Solanum L.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Morphology General
Herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes climbing, with fibrous or tuber-bearing roots or rhizomatous, sometimes armed with straight to hooked prickles, usually pubescent with a variety of simple, branched or stellate, rarely peltate, eglandular or glandular hairs, sometimes accompanied by bristles, often with multicellular glands intermixed, rarely glabrous Plants never armed, glabrous or with various simple to branched or dendritic hairs, elsewhere sometimes with truly stellate hairs or scales; cymes extra-axillary or sometimes terminal and then sometimes remaining so unless overtopped by a side branch, usually eventually lateral; anthers oblong, opening by large terminal pores or slits and then often slit down the side with age
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, sometimes appearing in pairs with one larger (major) and the other smaller (minor), petiolate or sessile, sometimes clasping the stem, entire to deeply lobed or pinnatisect, sometimes prickly, sometimes with pseudostipules Leaves alternate, sometimes appearing in pairs with one larger (major) and the other smaller (minor), petiolate or sessile, sometimes clasping the stem, entire to deeply lobed or pinnatisect, sometimes prickly, sometimes with pseudostipules.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes developmentally terminal but quickly overtopped by the lateral shoot which is often fused with the basal part of the peduncle (concaulescent) so the cyme becomes lateral and extra-axillary, less often axillary or leaf-opposed, variously developed, consisting of terminal cincinni, sometimes curled (scorpioid), elongate (racemiform) or contracted (umbelliform), with a peduncle, sometimes dichotomously branched (paniculiform or corymbiform) or unbranched (racemiform), or ± sessile (fascicled), few–many-flowered, rarely 1-flowered, ebracteate and ebracteolate Cymes developmentally terminal but quickly overtopped by the lateral shoot which is often fused with the basal part of the peduncle (concaulescent) so the cyme becomes lateral and extra-axillary, less often axillary or leaf-opposed, variously developed, consisting of terminal cincinni, sometimes curled (scorpioid), elongate (racemiform) or contracted (umbelliform), with a peduncle, sometimes dichotomously branched (paniculiform or corymbiform) or unbranched (racemiform), or ± sessile (fascicled), few–many-flowered, rarely 1-flowered, ebracteate and ebracteolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers actinomorphic, sometimes slightly zygomorphic, (4)5(6)-merous, bisexual or the lower ones bisexual and the upper ones in the same inflorescence functionally male (female sterile by reduction of the ovary), elsewhere occasionally all unisexual. Flowers actinomorphic, sometimes slightly zygomorphic, (4)5(6)-merous, bisexual or the lower ones bisexual and the upper ones in the same inflorescence functionally male (female sterile by reduction of the ovary), elsewhere occasionally all unisexual; pedicels often articulated above the base to the midpoint (perhaps indicating ancestral bracteoles), rarely at the base, leaving small scars on the axes when shed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels often articulated above the base to the midpoint (perhaps indicating ancestral bracteoles), rarely at the base, leaving small scars on the axes when shed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx longer than the corolla tube, campanulate, rotate or cupular, with (4)5(10) valvate teeth or lobes, sometimes accrescent and sometimes investing the fruit when mature, the lobes appressed or loosely raised, sometimes reflexed, when mature mostly splitting at the sutures Calyx longer than the corolla tube, campanulate, rotate or cupular, with (4)5(10) valvate teeth or lobes, sometimes accrescent and sometimes investing the fruit when mature, the lobes appressed or loosely raised, sometimes reflexed, when mature mostly splitting at the sutures.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla most often flushed purple, violet or blue, sometimes mauve or white, more rarely yellow, shortly tubular to campanulate, rotate or deeply stelliform; tube usually short; limb usually broad, entire to deeply lobed or even divided to the base, spreading to reflexed, the lobes usually ± pubescent to tomentose on the back, united or not by a membrane, with plicate or induplicate-valvate aestivation Corolla most often flushed purple, violet or blue, sometimes mauve or white, more rarely yellow, shortly tubular to campanulate, rotate or deeply stelliform; tube usually short; limb usually broad, entire to deeply lobed or even divided to the base, spreading to reflexed, the lobes usually ± pubescent to tomentose on the back, united or not by a membrane, with plicate or induplicate-valvate aestivation.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens equal to unequal, ± as long as the corolla lobes, usually exserted; filaments often short, glabrous or pubescent, inserted on the corolla tube at varying heights, often partially connate or united at the base forming a ring or rarely wanting; anthers usually all fertile, rarely rudimentary, short and thick to elongate and tapered, occasionally prolonged into a sterile appendage, rarely pubescent, usually connivent around the style, rarely connate, attached at the base or shortly above, dehiscing by terminal pores, these sometimes developing into short or long slits; connective sometimes enlarged Stamens equal to unequal, ± as long as the corolla lobes, usually exserted; filaments often short, glabrous or pubescent, inserted on the corolla tube at varying heights, often partially connate or united at the base forming a ring or rarely wanting; anthers usually all fertile, rarely rudimentary, short and thick to elongate and tapered, occasionally prolonged into a sterile appendage, rarely pubescent, usually connivent around the style, rarely connate, attached at the base or shortly above, dehiscing by terminal pores, these sometimes developing into short or long slits; connective sometimes enlarged.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
"Ovary usually ± globose, basically 2-locular with an expanded axile placenta, sometimes elaborated and developing 1–2 secondary (""false"") septa between its principal lobes, appearing 3–4-locular, or dividing into branches filling the locules, the ovules hemicampylotropous, numerous."
