Genus:
Brassica L.

Brassica oleracea L.

Brassica oleracea has been cultivated for at least 2,000 years, possibly much longer, and a wide variety of forms have been developed. Although considerably different in general appearance, cabbage, kale, kohlrabi, cauliflower, broccoli and Brussels sprouts are all cultivars of Brassica oleracea.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean. Elevation range: 0–2620 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Bogotá DC, Cundinamarca, Putumayo, Risaralda.
Habit
Herb.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): DD.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, artificial - terrestrial.

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description

Brassica oleracea has been cultivated for at least 2,000 years, possibly much longer, and a wide variety of forms have been developed. Although considerably different in general appearance, cabbage, kale, kohlrabi, cauliflower, broccoli and Brussels sprouts are all cultivars of Brassica oleracea.

Brassica oleracea is a member of the cabbage family (Brassicaceae), which also includes turnip (Brassica rapa) and radish (Raphanus sativus). The common name cabbage derives from the French caboche, meaning head.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Brassica oleracea is native to the Mediterranean region and southwestern Europe, as far north as southern England. It is found growing wild on seaside cliffs.

Description

Overview: Biennial or perennial herb, to 250 cm tall when in flower. Smooth, more or less woody, stem.

Leaves: Few (in comparison to cultivars), fleshy, hairless, lobed, blue-green leaves. Lower leaves stalked and fairly large (up to 45 cm long), with irregular wavy margins.

Flowers: With four pale yellow petals and six stamens (two outer ones shorter than four inner ones). Borne on flowering stems of 20-40 individual flowers.

Fruits: A short-beaked siliqua (fruit divided into two cells by a thin partition) up to 10 cm long, round in cross-section.

Uses Food

Brassica vegetables are consumed in large quantities across the globe. They are an important source of dietary fibre, vitamins C and E, a range of B vitamins and carotenes. Their distinctive bitter flavour is due to the presence of glucosinolates, which can be toxic in certain circumstances but are also credited with potential anti-cancer activity.

Fodder

Marrow-stem kale, 1000-headed kale and kohlrabi are examples of cultivars grown for livestock feed and forage; kohlrabi is also eaten by humans as a raw and cooked vegetable.

Ornamental

Cabbages with white, pink, green and purple foliage, sometimes with fringed margins, are cultivated as ornamentals. They are considered to be attractive in garden borders and are sometimes used in fresh flower arrangements. Ornamental kales with white or pink markings on the leaves are available.

Cabbage cultivar groups

There are considered to be eight main cultivar groups:

Acephala Group (kale, borecole, collards)

Also known as winter greens, these non-heading cultivars are probably the most similar in appearance to wild cabbage. Cultivars with coloured leaves are grown as ornamentals. Jersey longjacks have tall, woody stems that are used for walking-sticks. Other cultivars are grown for livestock feed and forage.

Alboglabra Group (Chinese kale, Chinese broccoli, gai laan, kai lan)

Leaves of these cultivars are used in Chinese, Vietnamese and Thai cuisine.

Botrytis Group - (broccoli, cauliflower, broccoflower, calabrese)

Bearing edible inflorescences in compact heads, these are popular vegetables served raw or boiled and are often accompanied with a white sauce. They are also used in pickles. Forms of cauliflower suitable for hot and humid climates have been developed in India over the past 200 years.

Capitata Group (cabbage, savoy cabbage, red cabbage)

Developed in Germany by the 12th century, these have a large, edible, terminal bud. Savoy cabbage has puckered leaves and is shredded for use in coleslaw. Red cabbage contains the pigment anthocyanin and is used for pickling. Sauerkraut is fermented shredded cabbage leaves that is popular in Germany and some other European countries.

Gemmifera Group (sprouts, Brussels sprouts)

Developed in Belgium in the 18th century, this form has dense, compact, axillary buds (like mini-cabbages) packed tightly on a single, upright stem.

Gongylodes Group (kohlrabi, knol-kohl)

Bearing a white, green or purple, turnip-like, edible swollen stem (5-12 cm wide).These first appeared in Europe in the 15th century and are consumed as a boiled vegetable or used as livestock-feed.

Italica Group (purple sprouting, sprouting broccoli)

Bearing edible inflorescences not compacted into a single head, these cultivars became popular in northern Europe in the 18th century. They are alleged to reduce the incidence of bladder and colorectal cancers.

Tronchuda Group (Portuguese cabbage, seakale cabbage)

Low-growing annuals with spreading leaves, fleshy petioles and broad midribs.

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

More than 20 collections of Brassica oleracea seeds are held in Kew's Millennium Seed Bank based at Wakehurst in West Sussex.

This species at Kew

Brassica oleracea 'Kamome Red' (ornamental kale)

Brassica oleracea can usually be seen growing in the Plant Family Beds and Student Vegetable Plots at Kew.

Dried and alcohol-preserved specimens of Brassica oleracea are held in Kew's Herbarium where they are available to researchers by appointment. The details of one of these can be seen online in Kew's Herbarium Catalogue.

Specimens of Brassica oleracea seeds and seed oil, Jersey cabbage walking sticks and wool dyed with it are held in Kew's Economic Botany Collection, where they are available to researchers by appointment.

