Fabaceae Lindl.

Senna Mill.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World, America.


M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008]

For references, see under Cassia.
Morphology General Habit
Unarmed trees, shrubs or herbs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves paripinnate, often with globose to clavate or cylindrical glands on petiole and/or rhachis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers in few- to many-flowered racemes, without bracteoles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 5, imbricate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 5, yellow
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually 10; filaments straight, shorter than or not over twice as long as the basifixed anthers which are dehiscent by apical pores or short slits
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods terete or compressed, indehiscent or ± tardily dehiscent, valves not twisting
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ± compressed, often with a closed areole on each face.
About 280 species, pantropical, most numerous in the New World, some extending into temperate regions.


Leguminosae, R.K. Brummitt, A.C. Chikuni, J.M. Lock & R.M. Polhill. Flora Zambesiaca 3:2. 2007

Morphology General Habit
Trees, shrubs or woody herbs, unarmed (in the Flora area).
Morphology Leaves
Leaves paripinnate; leaflets opposite or subopposite; stipules various but often persistent and prominent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence racemose or paniculate; bracts often prominent but usually falling at or before anthesis; bracteoles absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx lobes 5, equal or subequal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 5, yellow.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 10, all with almost straight filaments which are not more than twice the length of their anther; anthers basifixed, dehiscing by terminal pores only.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary stipitate, curved; ovules numerous; stigma terminal or subterminal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods cylindrical, flattened or winged, often transversely septate inside, tardily dehiscent (not elastically) or indehiscent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds numerous, areolate.


Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)


Tribe Cercideae is basally branching in the Leguminosae (Bruneau et al., 2001; Herendeen et al., 2003a), as predicted by Wunderlin et al. (1981), and Cercis is the most basally branching genus in the tribe. While much taxonomic work has been carried out on the tribe in the past thirty years (e.g., Larsen et al., 1980, 1984; Wunderlin, 1976, 1979; Wunderlin et al., 1981, 1987; Zhang, 1995; Vaz, 2003; Vaz & Tozzi, 2003), few species have been included in phylogenetic analyses and inter- and intra-generic relationships are still largely unresolved with the exception of Cercis (Hao et al., 2001; Davis et al., 2002b).

Wunderlin (1979) and Wunderlin et al. (1981) divided the tribe into two subtribes, Cercidinae and Bauhiniinae, based on seed, floral and fruit characters. Walpers (1842) had already down-ranked Bauhinieae Benth. (1840) to subtribal status, thus the combination Bauhiniinae (Benth.) Wunderlin (1979) is superfluous. Polhill (1994) kept the Cercideae unchanged with two subtribes and five genera. While the Cercidinae contains three small distinct genera, Cercis, Griffonia and Adenolobus, the Bauhiniinae houses the monospecific Madagascan genus Brenierea and the large, diverse pantropical genus Bauhinia sens. lat. which has been segregated into as many as twenty-six genera by various authors (Wunderlin, 1976).

