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Cucurbita pepo has been cultivated for its edible fruits for thousands of years and remains a crop plant of great economic importance today. An extensive range of cultivars is available, including those grown to produce fruits for Halloween lanterns and pumpkin pies, courgettes (zucchinis), marrows, many types of squashes and ornamental gourds. It is important to note that the common names pumpkin and squash are used for more than one species of plant. For example the fruits of some cultivated forms of Cucurbita maxima, C. moschata and C. argyrosperma are also sometimes known as pumpkins and squashes.

Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin)

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 500 - 2700 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Trepadora

[UNAL]
Vernacular
Calabaza, Vitoria

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Vigorous usually trailing annual herb
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blade ovate or broadly triangular, cordate, prickly-setose especially on veins beneath, up to 30 cm long and broad, long-petiolate, palmately 5-lobed, lobes triangular to rhombic-elliptic, often lobulate, rather riged, erect or ascending
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Hypanthium campanulate, 9–12 mm long; sepals usually lanceolate-subulate, 12–20 mm long, rarely with a few small apical lobes; corolla 5.5–11 cm long, lobes spreading or erect
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers on 0.5–5 cm long pedicels; perianth similar to male Male flowers on 4.5–15 cm long pedicels
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit extraordinarily variable in size, shape and colour; pedicel 0.5–7 cm long, strongly 5-angled, little expanded at the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds dirty white, 8–20 x 4–12 x 1.5–2.5 mm, bordered.
Distribution
Recorded as cultivated in Cuf. Enum. (1965) probably native of N Mexico and S U.S.A.
Vernacular
Marrow, pumpkin, squash (English).

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description

Cucurbita pepo has been cultivated for its edible fruits for thousands of years and remains a crop plant of great economic importance today. An extensive range of cultivars is available, including those grown to produce fruits for Halloween lanterns and pumpkin pies, courgettes (zucchinis), marrows, many types of squashes and ornamental gourds. It is important to note that the common names pumpkin and squash are used for more than one species of plant. For example the fruits of some cultivated forms of Cucurbita maxima, C. moschata and C. argyrosperma are also sometimes known as pumpkins and squashes.

Three subspecies are recognised:

  • Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo (known only in cultivation)
  • Cucurbita pepo subsp. texana (known in cultivation and in the wild in southeastern USA)
  • Cucurbita pepo subsp. fraterna (known only in the wild in northeastern Mexico)

Species Profile
The cucurbit family

The cucurbit family (Cucurbitaceae) includes cucumbers ( Cucumis sativus ), melons ( Cucumis melo , for example), watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) and loofahs ( Luffa  species) in addition to pumpkins, squashes and gourds.

They are mostly climbing or scrambling vines. Their leaves characteristically have three or more main veins originating from the same point. Most species have separate male (pollen-bearing) and female (seed-bearing) flowers on the same plant. Many of the wild species produce small, bitter fruits, whereas many of the domesticated varieties bear much larger, sweeter fruits.

Geography and distribution

Cucurbita pepo is native to North America (northeastern Mexico and southern USA).

Cucurbita pepo subspecies fraterna has been found in upland, seasonally dry thorn scrub, whereas C. pepo subsp. texana occurs in alluvial land near rivers.

Intact, dried fruits are buoyant, permitting seed dispersal via water.

Description

Overview: A rampant, highly-branched vine (although cultivated forms are less rampant and less well branched).

Leaves: More or less round with five deep lobes and serrated edges. Solid dark green or yellow-green or with grey-green markings. Long leaf-stalks hold the leaf blades above flowers and fruits. Stems and leaves of many cultivars bear fine, glassy prickles.

Flowers: Large, showy, bright yellow/orange. Separate male and female flowers are borne on the same plant.

Fruits: Extremely variable in size, shape, colour and texture. Fruit stems (peduncles) are not corky and are ridged all around, widening slightly at the base. Flesh is pulpy. Fruits of wild plants are normally bitter.

