Xylocarpus J.Koenig

First published in Naturforscher (Halle) 20: 2 (1784)
This genus is accepted
The native range of this genus is Somalia to KwaZulu-Natal and W. Pacific.

Descriptions

Meliaceae, Styles & F. White (Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

Morphology General Habit
Trees
Morphology Leaves
Leaves paripinnate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers unisexual, in short little-branched axillary panicles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 4-lobed to ± the middle, valvate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4, contorted, spreading or reflexed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal tube urceolate, similar to that of Khaya
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk large, red, cushion-shaped, surrounding the base of the ovary and free from the staminal tube
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 4-locular, with 3–6 ovules in each locule; style-head discoid, margin crenellate, upper surface with 4 radiating stigmatic grooves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a large, pendulous, leathery, subglobose, tardily dehiscent septifragal capsule; columella poorly developed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 8–20, large, angular, outer surface somewhat rounded, with a corky outer covering.
[FTEA]

Meliaceae, F. White & B. T. Styles. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers probably monoecious, borne in compound cymes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx lobed to or beyond the middle, lobes 4, aestivation open.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4, free, much longer than the calyx in bud, contorted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal tube urceolate, bearing 8 included anthers inside towards the apex and terminated by 8 appendages alternating with the anthers, appendages subcircular, retuse or shallowly and irregularly 2 (3)-lobed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk large, red, cushion-shaped, situated beneath or engulfing and fused to the ovary, free from the staminal tube.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 4-locular, each loculus with 2–4 ovules; style short; style-head discoid, almost completely blocking the entrance to the staminal tube, margin crenellate, upper surface with a minute central papilla with 4 radiating, (?) stigmatic grooves.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a large almost spherical leathery septifragal capsule, dehiscing by 4 valves; septa thin, ultimately breaking down.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 8–16, large, pyramidal or tetrahedral, with angular margins due to mutual compression, outer side somewhat rounded, attached by the apex to the placenta and so forming a spherical mass; outer integument thick, corky.
Morphology General Habit
Trees of mangrove swamps and coastal scrub, often with pneumatophores or ribbon-like buttresses.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves paripinnate, leaflets entire.
[FZ]

Timothy M. A. Utteridge and Laura V. S. Jennings (2022). Trees of New Guinea. Kew Publishing. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Distribution
A genus of three species, from coastal areas in tropical Asia and Africa and islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans; all occur in New Guinea.
Morphology General Habit
Trees to 20 m tall, usually with stilt roots, buttresses or pneumatophores, often with scars on the twigs
Morphology General Indumentum
Indumentum when present of simple hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves paripinnate, usually with 2–4 pairs of leaflets
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary, thyrsoid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers unisexual and plants monoecious, 4-merous; sepals fused for about half their length, valvate; petals imbricate, much longer than sepals; staminal tube urceolate or cupular, margin 8-lobed, anthers 8, included within tube; disk cushion-shaped, beneath or surrounding and partially fused with ovary; ovary 4(–5)-locular, 3–4 ovules per locule, style discoid with a crenate margin and 4 grooves in upper surface
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a 4(–5)-valved, tardily-dehiscent, woody capsule with a central columella, exocarp leathery
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 5–20 per fruit, tetrahedral or pyramidal, testa corky.
Ecology
Xylocarpus is found in coastal, estuarine and mangrove habitats throughout New Guinea.
Recognition
The genus can be recognised by the paripinnate leaves, the unisexual 4-merous flowers and the large (weighing up to 3 kg) pendulous, woody, 4-valved fruit containing angular, corky seeds. Only a single fruit per inflorescence develops.
[TONG]

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • 'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
  • Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China

    • The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Trees of New Guinea

    • Trees of New Guinea
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0