Distribution
France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom
Ecology
Coastal; on seaside cliffs.
Conservation
Not considered to be threatened; widespread in cultivation.
Hazards

Contains glucosinolates, which can cause goitre (enlargement of the thyroid gland) if consumed in large quantities (although also thought to provide protection against cancer).

[FTEA]

Cruciferae, Bengt Jonsell (University of Stockholm). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

Morphology General Habit
Annual (in warmer regions) to bi- or perennial herb.
Morphology Stem
Stem erect, often more than 1 m. high, with ascending branches, basally often woody, glabrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves fleshy, glabrous, glaucous; basal and lower cauline leaves petioled, lyrate-pinnatipartite with prominent whitish nerves; terminal lobe very large, up to 50 cm. long and 30 cm. broad, rounded at apex, ± cordate at base, entire, undulate, crispy or dentate; lateral lobes 1–5 pairs, small, entire or crenulate; median cauline leaves oblong to obovate, auriculate, obtuse, sinuate; upper leaves slightly clasping to auriculate, linear to oblong, entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes paniculate soon elongating, with large flowers on up to 8 mm. long pedicels, which in fruit become up to 20 mm. long and spreading.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals oblong, erect and connivent, ± 10 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals bright yellow or white, clawed, 15–20 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers 2.5–4 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary Ovules
Ovules 30–40.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Siliquae linear, ± torulose, sometimes on a gynophore, 50–100 mm. long, ± 5 mm. broad; beak conical to filiform, 5–15 mm. long; valves with a thick midnerve.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds dark brown, globose, 1.5–2 mm. in diameter, with a distinct fine reticulum.
Habitat
Cultivated places; 800–2000 m.
Distribution
K4 K7 T3 worldwide as a cultivated plant and occasional weed

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2620 m.; Amazonia, Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.

[KSP]
Use
Food, fodder, ornamental.

Native to:

France, Great Britain, Spain

Introduced into:

Albania, Algeria, Antipodean Is., Assam, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, California, Canary Is., Caroline Is., Central European Rus, Chatham Is., Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Crozet Is., Czechoslovakia, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Illinois, India, Iowa, Iraq, Juan Fernández Is., Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, Krym, Labrador, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Marianas, Marshall Is., Massachusetts, Morocco, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North European Russi, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Prince Edward I., Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, South Australia, South European Russi, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Washington, Western Australia, Zaïre

English
Wild cabbage

Brassica oleracea L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4798] K001039932
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4798] K001039933
70000.267

First published in Sp. Pl.: 667 (1753)

Accepted by

  • (1982). Flora of Australia 8: 1-420. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Delipavlov, D. & Cheshmedzhiev, I. (eds.) (2011). Opredelitel na rasteniiata v Bulgariia: 1-590. Akad. Isd. Agrar. Univers. Plovdiv.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of North America North of Mexico 7: 1-797. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2020). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 4(2): 1-524. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Jalas, J., Suominen, J. & Lampinen, R. (eds.) (1996). Atlas Florae Europaeae. Distribution of vascular plants in Europe 11: 1-310.
  • Jonsell, B. (1982). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Cruciferae: 1-73.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Morat, P. (ed.) (1997). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 21: 1-121. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Ovchinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1978). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 5: 1-678. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Scholz, S. & al. (2013). 150.- Adiciones a la flora vascular de Fuerteventura (islas Canarias) III Botánica Macaronésica 28: 99-116.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(2): 628-1199. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Vangjeli, J. (2017). Flora Albania Atlas 1: 1-933. Koeltz Botanical Books.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2001). Flora of China 8: 1-506. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Species Profiles

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  • Vaughan, J. G. & Geissler, C. A. (2009). The New Oxford Book of Food Plants. 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (1982). Flora of Australia 8: 1-420. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • B.A.Fedtschenko & al. (1948). Flora Turkmenii 3: 1-280. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Delipavlov, D. & Cheshmedzhiev, I. (eds.) (2011). Opredelitel na rasteniiata v Bulgariia: 1-590. Akad. Isd. Agrar. Univers. Plovdiv.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of North America North of Mexico 7: 1-797. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
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  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1984). Flora of Bhutan 1(2): 189-462. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2020). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 4(2): 1-524. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Jalas, J., Suominen, J. & Lampinen, R. (eds.) (1996). Atlas Florae Europaeae. Distribution of vascular plants in Europe 11: 1-310.
  • Jonsell, B. (1982). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Cruciferae: 1-73.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
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  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Morat, P. (ed.) (1997). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 21: 1-121. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Ovchinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1978). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 5: 1-678. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(2): 628-1199. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Vangjeli, J. (2017). Flora Albania Atlas 1: 1-933. Koeltz Botanical Books.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2001). Flora of China 8: 1-506. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

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  • RBG, Kew (2021). Kew Economic Botany Collection. https://ecbot.science.kew.org/
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Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. Chev., Fl. Viv. 1: 210 (1939).
  • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3 (1): 261 (1915).
  • A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 1: 22 (1847).
  • Agnew & Stewart in A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 94 (1974).
  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 150 (1954).
  • Dammer in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile B: 139, 153 (1895).
  • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 97 (1954).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 667 (1753).
  • O.E. Schulz in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 105, 70: 27 (1919).
  • Robyns & Boutique in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 2: 530 (1951).
  • Th. Dur. & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afr. 1 (2): 117 (1898).

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

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