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style simple, equalling or exceeding the anthers, terete, erect or declinate and somewhat sigmoid in shape and then with the stigmatic tip often bent or almost hooked, rarely persistent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma terminal, capitate, small or slightly elongate, obscurely 2–4-lobed to markedly 2-fid
Note
The circumscription of the genus and the subdivision into subgenera, sections and groups has received considerable attention and is significantly affected by recent molecular and cladistic studies. Cyphomandra is now included, see Bohs in Taxon 44: 583–587 (1995). The situation of Lycopersicon is more controversial. It too is nested within Solanum, with clear evidence for its position in subgen. Solanum sect. Petota, where it is placed here after consultation with the authors of the Flora of Ethiopia and the Flora of Tropical East Africa. The morphological separation of the 9–12 species involved is clear-cut, however, and almost all the literature on this economically important segregate has been written under Lycopersicon. Nee in Nee, Symon, Lester & Jessop, Solanaceae IV: 299 (1999) recommends that Lycopersicon should be retained for practical purposes and such treatment will also be found in Hunziker, Gen. Solanacearum (2001) and some other recent literature. One of the largest genera of vascular plants, with about 1250 species, showing great variability in form and ecological preference, almost worldwide, from tropical to temperate regions of both hemispheres, principally the southern, mostly centred in tropical America, mainly South America, but also in temperate America and Africa. The genus is a source of numerous toxic and medicinal species as well as several food plants (S. tuberosum L., S. lycopersicum L., S. betaceum Cav., S. melongena L., S. muricatum Aiton and S. quitoense Lam.), and also of many weeds of disturbed habitats. About 100–110 species in Africa and adjacent islands, many of them native and several locally or regionally endemic, variously used in folk medicine and a few regularly cultivated as food crops (S. melongena L., S. aethiopicum L. and S. macrocarpon L.), or introduced as ornamentals (S. seaforthianum Andrews, S. laxum Spreng., S. pseudocapsicum L., S. wendlandii Hook.f., S. capsicoides All., S. mammosum L., S. wrightii Benth. and S. robustum H.L. Wendl.); 39 species recorded in the Flora Zambesiaca area, 11 of them known only under cultivation. Species of this enormous genus (and indeed the whole family) do tend to be variable. There is often an overlap of the character states that at first sight would seem to be very distinctive and it is often necessary to consider a combination of features for identification (and rather easily confirmed if herbarium material or illustrations are available for comparison). It is helpful to note the habit of the plant, whether domesticated or not, and to collect fruits as well as flowers, noting the size, colour and texture. Further observations on hybrids, local domesticates and natural variation would be valuable. For present purposes it seems best to treat a number of the more variable species, such as S. anguivi, S. giganteum, S. incanum and S. macrocarpon, in a broad sense, without attempting any formal subdivisions. The arrangement of species follows Nee, op. cit.: 285–333 (1999), but for practical reasons, particularly considering the anomalous character states of some cultivated species, an artificial key is provided to identify the species in the Flora Zambesiaca area. The synopsis below will, however, give a good idea of the broad relationships of the many groups. Predominantly diploid, but also tetraploid, hexaploid or octoploid; chromosome number-base: x=12
Morphology General Habit
Herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes climbing, with fibrous or tuber-bearing roots or rhizomatous, sometimes armed with straight to hooked prickles, usually pubescent with a variety of simple, branched or stellate, rarely peltate, eglandular or glandular hairs, sometimes accompanied by bristles, often with multicellular glands intermixed, rarely glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk inconspicuous or absent. Disk inconspicuous or absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary usually ± globose, basically 2-locular with an expanded axile placenta, sometimes elaborated and developing 1–2 secondary ("false") septa between its principal lobes, appearing 3–4-locular, or dividing into branches filling the locules, the ovules hemicampylotropous, numerous; style simple, equalling or exceeding the anthers, terete, erect or declinate and somewhat sigmoid in shape and then with the stigmatic tip often bent or almost hooked, rarely persistent; stigma terminal, capitate, small or slightly elongate, obscurely 2–4-lobed to markedly 2-fid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a berry, pale green, yellow to red, brown to purple, ± black or ivory-white, usually globose, sometimes ovoid, rarely conical or oblong, when ripe juicy, mucilaginous, fleshy, papery or bony, sometimes partially hollow, rarely dry and sub-capsular, usually 2-locular with slightly enlarged placental area in the centre of the septum, from it radiating the seeds into the usually pulp-filled locules between the septum and the pericarp, becoming unilocular by reduction of the septum, more rarely 3–4-locular by proliferation of it, sometimes aromatic, mostly falling from the receptacle, with or without sclerotic granules. Fruit a berry, pale green, yellow to red, brown to purple, ± black or ivory-white, usually globose, sometimes ovoid, rarely conical or oblong, when ripe juicy, mucilaginous, fleshy, papery or bony, sometimes partially hollow, rarely dry and sub-capsular, usually 2-locular with slightly enlarged placental area in the centre of the septum, from it radiating the seeds into the usually pulp-filled locules between the septum and the pericarp, becoming unilocular by reduction of the septum, more rarely 3–4-locular by proliferation of it, sometimes aromatic, mostly falling from the receptacle, with or without sclerotic granules