While many of the Bauhinia segregates are based on minor morphological differences, others are distinguished morphologically by a suite of characters. Britton and Rose (1930), in their account of the Caesalpiniaceae for the North American Flora, divided Bauhinia into several segregate genera, including Schnella Raddi which here is treated as a synonym of Phanera, but might prove to be distinct as indicated in recent molecular analyses by Forest (unpublished data). Britton and Killip (1936) recognised Schnella as distinct from Bauhinia in Colombia. De Wit (1956), treating ‘Malaysian Bauhinieae’, recognised Bracteolanthus, Lysiphyllum, Gigasiphon, Piliostigma, Lasiobema and Phanera as separate genera and this was largely followed by subsequent flora writers in Africa and New Guinea (e.g., Brenan, 1967; Coetzer & Ross in Ross, 1977; Verdcourt, 1979). Others have retained a more inclusive Bauhinia proposed by Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987), e.g., Macbride (1943: 207–220) for Peru; Larsen et al. (1980) for the Flora of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam; Larsen et al. (1984) for the Flora of Thailand; Chen (1988) for China, and Larsen & Larsen in Hou et al. (1996) in Flora Malesiana. Zhang (1995) published a morphological cladistic analysis of the series of Bauhinia sens. lat., but few species of Bauhinia have been included in molecular studies. It remains equivocal as to whether Bauhinia sens. lat. is monophyletic, but preliminary molecular results indicate that some elements should be reinstated as distinct genera (Bruneau et al., in prep.; Forest, unpubl.). This runs contrary to the findings of Larsen & Larsen in Hou et al. (1996) who concluded “that Bauhinia in the sense of Linnaeus, Bentham, De Candolle, Taubert and Hutchinson is an evolutionary unit and a very natural genus”. Larsen and Larsen also noted that Bauhinia sens. lat. presents a reticulate pattern of variation across its pantropical range (this apparently conflicting somewhat with its status as a “natural genus”). While this is undoubtedly true if the genus is considered as all-inclusive, recent studies of legume distributions in general (Schrire et al., this volume and 2005) have revealed repeated patterns of generic distribution which appear to be duplicated by at least some of the segregates of Bauhinia. If these segregates are recognised as distinct genera (as several are in this treatment) then the reticulate pattern of variation of Bauhinia is far less pronounced. More sampling at the species level in molecular analyses and more morphological studies are needed across the full pantropical range of Bauhinia sens. lat. before inter- and intra-generic relationships are clearly resolved. In the current account genera that have been recognised as distinct from Bauhinia in at least one flora treatment that post-dates De Wit (1956) have been treated as separate genera, especially where these are supported by the preliminary results from a chloroplast trnL (intron and spacer) sequence analysis (Forest, unpubl.). The reader’s attention is also alerted to the detailed infra-generic division of Bauhinia by Wunderlin et al. (1987) in their reorganisation of the Cercideae which also forms a sound basis for sampling in future studies.

Palynological studies of Bauhinia (Larsen, 1975; Schmitz, 1977; Ferguson & Pearce, 1986) have all stressed the considerable variation in pollen morphology within the genus sens. lat. and there are clear correlations between pollen exine ornamentation, floral morphology and pollination. It remains to be seen just how closely these correspond to evolutionary relationships of species. Nevertheless, Schmitz (1977) made several new combinations in segregate genera of Bauhinia based on palynological type. These included new names in Lasiobema, Lysiphyllum, Pauletia, Perlebia and Phanera (Pauletia and Perlebia here considered as synonyms of Bauhinia). Zhang (1995), who analysed morphologically the series of Bauhinia proposed by Wunderlin et al. (1987), concluded that while some supraspecific segregates of the genus were supported, none of the subgenera appeared to be monophyletic. Several realignments were proposed.

The Cercideae as presented here includes 12 genera and (322)–335–(348) species. This treatment differs from Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987) and Polhill (1994) in that Barklya, Gigasiphon, Lasiobema, Lysiphyllum, Phanera, Piliostigma and Tylosema are considered distinct from Bauhinia. While some of these may well be reincluded in Bauhinia after further study, yet other genera may be reinstated from within Bauhinia. Bracteolanthus, treated as distinct by De Wit (1956), is here included in Lysiphyllum following Wunderlin et al. (1987), while Barklya, considered congeneric with Bauhinia by Wunderlin (1979) and Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987) is considered distinct following George (1998b) and Forest (unpublished data). The reinstatement of Lasiobema appears least well supported (Forest, unpubl.).

One of three genera in subtribe Cassiinae; see under Cassia for comments on phylogenetic placement. In arid areas in Australia taxonomic distinctions are blurred by polyploidy, hybridisation and apomixis (Randell & Barlow, 1998b)
Trees, shrubs or herbs (some monocarpic)
Arid scrubland, rocky hillsides and deep desert sands, deciduous woodland, thorn woodland (including caatinga), wooded grassland (savanna and cerrado), few in Amazonian forest; some endemics on limestone (especially in Madagascar), coastal tropical and su
206 spp. native to the New World (c. 45 spp. restricted to C and N America, 10 spp. in the Greater Antilles [including 6 endemic in Cuba], c. 30 restricted to NW South America [Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru], 3 restricted to the Guianas and Venezuela, c. 28 in southern S America [Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, including 8 spp. endemic in Chile], 5 spp. endemic in Bolivia, c. 20 spp. restricted to SE Brazil and 13 to NE Brazil, c. 25 spp. widespread across S America, and c. 25-30 on either side of the Panama isthmus [either disjunctly or widespread] ), c. 18-20 spp. native to Africa (many in Somalia-Masai E and NE Africa [including 2 extending to Socotra; 1 sp. endemic on Socotra and 3 extending to the Middle East and Asia], others more widespread in dryland phytochoria), 9 spp. endemic in Madagascar, 3 spp. indigenous in Malesia, 3 spp. restricted to India, 1 sp. in Myanmar [Burma] and Thailand (and possibly also native in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam); 33 spp. endemic in Australia plus 16 endemic so-called 'form taxa'; c. 3-5 spp. widely cultivated and of unknown certain origin

