Genus:
Cuscuta L.

Cuscuta epithymum (L.) L.

Cuscuta epithymum is a rootless, wholly parasitic plant that occurs most commonly on heather (Calluna vulgaris), gorse (Ulex europaeus) and clover (Trifolium) species. Clover dodder is native to Europe, but occurs almost worldwide. It is a member of the Convolvulaceae family, which includes Ipomoea and Convolvulus species, many of which are commonly known as bindweed and morning glory. Clover dodder is normally insect-pollinated, but can also self-pollinate. Studies have shown that flowers are visited by many different insects, including ants, bees and wasps.

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description

Cuscuta epithymum is a rootless, wholly parasitic plant that occurs most commonly on heather (Calluna vulgaris), gorse (Ulex europaeus) and clover (Trifolium) species. Clover dodder is native to Europe, but occurs almost worldwide. It is a member of the Convolvulaceae family, which includes Ipomoea and Convolvulus species, many of which are commonly known as bindweed and morning glory. Clover dodder is normally insect-pollinated, but can also self-pollinate. Studies have shown that flowers are visited by many different insects, including ants, bees and wasps.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Although clover dodder is native to Europe, it has since spread across six continents, giving it an almost worldwide occurrence. However, the genus Cuscuta does not occur at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere or in desert areas of Africa and Asia. Small, remote islands such as the Galapagos Islands also lack species of this genus. Introduction of clover dodder to non-native areas can follow unintentional import of seeds of C. epithymum in forage crops.

Description

Overview: Clover dodder is a rootless, parasitic plant in which leaves are reduced to minute scales. Its stems are hairless, thread-like (0.25-0.40 mm in thickness) and can be yellow, red or purplish in colour.

Flowers: Clusters of 7-25 stalkless, purplish flowers are arranged in a compact, sphere. Flowers are 2.5-3.0 mm long and have five sepals and petals. The sepals come together to form a cup shape, each individual sepal being longer than it is wide. The corolla tube (a tubular structure formed when all petals in a flower are united) is longer than the cup-shaped sepal assemblage. Stamens (male parts) protrude from the flowers and have oval shaped anthers (pollen-bearing parts). Within flowers, the style (female structure) extends from the top of the ovary and is usually as long as the ovary.

Fruits: The fruit is a spherical capsule, which opens along its circumference and is topped by the withered petals. Each capsule contains four small seeds about 1 mm in diameter.

There are six varieties of Cuscuta epithymum , which are distinguished by differences in their flower structure as well as the number of flowers and how they are grouped.

Invasion of the host plant

Clover dodder seeds germinate April-July in response to seasonal temperature changes. A swollen, root-like organ emerges from the seed but can only survive for a few days and hence must find a host plant quickly. When a host is found, clover dodder grows a sucker that attaches to it. The root-like organ then withers and clover dodder continues to grow using nutrients stolen from the host plant through the sucker.

Cells of the sucker produce an adhesive substance that works as an effective glue. Within the tissue of the sucker, an intrusive organ (haustorium) develops and directly penetrates the host tissue to create a bridge between host and parasite. This direct contact enables rapid growth and is one of the reasons why Cuscuta species are the most rapidly growing parasitic plants.

Parasitic life

Clover dodder stems wind counter-clockwise around the host plant as it grows. New haustoria (organs that penetrate the host tissue) develop close together wherever the dodder stem produces tight coils as it climbs up the host plant. These tight coils alternate with looser coils that search for new host branches or new hosts to parasitize. Extent of growth depends on the clover dodder's compatibility with the host and vigour of the host plant.

When growing on perennial hosts, Cuscuta epithymum induces the formation of galls (growths of host tissue) where parasitic tissue is able to overwinter. The following spring, new clover dodder plants develop from these galls. 

Threats and conservation

In north west Europe, Cuscuta epithymum flourishes on heathland that are 0-3 years old. Disturbance resulting from turf-cutting, burning or mowing of heathland aids the germination of clover dodder seeds. European dry heath is usually managed on a rotational basis, which maintains a high level of biodiversity. Clover dodder seeds may lie dormant, which extends germination potential over several years, and this is crucial for the persistence of this species. In this way it can build up a 'seed bank' within the soil to cope with the dynamic nature of managed heathland. However, if a heathland remains unmanaged for a long period of time or if the seed banks are too small or not viable for long enough for successful reestablishment, local extinction of clover dodder may occur.