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds few–many, mostly flattened, compressed laterally, mostly discoidal or ± reniform, rarely surrounded by a distinct wing or appearing tomentose or hirsute; testa smooth or minutely pitted, less often muricate; embryo circinnate, sub-marginal in the fleshy usually abundant endosperm; cotyledons ovate to linear-lanceolate in outline, incumbent or sometimes oblique. Seeds few–many, mostly flattened, compressed laterally, mostly discoidal or ± reniform, rarely surrounded by a distinct wing or appearing tomentose or hirsute; testa smooth or minutely pitted, less often muricate; embryo circinnate, sub-marginal in the fleshy usually abundant endosperm; cotyledons ovate to linear-lanceolate in outline, incumbent or sometimes oblique
Cytology
Predominantly diploid, but also tetraploid, hexaploid or octoploid; chromosome number-base: x=12.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Herbs or shrubs, sometimes climbers; stems and young branches with or without prickles, often pubescent with glandular, simple or stellate hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate or sometimes paired, simple, pinnatisect or apparently pinnate to lobed or entire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences often raceme-, umbel- or panicle-like, terminal, axillary or extra-axillary or leaf-opposed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually bisexual, but in some species inflorescences with one bisexual or female basal flower and a varying number of distal male flowers (andromonoecious), actinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic, especially in androecium
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate, rotate or cup-shaped, usually 5-merous with acute or acuminate lobes, sometimes enlarged in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla stellate and deeply lobed to rotate, rarely campanulate, purple, blue or less frequently white, the lobes folded in bud
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually equal, sometimes one stamen different from the rest, inserted in the throat of the corolla; anthers basifixed, often cohering around the style, dehiscent by terminal pores or slits
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2-celled; stigma terminal, small, capitate or bifid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a juicy, papery or leathery berry, sometimes ± enclosed in accrescent fruiting calyx
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds white, brown or black.
Distribution
Genus of about 1200 species in all parts of the world, chiefly in subtropical Central and South America with secondary centres of distribution in Africa and Australia.
Vernacular
The vernacular names kariir (or kariiri) or mooh are used for several species of Solanum in Somalia.

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, woody shrubs, lianas or trees.
Morphology Stem
Stems stoloniferous, rhizomatous, tuberiferous or with gemmiferous roots; branches glabrous or with simple, branched, stellate, dendritic or echinoid multicellular, eglandular or glandularheaded hairs, sometimes with prickles
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple and entire to lobed or compound, alternate or opposite, stipulate, sometimes with prickles; petiolate or sessile
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal, axillary, leaf-opposed or extra-axillary racemose or paniculate cymes, 2–300+ flowered, rarely 1-flowered; pedunculate to epedunculate, flowers sessile or pedicellate, pedicels sometimes articulate; flowers white to purple, rarely yellow, often with basal translucent, green, yellow or purple star, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, (4–)5(–6)-merous; pedicels erect to reflexed, glabrescent to pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx cyathiform to campanulate, with 5(–10) triangular acute lobes often prolonged through the calyx as prominent veins, slightly to fully accrescent and persistent in fruit; sometimes with an annular thickening basally
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla campanulaterotate to stellate with short tube and shallowly to deeply lobed; lobes valvate in bud, often spreading after anthesis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually 5, equal or unequal; filaments joined to corolla tube, glabrous to pubescent; anthers connivent, basifixed, exserted, dehiscing by apical pores which often develop into short or long lateral slits
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary usually sessile, ovoid or pyriform to globose, glabrous, bi- or tri-locular, ovules numerous; disc small or absent, annular; style filiform, glabrous to pilose, often exserted; stigma capitate , globose, sometimes bilobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit erect or drooping, dryish or sub-fleshy, globose to obovoid berries, often depressed, 2- to 3- locular, smooth
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds few to many, reniform to suborbicular, compressed laterally, rarely winged, rugose; sclerotic granules present or absent
Type
Type species: Solanum nigrum L.
