Ipomoea muricata (L.) Jacq.

First published in Pl. Hort. Schoenbr. 3: 40 (1798)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Mexico to Tropical America. It is a climbing herbaceous tree and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome. It is used as a poison and a medicine, has environmental uses and for food.

Distribution

Native to:

Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Galápagos, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Peru, Venezuela

Introduced into:

Alabama, Angola, Arkansas, Assam, Bangladesh, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Florida, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, India, Japan, Kentucky, Leeward Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Malawi, Maryland, Mississippi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Rodrigues, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

Classification

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PAFTOL

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Al Khulaidi, A.W.A. in Al Khulaidi, A.W.A. (2012). Fl. Yemen Convolvulaceae + Cuscutaceae. Flora of Yemen: 73-76 + 80. EPA and UNDP, Republic of Yemen.
  • Andrews, F.W. in Andrews, F.W. (1956). Convolvulaceae. The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 102-125. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Clarke, C.B. in Hooker, J.D. (1883). Fl. Br. India Convolvulaceae. Flora of British India 4: 179-228 + 734.
  • Fang, R.-Z. & Staples, G. (1995). Convolvulaceae. Flora of China 16: 271-325. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Gosline, G., Bidault, E., van der Burgt, X., Cahen, D., Challen, G., Condé, N., Couch, C., Couvreur, T.L.P., Dagallier, L.M.J., Darbyshire, I., Dawson, S., Doré, T.S., Goyder, D., Grall, A., Haba, P., Haba, P., Harris, D., Hind, D.J.N., Jongkind, & al. (2023). A Taxonomically-verified and Vouchered Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Republic of Guinea. Nature, scientific data 10, Article number: 327: [1]-[12].
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition. Sommerfeltia 17: 88-93.
  • Heine, H. in Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J.M. (1963). Convolvulaceae. Flora of West Tropical Africa, second edition 2: 335-352 + 496. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.
  • Jarvis, C.E. in Jarvis, C.E. (2007). Convolvulaceae. Order out of Chaos Linnean Soc. London & Nat. Hist. Museum.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Mwanga Mwanga, I.J.-C.M., Sosef, M.S.M. & Simões, A.R.G. (2022). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaïre - Rwanda - Burundi), n.s., Convolvulaceae: 1-252. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.
  • Ooststroom, S.J. van & R.D. Hoogland (1953). Convolvulaceae. Flora Malesiana 4: 388-512. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Press, J.R., K.K. Shrestha, & D.A. Sutton (2012). Nepal Cklist. Convolvulaceae. Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal - online Natural History Museum et al.
  • Rajbhandari, K.R., Rai, S.K. & Chhetri, R. (2022). A Handbook of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 4: 1-522. Department of Plant Resources, Thapathali, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  • Shinners, L. in Correll, D.S. & M.C Johnston (1970). Convolvulaceae. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas: 1241-1261. Texas Research Foundation.
  • Spaulding, D. in Spaulding, D. (2013). Convolvulaceae. Checklist of Alabama's vascular flora: 137-139.
  • Staples, G. (with P. Traiperm) (2010). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Thailand 10: 330-468. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Staples, G.W., Wiersema, J.H., Chambers, N.A., & Austin, D.F. (2005). The restoration of Ipomoea muricata (L.) Jacq. (Convolvulaceae). Taxon 54: 1075-1079.
  • Tisserant, P. Ch. (1950). Catalogue de la flora de l'Oubangui-Chari. Mémoires de l'Institut d'Études Centrafricaines 2: 1-166.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1963). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-161.
  • Wood, J.R.I., Carine, M.A., Harris, D., Wilkin, P., Williams, B. & Scotland, R.W. (2015). Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in Bolivia. Kew Bulletin 70(31): 1-124.
  • Wood, J.R.I., Muñoz-Rodríguez P., Williams, B.R.M., Scotland, R.W. (2020). A foundation monograph of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the New World. PhytoKeys 143: 1-823.