Seeds: Smooth, oval and flattened, with one end slightly more pointed than the other. Light to dark beige.

Uses

One of the oldest domesticated plants, Cucurbita pepo fragments have been recovered from archaeological sites in northern Mexico dated from 7,000 to 5,500 BC and southwestern USA from 610 AD. The edible fruits of this species were a part of the squash/beans/maize culture of pre-Columbian America.

Cucurbita pepo is a species of great economic importance, and mature and immature fruits, flowers and young leaves are used as vegetables. Cultivars such as C. pepo 'Connecticut Field' are grown commercially in immense quantities for making Halloween lanterns and pumpkin pies, in particular for the North American celebration of Thanksgiving (in late November). The large seeds (known as 'pumpkin nuts' or pepitas) are also edible and rich in zinc. Mature fruits are used as animal fodder.

Long used as a medicinal plant in Central and North America, sap and pulp are applied to burns, and seeds are used as a diuretic. Seeds have also been widely used as a de-worming treatment.

Edible pumpkins and squashes have been grown in India for centuries and India is now one of the biggest international producers of pumpkins. In Ayurvedic medicine, the fruit of Cucurbita pepo is considered to be cooling and astringent, consumed as a cure for thirst and fatigue, and used to purify the blood. Leaves are used as a painkiller, a treatment for nausea, and a boost to haemoglobin content of the blood. Seeds are considered to be nutritious, diuretic and effective against parasitic worms; they are also considered a cure for bronchitis and fever.

A stunning variety of ornamental gourds can be obtained from cultivars of Cucurbita pepo , including: smooth, pale and egg-shaped; bright orange with warty skin; 'crown of thorns' shaped; and curved and bright yellow with a deep green tip.

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

Three collections of Cucurbita pepo seeds are held in Kew's Millennium Seed Bank based at Wakehurst in West Sussex.

Cultivation

Seed should be sown during the spring in warm (16-24°C), humid conditions. For the best plants, a single seed should be sown in a small pot of peat-free, multipurpose compost. Most seeds will germinate within a few days, but cultivars that are harder to germinate should be gently heated from below.

Once they have germinated, seedlings should be moved to a frost-free cloche or glasshouse for growing on. The cooler the temperature, the better the plants will be, but it is important to remember that all pumpkins and squashes are susceptible to frost.

After the last frost, the ground should be warm enough to plant out the young, potted plants. Any good soil mixed with plenty of garden compost should provide ideal conditions for a good crop.

The plants should be spaced about one metre apart, although trailing varieties may need more room. Until the plants spread out and cover the ground, the rows should be kept weed-free with regular cultivation. Growth tips should be pinched out to restrict the size of the plant once the desired number of fruits has formed.

Regular watering is essential if large fruits are required. Reducing the number of fruits to one or two per plant will also ensure larger fruits. In early autumn, excess foliage should be removed to give the fruit a better chance of ripening in the autumn sun.

This species at Kew

Cucurbita pepo can be seen growing in the Queen's Garden behind Kew Palace. During the summer and autumn months cucurbits are often found growing in the Order Beds and the side beds of the Waterlily House, Kew's hottest glasshouse.

Dried and alcohol-preserved specimens of Cucurbita pepo are held in Kew's Herbarium, where they are available to researchers by appointment. Details of some of these can be seen online in Kew's Herbarium Catalogue.

Specimens of Cucurbita pepo fruits, flowers, seeds and seed oil are held in Kew's Economic Botany Collection, where they are available to researchers by appointment.

Distribution
Mexico, USA
Ecology
Upland, seasonally dry thorn scrub or alluvial land near rivers.
Conservation
Not assessed according to IUCN Red List criteria; widespread in cultivation.
Hazards

Stems and leaves of many cultivars bear fine prickles.

[FSOM]
Use
Cultivated for its edible fruits.

[KSP]
Use
Food, ornamental, medicinal.

