Liliaceae Juss.

First published in Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 48. 1789 [4 Aug 1789] (1789)nom. cons.
This family is accepted

Descriptions

J. R. Timberlake, E. S. Martins (2009). Flora Zambesiaca, Vol 12 (part 2). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs with leaf cauline to rosette-forming, underground organs bulbous or rhizomatous
Morphology Stem
Stems erect, bearing 1 to many, alternate to verticillate or apparently opposite leaf
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence usually racemose, sometimes umbelliform, often bracteate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually actinomorphic, perfect; tepals free, in 2 whorls of 3, usually weakly differentiated, often spotted or otherwise contrastingly marked, bearing nectaries and forming a tube; stamens 6, free, anther usually dorsifixed; ovary superior, usually 3-locular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a capsule or berry
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds often flattened and arranged on top of each other in fruit, less commonly rounded to angular.
Distribution
A family of 17 genera and c. 600 species with a predominantly northern temperate distribution. The highest diversity is in North America and Eastern Asia.
[FZ]

Liliaceae, F.N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Morphology General Habit
Herbs, mostly perennial, or rarely soft-wooded shrubs; roots from a rhizome, corm or bulb, or tuberous; stem erect or climbing, leafy or scapose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers bisexual or rarely unisexual, actinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic, sometimes large and showy, never in umbels
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth mostly corolla-like, with or without a tube; segments usually 6, rarely 4 or more, in 2 similar series, imbricate or the outer valvate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens usually 6, hypogynous or adnate to and always opposite to the perianth segments; filaments usually free; anthers 2-celled, usually opening by a slit lengthwise
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Ovules usually numerous and mostly 2-seriate in each loculus Ovary superior, mostly 3-locular with axile placentas, or rarely 1-locular with parietal placentas; style entire or divided, rarely styles free
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a capsule or berry
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds with copious endosperm
[FWTA]

Gemma Bramley, Anna Trias-Blasi & Richard Wilford (2023). The Kew Temperate Plant Families Identification Handbook. Kew Publishing Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Recognition
Characters of similar families: Amaryllidaceae: inflorescence a pseudoumbel; 2 spathaceous bracts. Colchicaceae: usually corms, leaves basal or cauline, styles often divided into 3 free styluli. Iridaceae: leaves cauline, sheathing at the base, isobifacial, stamens 3, branching styles; ovary inferior. Melanthiaceae: tepals unspotted, stamens not always 6, free styles or fused with free stigma. Asparagaceae: leaves normally in basal rosettes, sometimes one spathaceous bract, pedicels articulated.
Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs
Vegetative Multiplication Bulbs
Storage organs usually bulbs, sometimes rhizomes
Morphology Leaves
Leaves mostly cauline, sometimes basal, spiral or (in Lilium and Fritillaria species) whorled, rarely petiolate, simple, and parallel-veined
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a terminal raceme, a solitary flower, or rarely an umbel
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers often large, bisexual, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, pedicellate, bracteate or not, hypogynous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Tepals biseriate, 3+3 sometimes spotted or striate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens are 3+3, whorled, distinct and free
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers are peltately attached to the filament or pseudobasifixed, and longitudinally dehiscent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary syncarpous, superior, 3 carpels and 3 locules
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style solitary; stigmas 3, tri-lobed or with 3 crests; axile placentation
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Nectaries
Nectaries perigonal, present at the tepal bases
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit loculicidal, septicidal, or irregularly dehiscent capsules or a berry
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds flat discoid or ellipsoid, the endosperm with aleurone and fatty oils.
Distribution
Liliaceae s.s. has ca. 700 species in 15 genera, with a mostly north temperate distribution. In the past, the family was treated as a large assemblage (Liliaceae s.l.), which has since been broken up into numerous segregate families.
Description Author
Anna Trias-Blasi
[KTEMP-FIH]

Liliaceae, John Grimshaw, D. Phil. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

Morphology General Habit
Erect perennial geophytes; bulbs formed of 1 to many scales attached to reduced stem, tunicate or not
Morphology Leaves
Leaves basal or cauline, sometimes petiolate, 1- many, alternate or verticillate, linear to ovate-lanceolate, bases sometimes sheathing, veins parallel
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a terminal raceme, sometimes umbel-like, or a single terminal flower, bracts subtending flowers absent or present and leaf-like
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic or occasionally weakly zygomorphic
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth segments 6 in 2 whorls, free to base, usually brightly coloured, often with contrasting basal nectaries
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens in 2 series of 3; anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Ovary superior, trilocular, with numerous ovules per locule; style solitary, erect, short to long; stigma capitate to 3-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a loculicidal capsule with numerous seeds
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds flattened, discoid to ellipsoidal
[FTEA]

Uses

Use
It has economic value as several taxa, including Lilium and Tulipa, are ornamental cultivars.
[KTEMP-FIH]

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • The Kew Temperate Plant Families Identification Handbook

    • The Kew Temperate Plant Families Identification Handbook
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0