Uses

Clover dodder is used in traditional medicine as a purgative and to treat disorders of the liver, spleen and urinary tract. However, there has been little scientific investigation into the actual effectiveness of its use.

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

Two collections of Cuscuta epithymum seeds are held in Kew's Millennium Seed Bank based at Wakehurst in West Sussex.

See Kew's Seed Information Database for further information on C. epithymum seeds

This species at Kew

Clover dodder is not currently recorded at Kew, but the related species Cuscuta europaea (greater dodder) can be seen growing on Scutellaria altissima (tall skullcap) in the Plant Family Beds at Kew.

Dried and spirit-preserved specimens of C. epithymum are held in Kew's Herbarium where they are available to researchers by appointment. The details of some of these specimens, including images, can be seen online in Kew's Herbarium Catalogue.

Specimens of the flowers and seeds of C. epithymum , as well specimens of it growing on heather, are held in Kew's Economic Botany Collection in the Sir Joseph Banks Building, where they are available to researchers by appointment.

UK Virtual Herbarium Project

Cuscuta epithymum is one of 50 species on the Botanical Society of the British Isles (BSBI) Threatened Plants Project list. The herbarium specimens of these species are being digitised as part of the UK Virtual Herbarium Project.

Find out how you can help in this project by visiting the herbaria@home website

Ecology
Common in disturbed areas, especially disturbed heathland; also in grassland.
Conservation
Vulnerable (VU) in Great Britain according to IUCN Red List criteria, but globally common.
Hazards

A worldwide weed of agricultural crops, particularly legumes.

[KSP]
Use
Medicine.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Netherlands, New Mexico, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Selvagens, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Arkansas, British Columbia, Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Rhode I., South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tasmania, Tennessee, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin

