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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa.
Crassula vaginata


Crassulaceae, R. Fernandes. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

Morphology General Habit
A succulent, 8-90 cm. high perennial, forming clumps up to about 90 cm. in diameter.
Morphology Stem
Stem arising from a fleshy to woody obconical or swollen tuber, erect, straight, usually simple, ± stout (up to 10 mm. in diameter at the base) or sometimes ± slender, terete, pale- or yellow-green below, bright red to reddish-brown above, usually crimson on drying, glabrous towards the base, papillose-hairy or shortly papillose upwards below the nodes along two ± short stripes alternating with the lamina of the leaves (the papillae usually very short, patent, obtuse or, if long, then hair-like), or completely glabrous, rarely papillose throughout.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 2·5-26·5 x (0·1-0·2) 0·4-2·7(3·3) cm., sometimes up to 37 times longer than wide, the basal ones the longest and rosulate, oblong- to linear-lanceolate or linear, ± attenuate, the lower cauline leaves similar to the basal ones but shorter, the succeeding ones lanceolate or linear to oblong- or ovate-lanceolate, the uppermost sometimes bract-like, all acute or subacute at the apex, entire and with a row of short, contiguous, obtuse, white papillose cilia at the margin, sessile, ± long-connate at the base, clasping the stem below, then subappressed to it, finally erect or somewhat arched, flat, fleshy (but not very thick), pale to bright green when fresh, greenish-brown or dark brown when dry, usually glabrous on both faces or very rarely papillose-hairy beneath or on both surfaces; sheath (0·5)1-3 cm. long in the lower cauline leaves, shortening in the following; all internodes shorter than the leaves (sometimes the stem completely concealed by the sheaths and the clasping part of the laminas) or the upper ones subequalling or longer than them.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 5-merous in a repeatedly dichotomous, usually very dense, subhemispherical, corymbose inflorescence, 1·5-22(30) cm. in diam.; branches ± papillose to nearly glabrous; pedicels 2-6 mm. long, glabrous or sparsely papillose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx (1)1·5-3(4) mm. long, 1/3-1/2 (2/3) as long as corolla, rarely subequalling it, pale green; sepals ovate-lanceolate or ovate-elliptic to linear-lanceolate, not or ± attenuate, acute, with one terminal ± long obtuse papilla at the apex, usually entire and without marginal papillae or sometimes obtuse papillae present over a short to ±: long extent of the margin as well as on the median nerve above.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla (2·25)2·5-3·5(4·5) mm. long, white, pinkish-white or cream-white, sometimes red-tipped, or yellow, rarely red; petals 0·75-1·5(2) mm. wide, elliptic-oblong to ovate-oblong or ovate, obtuse or nearly so, slightly thickened at the top, not or indistinctly mucronate below the apex, smooth.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Filaments 1·5-2 mm. long; anthers (0·25)0·3-0·4(0·5) mm., subcircular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Follicles (incl. styles) 2-2·5(2·75) mm. long, contracted into the very short styles.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 0·5 mm. long, oblong.


