], Somalia K000089869 No
Dec 1, 1999 Meyerhoff, E. [44M], Kenya K000089957 No
Dec 1, 1999 Chuwa, S. [2735], Tanzania K000089956 No
Nov 1, 1999 Ash, J.W. [435], Ethiopia K000089875 No
Mar 1, 1999 Maas Geesteranus, R.A. [6055], Kenya K000089967 No
Jan 1, 1999 van Zinderen Bakker, E.M. [963], Kenya K000075182 No
Jan 1, 1999 Lugard, E.J. [408a], Kenya K000089965 No
Jan 1, 1999 Greenway, P.J. [5997], Kenya K000089968 No
Jan 1, 1999 Bally, P.R.O. [5533], Kenya K000089952 No
Jan 1, 1999 Gillett, J.B. [13905], Ethiopia K000089878 No
Jan 1, 1999 Perdue, R.E. [9077], Kenya K000089947 No
Jan 1, 1999 Eggeling, W.J. [2916], Uganda K000089961 No
Jan 1, 1999 Katende, A.B. [412], Uganda K000089958 No
Jan 1, 1999 Osmaston, H.A. [4440], Kenya K000089959 No
Jan 1, 1999 Pole-Evans, I.B. [1199], Kenya K000089953 No
Jan 1, 1999 Hepper, F.N. [6976], Kenya K000089946 No
Jan 1, 1999 Friis, I. [2526], Kenya K000089948 No
Jan 1, 1999 Glover, P.E. [3340], Kenya K000089949 No
Jan 1, 1999 Bally, P.R.O. [2219], Tanzania K000075184 No
Jan 1, 1999 Greenway, P.J. [9059], Tanzania K000089972 No
Jan 1, 1999 Greenway, P.J. [7731], Tanzania K000089973 No
Jan 1, 1999 Chase, N.C. [8374], Zimbabwe K000089978 No
Jan 1, 1999 Hemming, C.F. [1905], Somalia K000089897 No
Jan 1, 1999 Abebe, Z. [548], Ethiopia K000089890 No
Jan 1, 1999 Gutetta, M. [1014], Ethiopia K000089889 No
Jan 1, 1999 Hansen, O.J. [6413], Somalia K000089895 No
Jan 1, 1999 Gillett, J.B. [4580], Somalia K000089896 No
Jan 1, 1999 Newbould, J.G.B. [975], Somalia K000089894 No
Jan 1, 1999 Pawek, J. [11816], Malawi K000049898 No
Jan 1, 1999 Pearce, F.B. [s.n.], Malawi K000049900 No
Jan 1, 1999 Geesteranus, Maas, R.A. [5953], Kenya K000049902 No
Jan 1, 1999 Aronson, J. [29], Somalia K000089898 No
Jan 1, 1999 Glover, P.E. [2493], Kenya K000089955 No
Jan 1, 1999 Lavranos, J. [6717], Somalia K000089899 No
Jan 1, 1999 Greenway, P.J. [13254], Tanzania K000089969 No
Jan 1, 1999 Perdue, R.E. [8230], Kenya K000089951 No
Jan 1, 1999 Phillips, L. [K235], Somalia K000089893 No
Jan 1, 1999 Chase, N.C. [7608B], Zimbabwe K000049901 No
Jan 1, 1999 Burger, W. [1453], Ethiopia K000089887 No
Jan 1, 1999 Friis, I. [6183], Ethiopia K000089885 No
Jan 1, 1999 Drummond, R.B. [2687], Tanzania K000089970 No
Jan 1, 1999 Burger, W. [1412], Ethiopia K000089891 No
Jan 1, 1999 Lugard, E.J. [408], Kenya K000089964 No
Jan 1, 1999 Bally, P.R.O. [15992], Somalia K000089892 No
Jan 1, 1999 Chase, N.C. [8322], Zimbabwe K000089977 No
Jan 1, 1999 Chapman, J.D. [6306], Malawi K000089974 No
Jan 1, 1999 Brass, L.J. [17159], Malawi K000049899 No
Jan 1, 1999 White, F. [2586], Malawi K000089976 No
Jan 1, 1999 Wood, J.R.I. [S71/66], Somalia K000089900 No
Jan 1, 1999 Bogdan, A. [3233], Kenya K000089966 No
Jan 1, 1999 Eggeling, W.J. [2476], Uganda K000089962 No
Dec 1, 1998 Schimper [537], Ethiopia K000089883 isolectotype Yes
Dec 1, 1998 Collenette, S. [333], Saudi Arabia K000089494 No
Dec 1, 1998 Boulos, L. [14264], Saudi Arabia K000089496 No
Dec 1, 1998 Boulos, L. [13939], Saudi Arabia K000089495 No
Dec 1, 1998 Collenette, S. [238], Saudi Arabia K000089497 No
Dec 1, 1998 Kennedy-Cooke, B. [259], Sudan K000089872 No
Dec 1, 1998 Myers, J.G. [11008], Sudan K000089871 No
Dec 1, 1998 Jackson, J.K. [1303], Sudan K000089870 No
Dec 1, 1998 Steudner, G. [1335], Ethiopia K000089876 No
Dec 1, 1998 Pichi-Sermolli, R.E.G. [24], Ethiopia K000089881 No
Dec 1, 1998 Gillett, J.B. [5109], Ethiopia K000089882 No
Dec 1, 1998 Perdue, R.E. [6293], Ethiopia K000089880 No
Dec 1, 1998 Bally, P.R.O. [3041], Ethiopia K000089877 No
Dec 1, 1998 Mooney, H.F. [5102], Ethiopia K000089879 No
Dec 1, 1998 Collenette, S. [259], Saudi Arabia K000089493 No
Dec 1, 1998 Trott, A.C. [1230], Saudi Arabia K000089498 No
Dec 1, 1998 Collenette, S. [361], Saudi Arabia K000089499 No
Dec 1, 1998 Meyer, F.G. [7610], Ethiopia K000089888 No
Dec 1, 1998 Vollesen, K. [4328], Ethiopia K000089884 No
Dec 1, 1998 Symoens, J.-J. [4550] K000089867 No
Dec 1, 1998 Schweinfurth, G. [1210], Eritrea K000089874 No
Dec 1, 1998 Collenette, S. [74-113], Saudi Arabia K000089492 No
Dec 1, 1998 Meyer, F.G. [9098], Eritrea K000089873 No
Dec 1, 1998 Lisowski, S. [106] K000089866 No
Dec 1, 1998 Amshoff, G.J.H. [8050], Ethiopia K000089886 No
Dec 1, 1998 Schimper [537], Ethiopia K000076221 isolectotype Yes
Sep 1, 1998 Cope, T. [329], Yemen K000089501 No
Sep 1, 1998 Cope, T. [138], Yemen K000089502 No
Sep 1, 1998 Collenette, I.S. [7245], Saudi Arabia K000089500 No
Dec 1, 1996 Grimshaw, J.M. [93564], Tanzania K000089971 No
Oct 1, 1996 Bytebier, B. [188], Kenya K000089954 No
Aug 1, 1995 Styles, B.T. [292], Uganda K000089960 No
Jun 1, 1989 Maas Geesteranus, R.A. [4930], Kenya K000089950 No
Apr 1, 1989 Wils, H. [7462], Zimbabwe K000089979 No