An alternative taxonomy had been proposed by the following authorities:

  • Austin, D. F. & M. Costea in Zuloaga, F. O., O. Morrone, & M. J. Belgrano (2008). Convolvulaceae. Catálogo de las plantas vascualres del Cono Sur 2: 1936-1966. Missouri Bot. Garden. [Cited as Ipomoea turbinata Lag..]
  • Austin, D. F. (1982). Flora of Ecuador 15: 3-99. Botanical Institute, University of Göteborg, Riksmuseum, Stockholm. [Cited as Ipomoea turbinata.]
  • Austin, D.F. & Huáman, Z. (1996). A synopsis of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the Americas. Taxon 45: 3-38. [Cited as Ipomoea muricata.]
  • Austin, D.F. & S. Ghazanfar in E. Nasir & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1979). Convolvulaceae. Flora of West Pakistan 126: 1-64. [Cited as Ipomoea turbinata Lag..]
  • Austin, D.F. in Dassanayake (ed.) (1980). Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon Convolvulaceae. A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 288-363. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta. [Cited as Ipomoea turbinata Lag..]
  • Austin, D.F. in Lasser, T. (1982). Convolvulaceae. Flora de Venezuela 8(3): 15-226. Fundación Educación Ambiental. [Cited as Ipomoea turbinata Lag..]
  • Austin, D.F. in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (1998). Convolvulaceae. Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 4: 377-424. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. [Cited as Ipomoea turbinata Lag..]
  • Baker, J.G. & A.B. Rendle in Thiselton-Dyer, W.T. et al. (eds.) (1905). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 62-206. Secretary of State for the Colonies. [Cited as Calonyction muricatum G.Don.]
  • Clarke, C.B. in Kanjilal, U.N., A. Das, P.C. Kanjilal, & R.E. De (eds.) (1939). Fl. Assam Convolvulaceae. Flora of Assam 3: 338-362+538. Govt. of Assam. [Cited as Calonyction muricatum G.Don.]
  • Gagnepain & Courchet in H. Lecomte (1915). Flore Indo-Chine Convolvulaceae. Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 4: 228-313. [Cited as Calonyction muricata.]
  • Gonçalves, M.L. (1987). Convolvulaceae. Flora Zambesiaca 8(1): 9-129. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Ipomoea turbinata Lag..]
  • Gunn, C.R. (1969). History and taxonomy of the purple moonflower, Ipomoea turbinata Lagasca y Segura. Proceedings of the Association of Official Seed Analysts 59: 116-123. [Cited as Ipomoea turbinata.]
  • Hallier, H. (1897). Bausteine zu einer Monographie der Convolvulaceen. 6. Die Gattung Calonyction. Bulletin de l'Herbier Boissier 5: 1020-1052. l'Herbier Boissier. [Cited as Calonyction muricatum.]
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps. [Cited as Ipomoea turbinata Lag..]
  • Kartesz, J.T. in Kartesz, J.T. (1994). Convolvulaceae. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland: 217-221. Timber Press. [Cited as Ipomoea turbinata Lag..]
  • Khan, M.S. (1985). Fl. Bangladesh Convolvulaceae. Flora of Bangladesh 30: 1-59. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka. [Cited as Ipomoea turbinata (L.) Jacq..]
  • Lejoly, J. & S. Lisowski (1992). Les genres Merremia et Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) dans la Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi). Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica 37: 21-125. [Cited as Ipomoea turbinata Lag..]
  • Lisowski, S. in Lisowski, S. (2009). Convolvulaceae. Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée: 136-145. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique. [Cited as Ipomoea turbinata Lag..]
  • Matuda, E. in Matuda, E. (1966). Las Convolvulaceas del estado de Mexico. Las Convolvulaceae del estado de Mexico: 1-56. Govierno del Estado de Mexico, Direccion de Agricultura y Ganaderia. [Cited as Calonyction muricatum.]
  • Mill, R.R. (1999). Fl. Bhutan Convolvulaceae. Flora of Bhutan 2(2): 834-862. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh. [Cited as Ipomoea turbinata Lag..]
  • Powell, Dulcie A. (1979). The Convolvulaceae of the Lesser Antilles. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 60: 219-271. [Cited as Ipomoea turbinata.]
  • Standley, P.C. in Standley, P.A. (1924). Convolvulaceae. Trees and Shrubs of Mexico, Convolvulaceae pp. 1194-1208. 23(4): 1194-1208. Contributions U.S. Natl. Herbar. 23(4) 1924. [Cited as Calonyction muricatum.]
  • Subba Rao, G.V. & G.R. Rao in Subba Rao, G.V & G.R Kumari (2002). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh 1: 549-574. Botanical Survey of India. [Cited as Ipomoea turbinata Lag..]
  • Verdcourt, B. (1978). Corrections and additions to the 'Flora of Tropical East Africa: Convolvulaceae': IV. Kew Bulletin 33: 159-168. [Cited as Ipomoea turbinata.]