Note
According to Jaeger & Hepper (1986) native Solanum species found in the FTEA region belong to the three sections Afrosolanum Bitter, Bendirianum Bitter and Solanum of the subgenus Solanum, and the seven sections Anisantherum Bitter, Ischyracanthum Bitter, Melongena (Mill.) Dunal, Monodolichopus Bitter, Oliganthes (Dunal) Bitter, Somalanum Bitter, and Torva Nees of the subgenus Leptostemonum (Dunal) Bitter. This latter subgenus is probably the most complex subdivision of Solanum, comprising around 33 Many of Solanum species revisions have been regional and especially concerned with the New World components. The latter were tackled by Nee (1999) for example, while Symon (Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard., 4: 1–367 (1981) & 8: 20–168 (1985)) revised those in Australia and New Guinea. Meanwhile Whalen (in Gentes Herb. 12(4) (1984)) produced an invaluable conspectus of species groups in the subgenus Leptostemonum. The most important revisions of African Solanums include those of Dammer (in E.J. 28: 473–477 (1901), 38: 176–195 (1906), 48: 236–260; 53: 325–352 (1915)); Bitter (in F.R. 10: 542–548 (1912) & in E.J. 49: 560–569 (1913), 54: 416–506 (1917) & 57: 248–286 (1921)); Jaeger (Systematic Studies in the genus Solanum in Africa (1985, Ph.D. thesis, ined.)) and Jaeger & Hepper (in D’Arcy (ed.), Solanaceae Biology & Systematics, 41–55 (1986)) all of which were largely based on traditional taxonomic characters. Both Dammer and Bitter adopted narrow species concepts and were ‘splitters’, usually describing any infraspecific variation formally as subspecies or varieties. Though their publications include extremely detailed species descriptions they were invariably based on limited herbarium material and many of the specimens on which their new taxa were based have since been destroyed or lost. For example, Bitter described many new Solanum species in his Solana Africana from specimens in the Berlin-Dahlem (B) herbarium which was destroyed during World War II. Other species, based on specimens in the Polish herbarium Wroclaw (WRSL), known as Breslau in Bitter’s time, were similarly destroyed. Though duplicates of many of the species that he described from other geographical areas, particularly from Central and South America have been traced, this is not so for several of the African species especially those belonging to the section Solanum. Some of those that have been traced proved to be valid species, but many others are synonyms. The affinity of the remainder can be surmised to some extent from his extensive protologues, though in such variable and closely related species the synonymy of the taxa concerned is often only tentative. Unfortunately, Bitter died without completing his comprehensive monograph of African Solanum species. Jaeger’s (1985) subsequent survey of the African species provided the latest comprehensive review of Solanum species found throughout Africa, but it remains unpublished. His supervisor Richard Lester was in the process of preparing Jaeger’s work for publication before his untimely death in 2006, though there are plans to publish this account posthumously. The African subgenus Leptostemonum is currently being revised by Vorontsova and Knapp. of the species; recent molecular analyses (e.g. Levin et al. in Amer. Journ. Bot., 93: 157–169 (2006)) are beginning to yield interesting information on this group, though they have yet to clarify species relationships within it. Nonnative species belonging to other subgenera and many other sections are also widely found throughout this area. are probably the result of recent introductions – either deliberate or casual. Approximately 70 Solanum species including infra-specific taxa have been recognised in this treatment for Tropical East Africa, of which some are introductions and are only known under cultivation. Solanum is one of the largest flowering plant genera and occurs in tropical and temperate regions throughout the world. The generic name is believed to be derived from the latin ‘solamen’ meaning comfort, and to allude to the reputed narcotic properties of the generic type Solanum nigrum L. Solanum species, which are often called Nightshades, exhibit considerable morphological diversity and a range of ecological preferences. Jaeger & Hepper (in D’Arcy (ed.), Solanaceae, Biology & Systematics: 44 (1986)) estimated that around 110 Solanum species occur in Africa and its adjacent islands, of which some 20 Of the Solanum species found in the floral region, many are important food plants, such as the potato, S. tuberosum L.; the African eggplants, S. aethiopicum L., S. macrocarpon L., and S. melongena L.; and the African nightshades, S. nigrum sensu lato. Others are cultivated as ornamentals, either for their showy flowers such as the Jasmine Nightshade, S. laxum Spreng., or for their colorful berries, e.g., the Jerusalem cherry, S. pseudocapsicum L., while some constitute troublesome weeds of disturbed habitats. The genus is also a source of toxin - largely in the form of steroidal alkaloids such as solanidane; of medicinal drugs with S. campylacanthum L., for example, being one of the most widely used African medicinal species; and of drug precursors such as solasodine used in the production of corticosteroids and found in around 200 Solanum species ( cf. Hawkes in Nee et al. (eds), Solanaceae IV: 5 (1999)). A number of species figure prominently in ethnobotanical practices throughout the FTEA region. Indeed, Bukenya & Carasco (in Nee: 345–360 (1999)) reported that most of the 27 Solanum species found in Uganda play important social and economic roles among local populations, being used for magic, spiritual rites, and fertility cults as well as for food, medicine, and ornamentals. As with Solanums elsewhere, the African taxa are often extremely difficult to delimit; many exhibit considerable infra-specific variation and there is widespread confusion over identification and names. Both flowers and fruits are often necessary for accurate identification, together with notes on their respective colours and the fruit texture. In