First published in Syn. Conif.: 26 (1847)

Accepted by

  • Adams, R.P. (2008). Junipers of the World: The genus Juniperus ed. 2: 1-402. Trafford publishing Co., Vancouver.
  • Adams, R.P., Al-Farsi, A. & Schwarzbach, A.E. (2014). Confirmation of the southern-most population of Juniperus seravschanica in Oman by DNA sequencing of nrDNA and four cpDNA regions Phytologia 96: 218-224.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Farjon, A. (2010). A handbook of the world's Conifers 1: 1-526. BRILL, Leiden, Boston.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Adams, R.P. (2008). Junipers of the World: The genus Juniperus ed. 2: 1-402. Trafford publishing Co., Vancouver.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]
  • Pickering, H. & Awale, A. I. (2018). Introduction to plants in Central Somaliland. Ponte Invisibile, Redsea Cultural Foundation.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Battiscombe & Dale, Trees and Shrubs of Kenya Colony p. 3 (1936).
  • Cuf., Enum. Pl. Aeth.: 1 (1953).
  • Endl., Synops. Conif. : 26 (1847).
  • Engl. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C : 93 (1895).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 177 (1949).
  • Peter, Flora von Deutsch-Ostafrika : 102 (1938).
  • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa, 6 (2) : 336 (1917).
  • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2 : 101, fig. 24, photo. 14, (1952).

  • EDGE Gymnosperms

    EDGE of Existence (Gymnosperms)
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  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
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  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
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  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

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  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

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