Kew Bulletin

  • Jacquin 1798: 40.

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Hort. Schoenbr. 3: 40, t. 323 (1798)
  • van Ooststr. in Blumea 3: 551.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Al Khulaidi, A.W.A. in Al Khulaidi, A.W.A. (2012). Fl. Yemen Convolvulaceae + Cuscutaceae. Flora of Yemen: 73-76 + 80. EPA and UNDP, Republic of Yemen.
  • Austin, D. F. & M. Costea in Zuloaga, F. O., O. Morrone, & M. J. Belgrano (2008). Convolvulaceae. Catálogo de las plantas vascualres del Cono Sur 2: 1936-1966. Missouri Bot. Garden.
  • Austin, D.F. & Huáman, Z. (1996). A synopsis of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the Americas. Taxon 45: 3-38.
  • Austin, D.F. in Dassanayake (ed.) (1980). Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon Convolvulaceae. A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 288-363. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Austin, D.F. in Stevens, W.D. & al. (eds.) (2001). Convolvulaceae. Flora de Nicaragua 1: 653-679. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Baker, J.G. & A.B. Rendle in Thiselton-Dyer, W.T. et al. (eds.) (1905). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 62-206. Secretary of State for the Colonies.
  • Clarke, C.B. in Hooker, J.D. (1883). Fl. Br. India Convolvulaceae. Flora of British India 4: 179-228 + 734.
  • Clarke, C.B. in Kanjilal, U.N., A. Das, P.C. Kanjilal, & R.E. De (eds.) (1939). Fl. Assam Convolvulaceae. Flora of Assam 3: 338-362+538. Govt. of Assam.
  • Fang, R.-Z. & Staples, G. (1995). Convolvulaceae. Flora of China 16: 271-325. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Gagnepain & Courchet in H. Lecomte (1915). Flore Indo-Chine Convolvulaceae. Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 4: 228-313.
  • Gunn, C.R. (1969). History and taxonomy of the purple moonflower, Ipomoea turbinata Lagasca y Segura. Proceedings of the Association of Official Seed Analysts 59: 116-123.
  • Hallier, H. (1897). Bausteine zu einer Monographie der Convolvulaceen. 6. Die Gattung Calonyction. Bulletin de l'Herbier Boissier 5: 1020-1052. l'Herbier Boissier.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Heine, H. in Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J.M. (1963). Convolvulaceae. Flora of West Tropical Africa, second edition 2: 335-352 + 496. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Khan, M.S. (1985). Fl. Bangladesh Convolvulaceae. Flora of Bangladesh 30: 1-59. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Kress, W.J., R.A. DeFilipps, E. Farr, & Y.Y. Kyi in Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Cklist. Myanmar Convolvulaceae. Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 197-201. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
  • Lejoly, J. & S. Lisowski (1992). Les genres Merremia et Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) dans la Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi). Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica 37: 21-125.
  • Lisowski, S. in Lisowski, S. (2009). Convolvulaceae. Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée: 136-145. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Matuda, E. in Matuda, E. (1966). Las Convolvulaceas del estado de Mexico. Las Convolvulaceae del estado de Mexico: 1-56. Govierno del Estado de Mexico, Direccion de Agricultura y Ganaderia.
  • Mill, R.R. (1999). Fl. Bhutan Convolvulaceae. Flora of Bhutan 2(2): 834-862. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Ooststroom, S.J. van & R.D. Hoogland (1953). Convolvulaceae. Flora Malesiana 4: 388-512. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Powell, Dulcie A. (1979). The Convolvulaceae of the Lesser Antilles. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 60: 219-271.