Senna alexandrina Mill. (= Cassia senna L.), or true senna is well-known as a laxative; many species are multi-purpose shrubs with numerous medicinal uses, especially as purgatives; S. alata (L.) Roxb. is universally used against parasitic skin diseases; timber of some species is used in construction and for charcoal; occasionally seeds are roasted and ground as a coffee substitute, less often used as fish poisons and for tanning leather; many are ornamentals and shade trees widely introduced throughout the tropics; for a detailed account of uses in W Africa see Burkill (1995)

Native to:

Alabama, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, China North-Central, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kentucky, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Society Is., Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Aldabra, Arkansas, Ascension, Belgium, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Canary Is., Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Congo, Cook Is., Cyprus, Gabon, Georgia, Gilbert Is., Hainan, Inner Mongolia, Kazan-retto, Kermadec Is., Korea, Laccadive Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Manchuria, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mississippi, Missouri, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, New Guinea, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Primorye, Qinghai, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, Solomon Is., South Carolina, South China Sea, Spain, St.Helena, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Tuamotu, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Wallis-Futuna Is.

Senna Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2009 Vargas, C. [9818], Peru K000556674 No
Jan 1, 1989 Maas, P.J.M. [6646], Amazonas K000841202 Yes
Jan 1, 1985 Thomas, D.W. [3311 A], Cameroon K000092598 No
Pennington, R.T. [40], Bolivia 35772.020 No
Rico, L. [1465], Bolivia K000295383 No
Rico, L. [1180], Bolivia K000295021 No
Rico, L. [1466], Bolivia K000295353 No
Delprete, P.G. [10092], Goiás K000841209 Yes
Saavedra, M.M. [474], Goiás K000841212 Yes
Campelo, M.J. [64], Pernambuco K000841217 Yes
Campelo, M.J. [32], Pernambuco K000841218 Yes
Saar, E. [5256], Bahia K000841219 Yes
Lowe, J. [4033], Amazonas K000841237 Yes
Vilela, U.U.A. [16], Brazil K000841240 Yes
Barros, M. [2260], Brazil K000841243 Yes
Azevedo, M.L.M. [1346], Bahia K000841246 Yes
Cavalcanti, T.B. [1607], Goiás K000841248 Yes
Mansano, V.F. [344], Rio de Janeiro K000841253 Yes
Forzza, R.C. [4082], Bahia K000841255 Yes
Giulietti, A.M. [13665], Minas Gerais K000841257 Yes
Queiroz, L.P. [10672], Bahia K000841259 Yes
Claussen, P. [163], Rio de Janeiro K000841261 Yes
Cavalcanti, T.B. [1300], Goiás K000841273 Yes
Torres, Luis [s.n.], Venezuela K000556671 No
Jameson [738], Peru K000556678 No
Ruiz, J. [1697], Peru K000556683 No
Cornejo, X. [5857], Ecuador K001134357 No
Klitgaard, B.B. [545], Ecuador K001134363 No
Valenzuela, L. [5052], Peru K001134572 No
Vásquez, R. [23904], Peru K001134575 No
Díaz, Camilo [8296], Peru K001134576 No
Vásquez M. Rodolfo [34931], Peru K001134582 No
Catatayud, G. [4506], Peru K001134587 No
Vásquez, R. [31685], Peru K001134598 No
Valenzuela, L. [10580], Peru K001134601 No
Calatayud, G. [4189], Peru K001134604 No
Graham, J.G. [4104], Peru K001134817 No
Vasquez, R. [18638], Peru K001134824 No
Valenzuela, L. [4766], Peru K001134837 No