addition, notes on their habit and habitats are also useful. Often a combination of characters is required for definitive assessment. There are a number of species-complexes; they include the S. anguivi Lam. group and the S. incanum L. group – both belonging to the subgenus Leptostemonum, and the Black Nightshades – of the subgenus Solanum sect. Solanum which centres around the generic type S. nigrum. Between 1000 and 2000 species, though the accepted number is now thought not to exceed 1400. The genus is considered to be of New World origin, exhibiting its greatest diversity in the Neotropics particularly in Central and South America; D’Arcy (in Hawkes et al. (eds), Solanaceae III: 98 (1991)) suggested that over 500 Solanum species were endemic to the New World. Within the last two decades, infra- and inter-generic groupings have been greatly influenced by molecular and cladistic studies. However, Olmstead & Bohs (in Spooner et al. (eds), Solanaceae VI: 255–268 (2006)) estimated that only around 30 The genus has been the subject of innumerable treatments and revisions since it was first described in 1753. A useful summary of earlier subgeneric classifications of Solanum is given in Symon (in Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4 (1981)). Notable revisions include those of Dunal (Hist. Solanum (1813)) & in DC., Prodr. 13(1) (1852); D’Arcy (in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 59: 262–278 (1972) & in Hawkes et al. Solanaceae III: 75–137 (1991) and Child & Lester (in van den Bergen et al. (eds), Solanaceae V: 39–60 (2001)). A number of new infrageneric taxa later proposed by Child (in F.R. 109: 5–6 & 407–427 (1998)) have since been synonymised by other authors. In 1991, D’Arcy subdivided the genus into seven subgenera containing approximately 62 sections; he then considered that the subgenus Leptostemonum (Dunal) Bitter displays its greatest diversity in the Americas but that diversification of this subgenus had occurred in Africa. He also suggested that minor centers of generic diversity had evolved in Africa, Madagascar and Macaronesia where the genus Solanum has evolved a number of distinctive sections many of which are endemic to these regions . of Solanum species had been analysed to 2006, though they noted that several major efforts to elucidate both the taxonomy and the molecular phylogeny of this genus world-wide are currently in progress. The most significant genera affected by molecular analyses have been Cyphomandra and Lycopersicon which are now accepted as belonging to the genus Solanum itself. Spooner et al. (in Amer. Journ. Bot. 80: 676–688 (1993)) used data from chloroplast DNA restriction site analysis to demonstrate that chemical, molecular and morphological data provided overwhelming evidence for the cladistic relationship of Solanum subg. Potatoe and Lycopersicon, and subsequently transferred all Lycopersicon epithets to Solanum. These authors further proposed the adoption of the epithet Solanum lycopersicum L. for the cultivated tomato. Subsequently, Bohs & Olmstead (in Nee et al. (eds), Solanaceae IV: 97–110 (1999)), using cpDNA to derive ndhF gene sequences confirmed earlier analyses which suggested that Cyphomandra should be included within Solanum and Bohs (in Taxon 44: 583–587 (1995)) later transferred the genus and all its species into Solanum. Bohs & Olmstead (in Syst. Bot. 22: 5–17 (1997)) then used chloroplast ndhF sequences to verify that both Lycopersicon and Cyphomandra nested within Solanum, while Olmstead & Palmer (in Syst. Bot., 22: 19–29 (1997)) showed that cpDNA restriction site variation strongly indicated that both Lycopersicon and Cyphomandra were derived from within Solanum and should be relegated to subgeneric or sectional status. Nevertheless several authors either retained these two genera as distinct (e.g. Hunziker in Genera Solanaceae, 2001) or argued that they should be retained for practical purposes (e.g. Nee in Solanaceae IV: 285–333 (1999)). Indeed, D’Arcy (in Hawkes et al. (eds), Solanaceae III: Taxonomy, Chemistry, Evolution: 81 (1991)) had already proposed that the conservation of the name Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. over other Lycopersicon names for the tomato by the 1987 International Botanical Congress could be construed as support for its separate generic status. Hunziker (2001) vehemently rejected the inclusion of both Lycopersicon and Cyphomandra within Solanum, arguing that though closely related, they are clearly distinguishable morphologically. He tabulated a number of characters by which Solanum could be delimited from Cyphomandra, and also considered that protoplasmic fusion experiments supported the recognition of Lycopersicon and Solanum as distinct genera. Nee (1999) considered that Cyphomandra should be placed in Solanum sect. Pachyphylla Dunal of the subgenus Bassovia (Aubl.) Bitter while Lycopersicon belongs to the sect. Petota of the subgenus Solanum. This FTEA treatment accepts the increasing molecular evidence supporting the inclusion Cyphomandra and Lycopersicon in Solanum, thereby following the F.Z. (but not the Fl. Eth.) Solanum account.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Morphology General
Plants never armed, glabrous or with simple or irregularly branched hairs; cymes axillary or extra-axillary, or from forks of the stem; anthers tapering and with small terminal pores or sometimes oblong and opening by larger pores or slits

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aldabra, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Central European Rus, Chad, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Christmas I., Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, Desventurados Is., District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Samoa, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Antipodean Is., Ascension, Bermuda, Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, Cocos (Keeling) Is., Gilbert Is., Kerguelen, Laccadive Is., Line Is., Nauru, Rodrigues, St.Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Tuvalu, Wake I.