Native to:

Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest

Introduced into:

Alabama, Albania, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil South, Burkina, California, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Finland, France, Gambia, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Illinois, India, Italy, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Korea, Louisiana, Marianas, Marshall Is., Massachusetts, Michigan, Nauru, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nigeria, North Carolina, Norway, Ohio, Oman, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Québec, Sierra Leone, South Carolina, St.Helena, Sweden, Tadzhikistan, Tennessee, Texas, Tokelau-Manihiki, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Wake I., West Himalaya, Zaïre

English
Pumpkin

Cucurbita pepo L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
16144.000
Horrill, A.D. 28638.000
29047.294
Jeffrey, C. [342] 8096.000
Jeffrey, C. [340] 8097.000
Jeffrey, C. [337] 8098.000
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6722] K001124671
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6722] K001124669
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6722] K001124670

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1010 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • De Wilde, W.J.J.O. & Duyfjes, B.E.E. (2008). The edible Cucurbitaceae of Thailand and Malesia and the wild forms of the cultivated ones Sandakania 17: 43-91.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Gong, L. et al. (2012). Genetic relationships and evolution in Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squash, gourd) as revealed by simple sequence repeat polymorphisms Theoretical and Applied Genetics 124: 875-891.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jonsell, B. & Karlsson, T. (eds.) (2010). Flora Nordica 6: 1-298. The Bergius Foundaton.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Keraudren-Aymonin, M. (1975). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Cucurbitaceae: 1-152. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Ovchinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1988). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 9: 1-568. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Rebnner, S.S. & Pandey, A.K. (2013). The Cucurbitaceae of India: Accepted names, synonyms, geographic distribution, and information on images and DNA sequences PhytoKeys 20: 53-118.
  • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
  • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F. & Kit Tan (2013). New floristic records in the Balkans: 21 Phytologia Balcanica 19: 131-157.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2017). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 17: 1-434. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
  • de Wilde, W.J.J.O. & Duyfjes, B.B.E. (2010). Flora Malesiana 19: 1-342. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.

Literature

Kew Species Profiles

  • Andres, T. C. (1987). Cucurbita fraterna, the closest wild relative and progenitor of C. pepo. Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative Report 10: 69–71.
  • Boisset, C. (1997). Pumpkins & Squashes. The Reader’s Digest Association, Inc., Pleasantville, New York/Montreal.
  • Chevallier, A. (1996). The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. Dorling Kindersley Ltd, London.
  • Goldman, A. (2004). The Compleat Squash: a Passionate Grower’s Guide to Pumpkins, Squashes and Gourds. Artisan, New York.
  • Gong, L. et al. (2012). Genetic relationships and evolution in Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squash, gourd) as revealed by simple sequence repeat polymorphisms. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 124: 875–891.
  • Mabberley, D. J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-book: a Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses. Third edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Nayar, N. M. & More, T. A. (eds) (1998). Cucurbits. Science Publishers, Inc., USA.
  • Robinson, R. W. & Decker-Walters, D. S. (1997). Cucurbits. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
  • Whitaker, T. W. & Davis, G. N. (1962). Cucurbits: Botany, Cultivation and Utilization. Interscience Publishers Inc., New York.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jonsell, B. & Karlsson, T. (eds.) (2010). Flora Nordica 6: 1-298. The Bergius Foundaton.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Keraudren-Aymonin, M. (1975). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Cucurbitaceae: 1-152. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
  • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Ovchinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1988). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 9: 1-568. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Rebnner, S.S. & Pandey, A.K. (2013). The Cucurbitaceae of India: Accepted names, synonyms, geographic distribution, and information on images and DNA sequences PhytoKeys 20: 53-118.
  • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
  • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • USDA, NRCS (2005-2020). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Vangjeli, J. (2017). Flora Albania Atlas 1: 1-933. Koeltz Botanical Books.
  • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F. & Kit Tan (2013). New floristic records in the Balkans: 21 Phytologia Balcanica 19: 131-157.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
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Flora of Somalia

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Universidad Nacional de Colombia

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Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
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Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
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Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
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© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
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