Vásquez, R. [30922], Peru K001134932 No
Vásquez, R. [29665], Peru K001134940 No
Vasquez, R. et al [28281], Peru K001134941 No
Valenzuela, L. Suclli, E. [1552], Peru K001134942 No
Valenzuela, L. [6062], Peru K001134946 No
Rojas, R. [2728], Peru K001134950 No
Lawrence, A. [70], Bolivia K001134956 No
Mendoza, M. [1026], Bolivia K001134999 No
Monteagudo, A. [14043], Peru K001134599 No
Galiano, W. [6733], Peru K001134820 No
Ball, J. [s.n.], Chile K001259297 No
Rojas, R. [3036], Peru K001134938 No
Forzza, R.C. [4582], Goiás K000841254 Yes
Nascimento, M.S.B. [604], Maranhão K000841266 Yes
s.coll. [56], Ecuador K001134359 No
Wood, J.R.I. [20533], Bolivia K001134996 No
Laurênio, A. [227], Pernambuco K000841268 Yes
Stahl, B. [7102], Ecuador K000556672 No
Cornejo, X. [5594], Ecuador K001134362 No
Farfán, J. [1247], Peru K001134935 No
Wood, J.R.I. [21152], Bolivia K001105193 No
Valenzuela, L. [2119], Peru K001134934 No
Plowman, T. [6406], Peru K001134453 No
Lima, H.C. [2914], Espírito Santo K000841215 Yes
Tschá, M.C. [91], Pernambuco K000841264 Yes
Monteagudo, A. [4974], Peru K001105404 No
Calatayud, G. [2947], Peru K001134832 No
Meneces, Elias [387], Bolivia K001105593 No
Meneces, Elias [391], Bolivia K001105591 No
van der werff, H. [20721], Peru K001134834 No
Killeen, T. [6878], Bolivia K001105408 No
Monteagudo, A. [3531], Peru K001105403 No
Nelson, B.W. [934], Amazonas K000841216 Yes
Galiano, W. [5715], Peru K001134849 No
Heringer, E.P. [4170], Brazil K000841235 Yes
Davis, E.W. [550], Colombia K000556666 No
Huamantupa, I. [4748], Peru K001134836 No
Valenzuela, L. [6482], Peru K001134945 No
Plowman, T. [14217], Peru K000556679 No
Gay, M. Cl. [s.n.], Chile K001259296 No
Botelho, M.B. [5], Brazil K000841271 Yes
Foster, P.F. [762], Bolivia K001105409 No
Thomas, W.W. [11524], Bahia K000841214 Yes
Jeffrey, C. [2372] K001134450 No
Bernardi, L. [16425], Peru K000556677 No
Vasquez, R. [20082], Peru K001134952 No
Lozano, R. [1272], Bolivia K001105411 No
Wood, J.R.I. [10504], Bolivia K001105195 No
Díaz, Camilo [6919], Peru K001134929 No
Heringer, E.P. [7166], Brazil K000841234 Yes
Revilla, Juan [2653], Peru K000556687 No
Valenzuela, L. [4244], Peru K001134830 No
Meirelles, J.E. [554], Rio de Janeiro K000841252 Yes
Giulietti, A.M. [13665], Minas Gerais K000841258 Yes
Stahl, B. [7297], Ecuador K000556673 No
Rojas, R. [2341], Peru K001134939 No
Silva, B.R. [1427], Minas Gerais K000841256 Yes
Calatayud, G. [1384], Peru K001134839 No
Paz R., C. [156], Bolivia K001105546 No
Edwards. K. S. [465], Venezuela K000556667 No
Pennington, T.D. [17961 (4770)], Peru K000556676 No
Vasquez, R. [21017], Peru K001105395 No
Wood, J.R.I. [11023], Bolivia K001135000 No
Rojas, Rocio [5832], Peru K001134603 No
Valenzuela, L. [1888], Peru K001134943 No
Valenzuela, L. [5294], Peru K001134835 No
Valenzuela, L. [3586], Peru K001134927 No
Valenzuela, L. [5169], Peru K001134928 No
Bautista, H.P. [584], Minas Gerais K000841236 Yes
Huamantupa, I. [8558], Peru K001134594 No
Vásquez, R. [23996], Peru K001134838 No
Andrade, I.M. [166], Pernambuco K000841267 Yes
s. coll. [572 (middle digit may be wrong)], Ecuador K001134360 No
Ortiz [1164], Peru K001134574 No
Rico, L. [2052], Mexico K000266026 No
Seidel, R. [1991], Bolivia K001105191 No
Perea, J. [0168], Peru K001134845 No
Huamantupa, I. [3260], Peru K001134846 No
Pennington, T.D. [17535], Peru K001105596 No
Cornejo, X. [5826], Ecuador K001134358 No