English
Tomato

Solanum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2017 s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171026 Yes
Jan 1, 2017 Drake [44], Egypt K001152217 Yes
Jan 1, 2017 Casey, E.C. [1283], Cyprus K001152202 Yes
Jan 1, 2017 s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171024 Yes
Jan 1, 2016 Constance, L. [3396], USA K001159932 Yes
Jan 1, 2013 Nee, M.H. [34976], Brazil K001058936 Yes
Oct 20, 2012 Mendoza, M. [529], Bolivia K000441037 Yes
Oct 20, 2012 Mendoza, M. [449], Bolivia K000441048 Yes
Oct 20, 2012 Balls, E.K. [7113], Ecuador K000788010 Yes
Oct 20, 2012 Cárdenas, M. [5968], Bolivia K000788009 Yes
Oct 20, 2012 Eyerdam, W.J. [22152], Peru K000788011 Yes
Oct 20, 2012 Wood, J.R.I. [17690], Bolivia K000658383 Yes
Oct 20, 2012 Wood, J.R.I. [15876], Bolivia K000658360 Yes
Oct 20, 2012 Worth, C.R. [15704], Peru K000788058 Yes
Oct 20, 2012 Wood, J.R.I. [11974], Bolivia K000658384 Yes
Jan 1, 2011 s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001058412 Yes
May 1, 2004 Thomsen, K. [150], Costa Rica K000096551 Yes
May 1, 2004 Rahayu, M. [720] K000096572 Yes
May 1, 2004 Coveny, R.G. [12808], Australia K000096576 Yes
May 1, 2004 Anonymous [618], Jamaica K000096570 Yes
May 1, 2004 Estrada, A. [2276], Costa Rica K000096549 Yes
May 1, 2004 Thomsen, K. [150], Costa Rica K000096552 Yes
May 1, 2004 Matthew, K.M. [40038], India K000096571 Yes
Dec 1, 2003 Eden, M.J. [EM8], Brazil K001058924 Yes
Apr 1, 1997 Souza, V.C. [9002], Brazil K001058351 Yes
Jan 1, 1997 Eiten, G. [10802], Brazil K001058931 Yes
Jul 21, 1976 Lyonnet, E. [362], Mexico K000064046 Yes
Jan 1, 1972 Prance, G.T. [2397], Brazil K001058338 Yes
Jan 1, 1972 Prance, G.T. [12402], Brazil K001058328 Yes
Jan 1, 1972 Prance, G.T. [10054], Brazil K001058901 Yes
Jan 1, 1968 Irwin, H.S. [20935], Brazil K001058935 Yes
Jul 2, 1905 Luke, W.R.Q. [7970], Tanzania K000441637 Yes
Chancellor, R.J. [124], Uganda 11200.000 No
11206.000 No
Drummond, R.B. [3552], Tanzania 16345.000 No
Drummond, R.B. [3662], Tanzania 16662.000 No
Drummond, R.B. [2421], Tanzania 17719.000 No
Verdcourt, B. [2993], Kenya 3459.000 No
Arnold, M.H.M. [F], South Africa 35934.000 No
Cable, S. [3780], Cameroon 61721.000 No
Cazalet, P. [7644], Ecuador 6409.000 No
Cazalet, P. [7524], Ecuador 7054.000 No
Cazalet, P. [7793], Ecuador 7055.000 No
Philcox, D. [4385], Brazil 7403.000 No
Ash [989], Ethiopia 71990.000 No
Ash [1689], Ethiopia 34291.000 No
Ash [1299], Ethiopia 35662.000 No
Ash [1184], Ethiopia 35480.000 No
Balls, E.K. [B.4671], Mexico K000064042 Yes
Hahn, M. [9], Mexico K000064044 Yes
Palmer, E. [74], Mexico K000064047 Yes
Ollerton, J. [180], Guyana 65082.000 No
Rico, L. [2021], Mexico K000265997 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132486 Yes
Heyne, B. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132487 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Vietnam K001132467 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132469 Yes
Akkul, M. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132473 Yes
Burchell [3473], Brazil K001058928 Yes
Lindeman, J.C. [2943], Brazil K001058930 Yes
Edwards, P.J. [2580], Brazil K001058933 Yes
Fraga, C.N. [2877], Brazil K001058939 Yes
Glaziou, A. [8852], Brazil K001058459 Yes
Martinelli, G. [7610], Brazil K001058491 Yes
Mathews [1510] K001058659 Yes
Rosa, N.A. [3934], Brazil K001058895 Yes
Sucre, D. [6577], Brazil K001058900 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [6541], Brazil K001058902 Yes
Martius [s.n.], French Guiana K001058903 Yes
Prance, G.T. [58675], Brazil K001058907 Yes
Prance, G.T. [59094], Brazil K001058911 Yes
Krukoff, B.A. [6319], Brazil K001058916 Yes
Collenette, I.S. [9396], Saudi Arabia K001152211 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], Yemen K001152215 Yes
Faurie, P. [1172], Japan K001152467 Yes
Oldham, R. [852], Japan K001152469 Yes
Oldham, R. [336], Taiwan K001152470 Yes
s.coll [79/41] K001152471 Yes
s.coll [793] K001152615 Yes
Herb Horsfield, T. [s.n.], Indonesia K001153682 Yes
Sands, M.J.S. [2073], Papua New Guinea K001153831 Yes
Dunlop, C.R. [2332], Australia K001155113 Yes
Lambert, M.R.K. [622], Australia K001155247 Yes
Pullen, R. [3964], Australia K001155249 Yes
Stoward, F. [629], Australia K001155250 Yes
Constable, E.F. [23728], Australia K001155259 Yes
Lambert, M.R.K. [586], Australia K001155267 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001166732 Yes