  • Press, J.R., K.K. Shrestha, & D.A. Sutton (2012). Nepal Cklist. Convolvulaceae. Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal - online Natural History Museum et al.
  • Shinners, L. in Correll, D.S. & M.C Johnston (1970). Convolvulaceae. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas: 1241-1261. Texas Research Foundation.
  • Spaulding, D. in Spaulding, D. (2013). Convolvulaceae. Checklist of Alabama's vascular flora: 137-139.
  • Standley, P.C. in Standley, P.A. (1924). Convolvulaceae. Trees and Shrubs of Mexico, Convolvulaceae pp. 1194-1208. 23(4): 1194-1208. Contributions U.S. Natl. Herbar. 23(4) 1924.
  • Staples, G. (with P. Traiperm) (2010). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Thailand 10: 330-468. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • Thiombiano, A. & al. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso. Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Tisserant, P. Ch. (1950). Catalogue de la flora de l'Oubangui-Chari. Mémoires de l'Institut d'Études Centrafricaines 2: 1-166.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1963). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-161.
  • Wiggins, I.L. in Wiggins, I.L. (1980). Convolvulaceae. Flora of Baja California: 373-385. Stanford Univ. Press.
  • Wood, J.R.I., Muñoz-Rodríguez P., Williams, B.R.M., Scotland, R.W. (2020). A foundation monograph of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the New World. PhytoKeys 143: 1-823.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Jacq., Hort. Schoenbr. 3 : 40, t. 323 (1798).
  • van Ooststr. in Fl. Males., ser. 1, 4 (4): 481 (1953).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Hinton, G.B. [9211] Mexico K000465311 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [8009] Mexico K000465313 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [8456] Mexico K000465312 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2249] India Convolvulus muricatus K001115487 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2249] Convolvulus muricatus K001115488 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2249] India Convolvulus muricatus K001115486 Unknown Type Material Yes
Oct 28, 2015 Cape Verde Ipomoea turbinata K001134238 No
May 21, 2014 Mozambique Ipomoea turbinata K001082018 No
Jul 10, 2013 Brazil Ipomoea turbinata K000944695 No
Jul 9, 2013 Brazil Ipomoea turbinata K000944733 No
Oct 15, 2012 Moseley [s.n.] Brazil Ipomoea turbinata K000944695 Yes
Aug 16, 2012 India Ipomoea turbinata K000830835 No
Jul 31, 2006 Malawi Ipomoea turbinata K000097188 No
Jul 31, 2006 Malawi Ipomoea turbinata K000097189 No
Jan 1, 1971 Hinton, G.B. [8526] Mexico Ipomoea turbinata K000465343 Yes
Jan 1, 1971 Hinton, G.B. [8414] Mexico Ipomoea turbinata K000465344 Yes
Wight, R. [2269] India Ipomoea turbinata K000830835 Unknown Type Material Yes
Hinton, G.B. [5011] Mexico Ipomoea turbinata K000465173 Yes
Buchanan [391] Malawi Ipomoea turbinata K000097189 Unknown Type Material Yes
Hinton, G.B. [5011] Mexico Ipomoea turbinata K000465172 Yes
Kirk [s.n.] Malawi Ipomoea turbinata K000097188 Unknown Type Material Yes
Hinton, G.B. [6932] Mexico Ipomoea turbinata K000465174 Yes
Mexico Ipomoea turbinata K000465174 No
Mexico Ipomoea turbinata K000465172 No
Mexico Ipomoea turbinata K000465173 No
Mexico Ipomoea turbinata K000465344 No
Mexico Ipomoea turbinata K000465343 No

Sources

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Bulletin

    • Kew Bulletin
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0