Valenzuela, L. [7339], Peru K001134828 No
Foronda, Ivan Linneo [979], Bolivia K001105536 No
Soto, D. [1217], Bolivia K001105192 No
Bezerra, M. [10], Bahia K000841247 Yes
Cavalcanti, T.B. [1607], Goiás K000841249 Yes
Rojas, Rocio [5776], Peru K001134595 No
Valenzuela, L. [6121], Peru K001134847 No
Valenzuela, L. [5831], Peru K001134831 No
Heringer, E.P. [3710], Brazil K000841230 Yes
Savatier, Lud. [1/46], Peru K001134451 No
Huaylla, H. [1022], Bolivia K001105537 No
Edwards. K. S. [465], Venezuela K000556668 No
Smith, David [5709], Peru K000556684 No
Rojas, R. [3968], Peru K001105196 No
Wood, J.R.I. [16671], Bolivia K001105198 No
Delprete, P.G. [10196], Goiás K000841211 Yes
Farfán, J. [289], Peru K001134936 No
Vásquez M., Rodolfo [33935], Peru K001134606 No
Wood, J.R.I. [10730], Bolivia K001105194 No
Pennington, T.D. [17161], Peru K001134365 No
Lehmann [s.n.], Colombia K001134455 No
Huamantupa, I. [10402], Peru K001134602 No
Stork, H.E. [11382], Peru K001134454 No
Suclli, E. [2696] K001134833 No
Vásquez M., Rodolfo [34383], Peru K001134607 No
Lopes, M.M.M. [862], Bahia K000841226 Yes
Foster, Robin B. [10634], Peru K000556685 No
Valenzuela, L. [10820], Peru K001134591 No
Rojas, R. [0922], Peru K001105399 No
Semir, J. [2097], Minas Gerais K000841232 Yes
Graham, J.G. [4876], Peru K001134818 No
Klitgaard, B.B. [545], Ecuador K001134364 No
Valenzuela, L. [8404], Peru K001134592 No
Heringer, E.P. [4162], Brazil K000841231 Yes
Monteagudo, A. [4932], Peru K001105406 No
Monteagudo M., A. [11798], Peru K001134841 No
Vásquez, R. [26037], Peru K001134840 No
Soto, A. [492], Bolivia K001134957 No
Chatrou, L.W. [459], Bolivia K001105547 No
Pennington, T.D. [17161], Peru K001105595 No
Rojas, R. [2898], Peru K001134844 No
Queiroz, L.P. [3832], Bahia K000841208 Yes
Galiano, W. [5721], Peru K001134933 No
Suclli, E. [1935], Peru K001134577 No
Harley, R.M. [54689], Bahia K000841227 Yes
Valenzuela, L. [8025], Peru K001134608 No
Villarouco, F.M.O. [150], Pernambuco K000841269 Yes
van der werff, H. [17514], Peru K001134951 No
Oliveira, C.A.M. [15], Pernambuco K000841251 Yes
Huamantupa, I. [10473], Peru K001134579 No
Suclli, Efrain [1562], Peru K001134597 No
Huamantupa, I. [3051], Peru K001134829 No
Monteagudo, A. [4932], Peru K001105405 No
Huamantupa, I. [10156], Peru K001134578 No
Lawrence, A [176], Bolivia K001134955 No
Wood, J.R.I. [20533], Bolivia K001134997 No
Meirelles, J.E. [387], Amazonas K000841210 Yes
Huaylla, H. [696], Bolivia K001134998 No
Ratter, J.A. [6865], Pará K000841239 Yes
Valenzuela, L. [3012], Peru K001134825 No
Semir, J. [5046], Minas Gerais K000841233 Yes
Klitgaard, B.B. [402] K001134356 No
Vásquez, R. [23916], Peru K001134826 No
Melo, M.R.C.S. [43], Pernambuco K000841263 Yes
Ferreira, V. [5], Brazil K000841242 Yes
Rojas, Rocio [5812], Peru K001134605 No
Killeen [5439], Bolivia K001134993 No
Birschel [s.n.], Venezuela K000556669 No
Parada, G.A. [114], Bolivia K001105544 No
Graham, J.G. [4876], Peru K001134819 No
Forzza, R.C. [4063], Minas Gerais K000841220 Yes
Glaziou, A. [12616], Rio de Janeiro K000841238 Yes
Valenzuela, L. [2485], Peru K001134944 No
Barbosa, Cesar [8406], Colombia K000556664 No
Arroyo, L. [3265], Bolivia K001134995 No
Cornejo, X. [2734], Ecuador K001134361 No
Ortiz [579], Peru K001134571 No
Pennington, T.D. [17565], Peru K000556688 No
Rojas [2891], Peru K001134937 No
Arroyo, L. [3259], Bolivia K001105407 No