Gillies [s.n.], Argentina K001167686 Yes
Okada, K. [2879], Argentina K001167935 Yes
Tweedie [836] K001167939 Yes
s.coll [OCH1192214] K001170994 Yes
Nee, M. [16069], USA K001170999 Yes
Nee, M. [16073], USA K001171001 Yes
Holt, P. [45], Peru K001171009 Yes
Hawkes [SEM266] K001171010 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001171013 Yes
Rosa, N.A. [3865], Brazil K000438526 Yes
Wood, J.R.I. [18979], Bolivia K000449579 Yes
Wood, J.R.I. [14889], Bolivia K000545845 Yes
Woolston, A.L. [826], Paraguay K000788567 Yes
Corradi, R. [3004], Italy K001151655 Yes
Oteke, J. [60], Kenya K001157283 Yes
s.coll [33], Tanzania K001157951 Yes
Irwin, H.S. [20769], Brazil K001162415 Yes
Harley, R.M. [22991], Brazil K001162418 Yes
Harley, R.M. [21254], Brazil K001162419 Yes
Goudot [2] K001163141 Yes
Dillon, M.O. [4064], Peru K001164580 Yes
Hawkes, J.G. [2471], Peru K001165498 Yes
Pipoly, J.J. [17047], Colombia K001166618 Yes
Edwards, K.S. [676], Colombia K001166628 Yes
Plowman, T.C. [4181], Colombia K001166629 Yes
Bernardi, L. [6912], Venezuela K001166637 Yes
Schunke Vigo, J. [6617], Peru K001166645 Yes
Vásquez, R. [3752], Peru K001166649 Yes
Plowman, T.C. [4929], Peru K001166653 Yes
Knapp, S. [6448], Peru K001166667 Yes
Wood, J.R.I. [12470], Bolivia K001166672 Yes
Wood, J.R.I. [10103], Bolivia K001166674 Yes
Thwaites [CP1901], Sri Lanka K001152842 Yes
Grández, C. [251], Peru K001166652 Yes
Po Khant, D.R. [1095], Myanmar K001171021 Yes
Prance, G.T. [2893], Brazil K000449577 Yes
Wood, J.R.I. [14889], Bolivia K000545846 Yes
Harley, R.M. [21154], Brazil K001162423 Yes
Burchell [1869], Brazil K001058926 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001160980 Yes
Harley, R.M. [27342], Brazil K001058072 Yes
s.coll [2114], India K001153138 Yes
Pearson, H.H.W. [3397], South Africa K001159257 Yes
Tweedie [1256] K001167932 Yes
Balls, E.K. [6927], Peru K001166642 Yes
Silva, M. [2607], Brazil K001058215 Yes
Knapp, S. [6802], Venezuela K001164113 Yes
Steinbach, J. [9166], Bolivia K001166675 Yes
Okada [7618A] K001167933 Yes
Pensiero, J. [4256], Argentina K001167938 Yes
Simmonds, N.W. [19-55], United Kingdom K001170989 Yes
Hawkes, J.G. [1442], Mexico K001160760 Yes
Glaziou, A. [8870], Brazil K001058918 Yes
Wood, J.R.I. [26371], Bolivia K001166673 Yes
Bentham [87], Australia K001154666 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001171015 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001171005 Yes
Grández, C. [1208], Peru K001166651 Yes
Harley, R.M. [22991], Brazil K001162420 Yes
Zak, V. [1503], Ecuador K001166638 Yes
Corradi, R. [3064], Italy K001151656 Yes
Dusén, P. [15949], Brazil K001058906 Yes
Maesen, L.J.G. van der [3235], India K001153241 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001170995 Yes
Herb. Gray, A. [s.n.] K001159751 Yes
Sands, M.J.S. [7296], Indonesia K001153833 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001171016 Yes
Steinbach, J. [3282], Bolivia K001165668 Yes
Tweedie [1234], Argentina K000545914 Yes
Heller, T.M. [340], United Arab Emirates K001151917 Yes
Child, A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171028 Yes
Maesen, L.J.G. van der [4912], India K001153240 Yes
André, E. [K692] K000449574 Yes
Kenneally, K.F. [8308], Australia K001155251 Yes
Furuse, M. [1962], Japan K001152474 Yes
Lambert, M.R.K. [622], Australia K001155246 Yes
Hubbard, C.E. [3813], Australia K001155258 Yes
Moritz, J.W.K. [1702] K001166633 Yes
Finlayson, G. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132480 Yes
Burchell [8543-A], Brazil K001058446 Yes
Kalbreyer, W. [1049], Grenada K001166620 Yes
Schultes, R.E. [7196], Colombia K001171023 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], China K001152614 Yes
Edwards, K.S. [637], Colombia K001166627 Yes
Rodway, F.A. [644], Australia K001154066 Yes
Lazarides, M. [5728], Australia K001154733 Yes
Symon, D.E. [s.n.], Australia K001168589 Yes
Forman, L.L. [237], Indonesia K001153683 Yes
Wood, J.R.I. [19846], Bolivia K000658321 Yes
Bay, C. [s.n.], Chile K001166735 Yes
Burchell [9024], Brazil K001058925 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001171014 Yes
Whistler, A. [W5220], Cook Is. K001170937 Yes
Yammann [57] K001058394 Yes
Arbo, M.M. [7705], Brazil K001058929 Yes
Lambert, M.R.K. [601], Australia K001155266 Yes
Forman, L.L. [237], Indonesia K001153684 Yes
Harley, R.M. [21984], Brazil K001162421 Yes