English
Clover dodder

Cuscuta epithymum (L.) L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Mar 8, 1976 J.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790119 Yes
Dec 9, 1950 Burtt, B.L. [73], United Kingdom K000790222 Yes
Jan 1, 1949 s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790143 Yes
Jun 1, 1857 Willkomm, H.M. [455], Spain K000852521 Yes
Jun 1, 1857 Des Moulins, C.R.A. [s.n.], France K000852524 Yes
16379.000 No
Drummond, R.B., United Kingdom 16678.000 No
70000.263 No
Lowne, B.T. [s.n.], Great Britain K000790192 Yes
Blanco, A. [140], Spain K000852522 Yes
Des Moulins, C.R.A. [s.n.], France K000852523 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], Italy K000852529 Yes
Day, C.D. [575], Turkey K000341702 No
Sandwith, C.I. [2890], United Kingdom K000790123 Yes
Brenan, J.P.M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790125 Yes
Jones, D.O. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790126 Yes
Power, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790130 Yes
Clarke, C.B. [43088], United Kingdom K000790133 Yes
Cabot, A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790135 Yes
Wallace, E.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790140 Yes
Britton, C.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790147 Yes
Britton, C.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790149 Yes
Hubbard, C.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790157 Yes
Brewer, J.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790158 Yes
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790263 Yes
Bullock, A.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790273 Yes
Palmer, E. [735], United Kingdom K000790276 Yes
Airy Shaw, H.K. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790279 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790189 Yes
Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790207 Yes
Southey Hill, R. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790208 Yes
Marsden-Jones, E.M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790215 Yes
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790227 Yes
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790232 Yes
Welfitt-Nicholls, E.M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790250 Yes
Fraser, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790255 Yes
Lowne, B.T. [1132], United Kingdom K000790295 Yes
Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790206 Yes
Edmonds, M.E. [28], United Kingdom K000790245 Yes
Little, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790251 Yes
Devis, H.F. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790144 Yes
Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [768], United Kingdom K000790220 Yes
Thurston, E. [s.n.], Great Britain K000790219 Yes
Drummond, M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790277 Yes
Guicciardi, J. [443], Greece K000852532 Yes
Carpenter, A. [s.n.], Great Britain K000790156 Yes
Dovaston, H.F. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790161 Yes
Libbey, R.P. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790166 Yes
Makins, F.K. [1421], United Kingdom K000790120 Yes
Little, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790282 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790196 Yes
White, S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790145 Yes
Clarke, C.B. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790283 Yes
J.W.C.K. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790201 Yes
Meikle, D. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790127 Yes
Sandwith, N.Y. [s.n.], Great Britain K000790118 Yes
Britton, C.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790202 Yes
Nelmes, E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790280 Yes
Melville, R. [113], Great Britain K000790185 Yes
Gamble, J.S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790200 Yes
Fraser, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790253 Yes
s.coll. [0120], United Kingdom K000790287 Yes
Medlin, L.T. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790218 Yes
Gregor, A.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790240 Yes
Basset, M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790246 Yes
Gamble, J.S. [18842], United Kingdom K000790259 Yes
Worsdell, W.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790163 Yes
Hill, A.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790178 Yes
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790229 Yes
Reader, H.P. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790286 Yes
Ridley, H.N. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790204 Yes
Eastham, A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790199 Yes
Heldreich, T.H.H. von [32], Greece K000852533 Yes
Lowne, B.T. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790247 Yes
Baldacci, A. [28], Greece K000852530 Yes
Joad, G.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790235 Yes
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790264 Yes
Worsdell, W.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790162 Yes
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790230 Yes
Faucconnet [s.n.], Switzerland K000790298 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790172 Yes
Souster, J.E.S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790242 Yes
Whiting, M.M. [46], United Kingdom K000790141 Yes
Grubbe, J. [747], United Kingdom K000790154 Yes
Cubitt, M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790270 Yes
Welwitsch, F.M.J. [s.n.], Spain K000852528 Yes
Britton, C.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790148 Yes
Worsdell, W.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790160 Yes
Joad, G.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790237 Yes
Tressider, W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790177 Yes
Wright, A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790252 Yes
Nelmes, E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790275 Yes
Clarke, C.B. [43088 K], United Kingdom K000790221 Yes
Worsdell, W.C. [515/3.], United Kingdom K000790164 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790299 Yes
Lowne, B.T. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790293 Yes
Thacker, J.L. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790244 Yes
Luddington, J.L. [1206], Great Britain K000790136 Yes
Bolland, B.G.C. [51], United Kingdom K000790268 Yes
Mann, R.J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790212 Yes
Bromfield, W.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790292 Yes
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790233 Yes
Baker, E.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790266 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790291 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790184 Yes
Harrison, K.M. [H.1590/30], United Kingdom K000790284 Yes
Power, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790131 Yes
Turrill, W.B. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790213 Yes
Gibson, G.S. [s.n.], Great Britain K000790297 holotype Yes
Archer, S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790239 Yes
Gregor, A.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790186 Yes
Bennett, E.T. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790195 Yes
Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790121 Yes
Williams, L.H. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790128 Yes
Lester-Garland, L.V. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790203 Yes
Fraser, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790243 Yes
Rawlings, S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790248 Yes
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790261 Yes
Varenne, E.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790190 Yes
Fraser, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790254 Yes
Hosking, A. [1132], Great Britain K000790150 Yes
Gregor, A.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790241 Yes
Lester-Garland, L.V. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790152 Yes
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790231 Yes
Dewar, D. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790236 Yes
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790289 Yes
Rowley, G.D. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790209 Yes
Des Moulins, C.R.A. [s.n.], France K000852525 Yes
Edmonds, M.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790269 Yes
Barton, W.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790285 Yes
Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790272 Yes
Hill, A.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790217 Yes
Hunt, P.F. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790124 Yes
Tineo, V. [s.n.], Italy K000852531 Yes
Curnow, W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790180 Yes
Bromfield, S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790194 Yes
Rico, L. [1860], Tunisia K000296005 No
Hosking, G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790188 Yes
Hosking, A. [1133], United Kingdom K000790187 Yes
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790228 Yes
Downes, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790132 Yes
Riddelsdell, H.J. [1207], United Kingdom K000790173 Yes
Baker, J.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790183 Yes
Nelmes, E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790281 Yes
White, J.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790191 Yes
More, A.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790170 Yes
Mann, R.J. [734], United Kingdom K000790211 Yes
Loydell, G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790238 Yes
Bennett, A.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790198 Yes
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790260 Yes
Turrill, W.B. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790267 Yes
Turrill, W.B. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790214 Yes
Gamble, J.S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790134 Yes
Harvey, H.H. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790176 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790171 Yes
Bullock, A.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790216 Yes
Bailey, C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790153 Yes
Bolland, B.G.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790274 Yes
Des Moulins, C.R.A. [s.n.], France K000852526 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790155 Yes
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790265 Yes
Townsend, C.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790288 Yes
Russell, F. [734], United Kingdom K000790159 Yes
Dennis, R.W.G. [s.n.], Great Britain K000790122 Yes
Thurston, E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790224 Yes
Gamble, J.S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790257 Yes
Lynch, R.I. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790210 Yes
Gamble, J.S. [30313], United Kingdom K000790258 Yes
Boswell, H. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790181 Yes
Mill, J.S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790182 Yes
Bennett, A.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790175 Yes
Lousley, J.E. [F.15], United Kingdom K000790205 Yes
Davies, R. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790294 Yes
Welwitsch, F.M.J. [s.n.], Portugal K000852527 Yes
Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790151 Yes
Naylor, G.T. [361], United Kingdom K000790249 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790138 Yes
Babington, C.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790167 Yes
Joad, G.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790234 Yes
Summerhayes, V.S. [2640.], United Kingdom K000790296 Yes
Hubbard [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790223 Yes
Southey Hill, R. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790256 Yes
Barton, W.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790174 Yes
Jackson, A.B. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790278 Yes
Hill, A.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790179 Yes
Bennett, A.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790197 Yes
Cotton, A.D. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790137 Yes
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790262 Yes