Vásquez, R. [32400], Peru K001134600 No
Ortiz V., E. [554], Peru K001134827 No
Valenzuela, L. [4143], Peru K000556689 No
Saldias, M. [5315], Bolivia K001105535 No
Kersten, R.A. [1100], Tocantins K000841213 Yes
Vásquez, R. [24308], Peru K001105397 No
Rico, L. [2016], Mexico K000266002 No
Monteagudo, A. [3531], Peru K001105402 No
Valenzuela, L. [11773], Peru K001134589 No
Valenzuela, L. [3964], Peru K001134842 No
Pinto, G.C.P. [83/82], Minas Gerais K000841229 Yes
Galiano, W. [4676], Peru K001134931 No
Mendes, J.R.S. [2], Brazil K000841244 Yes
Woytkowski, Felix [54], Peru K000556680 No
Parada, G.A. [55], Bolivia K001105197 No
van der werff, H. [20761], Peru K001134821 No
Meneces, Elias [391], Bolivia K001105592 No
Pereira, R.J.L. [12], Brazil K000841245 Yes
JDG [722; 460; 186 respectively, 722 associated with Ju], Peru K000556686 No
Rojas, R. [3892], Peru K001134573 No
Saldias, M. [3471], Bolivia K001105550 No
Claussen, P. [168], Rio de Janeiro K000841260 Yes
Calatayud, G. [4083], Peru K001134583 No
Vásquez, R. [29667], Peru K001134949 No
Rojas, Rocio [5720], Peru K001134593 No
Valenzuela, L. [6709], Peru K001134843 No
Castellanos, A. [22714], Rio de Janeiro K000841223 Yes
Vásquez, R. [21030], Peru K001134822 No
Souza, V. [441], Espírito Santo K000841262 Yes
Monteagudo, A. [3516], Peru K001134848 No
Killeen, T. [4119], Bolivia K001105410 No
Lawrence, S.A. [s.n.], Bolivia K001134954 No
Triana, J. [s.n.], Colombia K001134457 No
Hatschbach, G. [74570], Mato Grosso do Sul K000841221 Yes
Heringer, E.P. [17698], Goiás K000841224 Yes
Rodal, M.J.N. [449], Pernambuco K000841265 Yes
Pennington, T.D. [17961 (4770)], Peru K000556675 No
Lima, H.C. [2973], Espírito Santo K000841225 Yes
Tschá, M.C. [585], Pernambuco K000841270 Yes
Mendonça, R.C. [4170], Goiás K000841222 Yes
Tunqui, Santiago [1106], Peru K001134953 No
Heringer, E.P. [6527], Brazil K000841228 Yes
Peterson, P.M. [12651], Bolivia K001105594 No
Rojas, Rocio [5719], Peru K001134580 No
Vásquez, R. [24308], Peru K001105396 No
Guillén, R. [1730], Bolivia K001105545 No
Ratter, J.A. [7322], Goiás K000841241 Yes
Perea, J. [2024], Peru K001134948 No
Fuentes, A. [1896], Bolivia K001105534 No
Galiano, W. [6312], Peru K001105394 No
Lozano, R. [1459], Bolivia K001105538 No
Rojas, R. [0922], Peru K001105400 No
Vásquez, R. [26098], Peru K001105398 No
Harley, R.M. [54463], Bahia K000841272 Yes
Ortiz V., E. [1330], Peru K001134930 No
Barrier, S. [1254], Peru K001105401 No
Thomas, W.W. [11641], Bahia K000841250 Yes
Monteagudo, Abel [16209], Peru K001134585 No
Huamán, M. [171], Peru K001134596 No
Plowman, T. [6485], Peru K001134452 No
Perea, J. [1576], Peru K001134947 No
Vásquez, R. [22374], Peru K001134823 No

First published in Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4: s.p. (1754)

Accepted by

  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.


Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gard. Dict., abr.ed. 4, 3 (1754).
  • Irwin & Barneby in Polhill & Raven, Adv. Legume Syst. 1: 97–106 (1981)
  • in Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35: 1–918 (1982).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

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  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

  • Kew Science Photographs

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  • Legumes of the World Online

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