Abutilon Mill.

First published in Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4.: s.p. (1754)
This genus is accepted
The native range of this genus is Tropics & Subtropics.

Descriptions

Malvaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

Morphology General Habit
Biennial to perennial (rarely annual) erect or occasionally spreading herbs or shrubs, variously pubescent, usually with stellate hairs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate, usually more or less ovate in outline with cordate base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers generally yellow to orange, rarely white, mauve or purple, small to medium-sized, axillary, solitary or fascicled, rarely 2–4-nate on a common peduncle, sometimes on short axillary leafy side-shoots, sometimes aggregated in terminal and lateral leafy pseudo-panicles; pedicels usually articulated in the upper half often near the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Epicalyx
Epicalyx absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx with a cupular to campanulate tube; lobes 5, distinct, semi-orbicular to lanceolate, usually acute to acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 5, connate at the base and adnate to the base of the staminal tube, usually conspicuously longer than the calyx and in open flowers usually spreading to rotate, generally obovate with a narrow subunguiculate often ciliate basal portion.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal tube divided at the apex into many filaments, dilated below, glabrous or stellate-pubescent; free parts of filaments terete; anthers reniform.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Carpels
Carpels 5 to c. 40, 3–9-ovulate, in a circle around a distinct torus and joined to form a subglobose gynoecium; style-branches as many as the carpels, terete, filiform or clavate; stigmas simple to somewhat capitate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit subglobose or turbinate to hemispherical or almost disk-shaped, often truncate, depressed or umbilicate at the apex; mericarps 5 to many, laterally compressed, follicular, (1) 2–3 (9)-seeded, separating from the ultimately conical or subcylindric and usually more or less produced or dilated to capitate torus and usually dehiscing by the ventral suture, ultimately grey or brown to black, oblong to subrectangular, reniform or more or less semi-orbicular, rounded to truncate at the base and rounded, truncate or acute at the apex, muticous to mucronate, apiculate or awned at the upper dorsal (outer) angle or at the apex, the ventral side with a usually distinct retrorse tooth which originally fitted over and against the apex of the torus.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds reniform, often unequally so and more or less comma-shaped, glabrous, puberulous or stellate-tomentose, smooth, finely pitted or minutely papillose to verruculose; embryo curved; cotyledons folded; endosperm scanty.
[FZ]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, subshrubs or shrubs, usually with stellate hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves entire or rarely shallowly 3-lobed; stipules usually filiform to linear
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary or clustered, sometimes on short axillary branches, often aggregated into terminal and lateral panicles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Epicalyx
Epicalyx absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals mostly yellow, united at the base and adnate to the base of the staminal tube
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary of (5–)10–40 3–9-ovulate free carpels around a central axis; style-branches as many as the carpels
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a subglobose to flattened schizocarp; mericarps usually dehiscing apically along the ventral suture, 1–3(–9)-seeded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds reniform to globose, glabrous to tomentose, smooth to warted.
Distribution
Some 170–180 species, pantropical andmost subtropical regions.
Note
The circumscription of several of the species, particularly some of the more widespread ones, is uncertain and in need of further study. This account is therefore to be regarded as preliminary.
[FSOM]

Malvaceae, Bernard Verdcourt & Geoffrey Mwachala. Pavonia, B Verdcourt; Kosteletzkya, OJ Blanchard Jr.; Gossypium, P Fryxell & B Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

Morphology General Habit
Herbs or shrubs or rarely small trees, mostly erect but a few prostrate or subscandent.
Morphology General Indumentum
Indumentum stellate and often simple as well
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate or less often subsessile; lamina mostly cordate at base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary in leaf axils or fascicled or less often 2–6 on a common peduncle, sometimes forming terminal leafy or leafless panicles; peduncles usually articulated near apex (the upper part perhaps to be looked on as a pedicel?)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Epicalyx
Epicalyx absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow or orange (sometimes with a red to purple centre), or white (often with a dark centre) or pink, mauve or purple; petals 5, joined at the extreme base and adnate to base of the staminal tube, longer than the calyx
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Staminal tube usually stellate-pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Carpels
Carpels 5–± 40, 2–9-ovulate, joined to form a subglobose or broadly cylindrical ovary; style-branches as many as the carpels
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits subglobose, broadly cylindrical or barrelshaped, often deeply depressed in centre; mericarps laterally much compressed, apiculate or awned and usually with retrorse tooth on the ventral margin, usually dehiscing apically, (1–)2–3(–9)-seeded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds usually irregularly reniform, glabrous to tomentose, smooth or variously papillate or pitted
Note
Many are very distinct but there are several very difficult complexes, the taxonomy of which is far from resolved. Several species are widely cultivated but I have seen only three specimens from East Africa namely A.   hybridum Hort., Gitonga 114, Njoro Plant Breeding Station, 20 June 1971 and Graham Bell 6, Closeburn, Nairobi, 3 Mar. 1952. Jex-Blake (Gard. E. Afr. ed. 4: 102 (1957)) mentions A. darwinii Hook. f., A. hildebrandtii (see page 137), A. insigne Planch., A. megapotamicum (Spreng.) St. Hil. & Naudin, A. striatum Lindl. (now known as A. pictum (Hook. & Arn.) Walp.), A. venosum Walp., [ Gillett 22753, Closeburn Nurseries, Nairobi, 15 Dec. 1979] and A. vitifolium (Cav.) Presl (sometimes placed in a separate genus as Corynabutilon vitifolium (Cav.) Kearney. #
[FTEA]

Uses

Use
Some species are widespread ruderals, others are ornamentals or cultivated as fiber crops.
[FSOM]

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Plants and People Africa

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    • © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/