Crassulaceae, G.E. Wickens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
A succulent rosette-forming perennial forming clumps up to ± 90 cm. in diameter (fide F.Z.).
Morphology Roots
Rootstock a fleshy to woody obconical or swollen, sometimes bifurcating tuber with remains of former leaves.
Morphology Stem
Stems annual, dying back after flowering, erect, usually simple, up to 90 cm. high, usually ± 30 cm., terete, ± stout, up to 10 mm. in diameter at the base, ± glabrous or minutely papillose-pubescent near the base, becoming increasingly papillose upwards, the papillae in broad vertical bands between the nodes alternating with the laminae.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile, oblong- to linear-lanceolate or linear, (1–)2.5–17.5(–35) cm. long, (0.1–)0.2–2.1(–3.5) cm. wide, apex obtuse to subacute, bases of opposite leaves united to form a sheath around the stem (0.5–)1–2.5(–3) cm. high, basal leaves sometimes long-attenuate at the base, margins entire, shortly white papillose-ciliate, otherwise glabrous; cauline leaves, sheaths and internodes shortening towards the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a terminal, repeatedly dichotomous, usually rather dense, subhemispherical, corymbose cyme, with foliaceous bracts; branches ± papillose to subglabrous; pedicels 2–6 mm. long, glabrous or sparsely papillose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 5-merous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-lobes narrowly to broadly triangular to ovate-lanceolate, (1–)1.5–2.5(–3.5) mm. long, 0.6–0.8 mm. wide, subacute with a terminal obtuse papilla, united at the base for 0.5 mm., margins entire, rarely with a few vestigial papillae.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals yellow (not in E. Africa), cream, white or pink, elliptic-oblong to oblong-ovate, oblong or ovate, (2.5–)3–4(–4.5) mm. long, (0.75–)1–1.3(–2.3) mm. wide, obtuse, slightly thickened; base united for ± 0.5–1 mm., entire, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamen-filaments 1.5–2 mm. long; anthers suborbicular, (0.2–)0.3–0.5 mm. long, yellow.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Nectaries
Nectary scales transversely oblong to almost square, 0.2–0.6 mm. high, 0.4–0.8 mm. wide, truncate or emarginate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Carpels
Carpels oblong, up to 2.7 mm. long, rather abruptly contracted into short styles, indistinctly papillose-ciliate along the suture.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2–6(–8) per carpel, broadly oblong, ± 0.5 mm. long, ± 0.3 mm. wide, minutely longitudinally rugulose (indistinguishable from those of C. alba).
Fig. 2B.
Upland grassland, especially on rock outcrops, or in clearings in montane forest; (1500–)2000–4500m.
K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1

Native to:

Angola, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Crassula vaginata Eckl. & Zeyh. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Dec 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13568], Cameroon K000541192
Dec 1, 2000 Cheek, M. [8564], Cameroon K000337884
Dec 1, 2000 Pollard, B.J. [272], Cameroon K000337879
Mar 1, 1999 Etuge, M. [3520], Cameroon K000337881
Apr 1, 1997 Munyenyembe, P. [758], Cameroon K000337878
Jan 1, 1993 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [265], Cameroon K000460067
Jan 1, 1993 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1426], Cameroon K000436678
Jan 1, 1993 Tekwe, C. [245], Cameroon K000437041
Jan 1, 1993 Watts, J. [429], Cameroon K000436472
Jan 1, 1980 Kuntze, O. [1450], South Africa K000310577 isotype
Mar 1, 1979 Volkens, G. [1905], Tanzania K000310064 isosyntype
Feb 1, 1979 Holst, C. [24234], Tanzania K000310063 syntype
Jan 1, 1978 Smuts, J.C. [48], South Africa K000310580 holotype
Johnston H. H. [88], Cameroon K000050062 Unknown type material
Mann G. [1304], Cameroon K000050060 Unknown type material
Maitland, T.D. [0s.n.30], Cameroon K000050057
Mildbraed, G. W. J. [10861], Cameroon K000050058
Bauer, P.J. [107], Cameroon K000050056
Mann G. [2036], Cameroon K000050061 Unknown type material
Migeod, F. W. H. [180], Cameroon K000050059
Maitland, T.D. [644], Cameroon K000050065
Johnstone, A.T. [0s.n.02], Cameroon K000050063
Hedberg, O. [93134], Cameroon K000087423
Maitland, T.D. [827], Cameroon K000050066
Ujor, E.U. [FHI 29978], Cameroon K000050055
Kingsley, M H. [0s.n.], Cameroon K000050067
Meurillon, A. [1156], Cameroon K000050064

First published in Enum. Pl. Afric. Austral.: 298 (1837)

Accepted by

  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1983). Flora Zambesiaca 7(1): 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Wickens, G.E. (1987). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Crassulaceae: 1-66.


Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Berger in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2, 18a: 394 (1930).
  • Eckl. & Zeyh., Enum. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 298 (1837).
  • Jacobsen, Lex. Succ. Pl.: 168 (1974).
  • R. Fernandes in Consp. Fl. Angol., Fam. 70: 12, t. 1 (1982)
  • R. Fernandes in Flora Zambesiaca 7: 24, t. 4B (1983).
  • Schönl. in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 43: 359 (1909).
  • Tölken in Contrib. Bolus Herb. 8: 356 (1977).
  • Wickens in Kew Bulletin 36: 667 (1982).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa

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