First published in Amoen. Acad. 4: 478 (1759)

Accepted by

  • Austin, D. F. & M. Costea in Zuloaga, F. O., O. Morrone, & M. J. Belgrano (2008). Convolvulaceae Catálogo de las plantas vascualres del Cono Sur 2: 1936-1966. Missouri Bot. Garden.
  • Butkov, A.Y. (1974). Cuscuta in Fl. USSR Flora of the USSR 19: 30-57. Science Publishers, Inc.
  • Charkevicz, S.S. (ed.) (1995). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 7: 1-394. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Cronquist, A. et al. in Cronquist, A., et al. (1984). Convolvulaceae Intermountain Flora, vascular plants of the intermountain west, U.S.A. 4: 74-84. New York Botanical garden.
  • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain in Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Convolvulaceae Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 331-351. Conservatoire et Jardin Botanique de la ville de Genève.
  • Fernald & Rollins in Fernald, M.L. with R. C. Rollins (1950). Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th edition: 1177-1185. Dioscorides Press.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M., & Long, G. (1986). Med-checklist 3: Dicotyledones (Convolvulaceae - Labiatae) 3: 1-395. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Ville de Genève.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 88-93.
  • Hitchcock, C.L. & A. Cronquist in Hitchcock, C.L. & A. Cronquist (1991). Convolvulaceae Flora of the Pacific Northwest: 363-366. Univ. Washington Press.
  • Jarvis, C.E. in Jarvis, C.E. (2007). Convolvulaceae Order out of Chaos Linnean Soc. London & Nat. Hist. Museum.
  • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
  • Kartesz, J.T. in Kartesz, J.T. (1994). Convolvulaceae, Cuscutaceae A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland 1: 217-221-& 227-228. Timber Press.
  • Kitamura, S. in Kitamura, S. (1960). Fl. Afghanistan Convolvulaceae Flora of Afghanistan 2: 309-313. Kyoto University.
  • Kozhevnikov, A.E., Kozhevnikov, Z.V., Kwak, M. & Lee, B.Y. (2019). Illustrated flora of the Primorsky Territory, Russian Far East: 1-1124. National institute of biological resources.
  • Martin, W.C. & C.R. Hutchins in Martin, W. C. & C. R. Hutchins (1981). Convolvulaceae A flora of New Mexico 2: 1546-1569.
  • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
  • Plitmann, U. in Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Cuscutaceae Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 222-237. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Scoggan, H.J. in Scoggan, H.J. (1979). Convolvulaceae The Flora of Canada 4: 1253-1257. National Museum of Natural Sciences.
  • Trabut, L. (1907). Les Cuscutes du nord de l'Afrique Bulletin de la Société de la France 53(sess. extr.): 34-43.
  • Turland, N.J. in Press, J.R. & Short, M.J. (eds.) (1994). Convolvulaceae Flora of Madeira: 266-271. HMSO.
  • Valentine, D.H. et al. in Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Convolvulaceae Flora Europaea 3: 74-83. Cambridge University Press.
  • Voss, E.G. in Voss, E.G. (1996). Convolvulaceae Michigan Flora, part III, Dicots 3: 95-104. Cranbrook Institute of Science.
  • Webb, C.J., W.R. Sykes, & P.J. Garnock-Jones (1988). Fl. New Zealand Convolvulaceae - naturalised Flora of New Zealand 4: 547-560+1289. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Yuncker, T.G. & Rechinger, K.H. (1964). Cuscutaceae for Flora Iranica Flora Iranica 8: 1-16. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1932). The genus Cuscuta Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 18: 113-331. New York Botanical Garden.

Literature

Kew Species Profiles

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  • Cheffings, C. & Farrell, L. (eds) (2005). The Vascular Plant Red Data List for Great Britain. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.
  • Costea, M. & Tardia, F. J. (2006). The biology of Canadian weeds. 133. Cuscuta campestris Yuncker, C. gronovii Willd. ex Schult., C. umbrosa Beyr. ex Hook., C. epithymum (L.) L. and C. epilinum Weihe. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 86: 293-316.
  • Costea, M., Er, E. & Staples, G. (eds) (2011). Cuscuta epithymum.
  • Feinbrun, N. (1970) A taxonomic review of European Cuscutae. Israel Journal of Botany 19: 16-29.
  • Heide-Jørgensen, H. S. (2008). Parasitic Flowering Plants. Brill, Leiden.
  • Klinkenberg, B. (ed.) (2010). Cuscuta epithymum. In: E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
  • Kuijt, J. (1969). The Biology of Parasitic Flowering Plants. University of California Press, California.
  • Medical Economics Company (2000). Cuscuta epithymum. In: PDR for herbal medicines. p.506. Medical Economics Company, Montvale, New Jersey.
  • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2002). A Field Manual for Seed Collectors (pdf) (accessed 20 March 2012).
  • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2011). Sowing the seeds of UK biodiversity - Kew’s Millennium Seed Bank launches UK Native Seed Hub.  (accessed 20 March 2012).
  • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2012). Identifying seeds and assessing quality. (accessed 20 March 2012).
  • Whitman, K. (2011). Cuscuta epithymum Murray.
  • Yuncker, T. G. (1932). The genus Cuscuta. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 18: 109-331.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Austin, D. F. & M. Costea in Zuloaga, F. O., O. Morrone, & M. J. Belgrano (2008). Convolvulaceae Catálogo de las plantas vascualres del Cono Sur 2: 1936-1966. Missouri Bot. Garden.
  • Butkov, A.Y. (1974). Cuscuta in Fl. USSR Flora of the USSR 19: 30-57. Science Publishers, Inc.
  • Charkevicz, S.S. (ed.) (1995). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 7: 1-394. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Cronquist, A. et al. in Cronquist, A., et al. (1984). Convolvulaceae Intermountain Flora, vascular plants of the intermountain west, U.S.A. 4: 74-84. New York Botanical garden.
  • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain in Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Convolvulaceae Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 331-351. Conservatoire et Jardin Botanique de la ville de Genève.
  • Fernald & Rollins in Fernald, M.L. with R. C. Rollins (1950). Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th edition: 1177-1185. Dioscorides Press.
  • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M., & Long, G. (1986). Med-checklist 3: Dicotyledones (Convolvulaceae - Labiatae) 3: 1-395. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Ville de Genève.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 88-93.
  • Hitchcock, C.L. & A. Cronquist in Hitchcock, C.L. & A. Cronquist (1991). Convolvulaceae Flora of the Pacific Northwest: 363-366. Univ. Washington Press.
  • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
  • Kitamura, S. in Kitamura, S. (1960). Fl. Afghanistan Convolvulaceae Flora of Afghanistan 2: 309-313. Kyoto University.
  • Martin, W.C. & C.R. Hutchins in Martin, W. C. & C. R. Hutchins (1981). Convolvulaceae A flora of New Mexico 2: 1546-1569.
  • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
  • Plitmann, U. in Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Cuscutaceae Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 222-237. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Scoggan, H.J. in Scoggan, H.J. (1979). Convolvulaceae The Flora of Canada 4: 1253-1257. National Museum of Natural Sciences.
  • Turland, N.J. in Press, J.R. & Short, M.J. (eds.) (1994). Convolvulaceae Flora of Madeira: 266-271. HMSO.
  • Valentine, D.H. et al. in Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Convolvulaceae Flora Europaea 3: 74-83. Cambridge University Press.
  • Voss, E.G. in Voss, E.G. (1996). Convolvulaceae Michigan Flora, part III, Dicots 3: 95-104. Cranbrook Institute of Science.
  • Webb, C.J., W.R. Sykes, & P.J. Garnock-Jones (1988). Fl. New Zealand Convolvulaceae - naturalised Flora of New Zealand 4: 547-560+1289. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Yuncker, T.G. & Rechinger, K.H. (1964). Cuscutaceae for Flora Iranica Flora Iranica 8: 1-16. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1932). The genus Cuscuta Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 18: 113-331. New York Botanical Garden.

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