Ferreira, A.R. [856] K001058894 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001151417 Yes
Ash, J.W. [318], Ethiopia K001156064 Yes
Franc, I. [841], New Caledonia K001155440 Yes
Harley, R.M. [21154], Brazil K001162424 Yes
Carr, C.E. [14366], Papua New Guinea K001153710 Yes
André [K1411] K001166622 Yes
Neto, J.V. [28080], Brazil K001058893 Yes
Pierotti, S.A. [4259], Argentina K001167941 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], France K001168346 Yes
Hutchison, P.C. [3548], Peru K001166662 Yes
J.H.H. [7113], Australia K001155264 Yes
Eiten, G. [6688], Brazil K001058914 Yes
Krukoff, B.A. [6345], Brazil K001058915 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132484 Yes
Duarte, A.P. [1758], Brazil K001058552 Yes
Montes, J.E. [3438], Argentina K001167931 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132483 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132470 Yes
Montes, J.E. [2194], Argentina K001167937 Yes
Simmonds, N.W. [19-55], United Kingdom K001170990 Yes
Plowman, T. [12931], Brazil K001058490 Yes
Arana, A. [20], Peru K001166660 Yes
Heyne, B. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132479 Yes
Lindeman, J.C. [4970], Brazil K001058910 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132475 Yes
Pinto, L.R. [s.n.], Brazil K001058897 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001166731 Yes
Dale, I.R. [H128], Kenya K001169834 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001171012 Yes
Lescure [776], French Guiana K001162409 Yes
Smith, D. [183], Brazil K001058913 Yes
Loveridge, M.V. [644], Congo K001156002 Yes
Cazalet, P.C.D. [5026], Ecuador K001163531 Yes
Wood, J.R.I. [12470], Bolivia K001166671 Yes
Ochoa, C. [14137], USA K001169975 Yes
s.coll [H2866/65], United Kingdom K001171019 Yes
Harley, R.M. [55830], Bahia K001171646 Yes
Kairo, A. [292], Papua New Guinea K001153835 Yes
Gillis, W.T. [10166], Costa Rica K001160984 Yes
Aranza, A. [s.n.] K001166646 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132727 Yes
s.coll [57], Saudi Arabia K001152212 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132485 Yes
Smith, A.C. [3400], Guyana K001162410 Yes
Saunders, S.G.E. [465], Peru K000658391 Yes
Miller, A.G. [3424], Yemen K001152214 Yes
Lindeman, J.C. [6176], Suriname K001162413 Yes
Eiten, G. [7887], Brazil K001058923 Yes
Glaziou, A. [8197], Brazil K001058579 Yes
Eden, M.J. [EM26], Brazil K001058921 Yes
Mendoza, M. [835], Bolivia K001166668 Yes
Ratter, J.A. [R7894], Brazil K001058920 Yes
Duthie, J.F. [19969] K001153238 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], Argentina K001169831 Yes
Bean, A.R. [17255], Australia K001155243 Yes
André, E. [3130] K001166632 Yes
s.coll [40] K001160979 Yes
Hinton, G.B. [15942], Mexico K000064041 No
Herb. Terasaki, T. [s.n.], Japan K001152464 Yes
Burchell [8493], Brazil K001058445 Yes
Arbo, M.M. [7787], Brazil K001058898 Yes
Simmonds, N.W. [19-55], United Kingdom K001170988 Yes
Sandeman, C.A.W. [3402], Peru K001166663 Yes
Plowman, T. [2795], Brazil K001058922 Yes
s.coll [5092], Uruguay K001167943 Yes
Knapp, S. [6560], Peru K001166665 Yes
Lindeman, J.C. [6812], Suriname K001162411 Yes
Knapp, S. [6762], Venezuela K001166635 Yes
Knapp, S. [6315], Peru K001166661 Yes
Sandeman, C.A.W. [3413], Peru K001166657 Yes
Trott, A.C. [233], Saudi Arabia K001152213 Yes
Corradi, R. [2911], Italy K001151653 Yes
Harley, R.M. [54135], Brazil K001058892 Yes
Cuezzo, A.R. [762], Argentina K001167942 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 9074], India K001132181 Yes
Schunke Vigo, J. [14033], Peru K001166658 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001170991 Yes
Bally, P.R.O. [8306], Kenya K001157809 Yes
Cruse, A. [210], Zambia K001158723 Yes
Cogollo Pacheco, A.A. [7966], Colombia K001166630 Yes
Armstrong [s.n.], Brazil K001058941 Yes
Prance, G.T. [59008], Brazil K001058896 Yes
Glaziou [11367], Brazil K001058216 Yes
Glaziou, A. [18410], Brazil K001058217 Yes
André [K634] K001166623 Yes
Steyermark, J.A. [95333], Venezuela K001166496 Yes
Knapp, S. [6536], Peru K001166659 Yes
Fiaschi, P. [3553], Brazil K001058940 Yes
Krukoff, B.A. [1456], Brazil K001058919 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001171002 Yes
Krukoff, B.A. [4892], Brazil K001058413 Yes
Pierotti, S.A. [4257], Argentina K001167940 Yes
Schunke Vigo, J. [5866], Peru K001166664 Yes
Glaziou [21816a], Brazil K001058264 Yes
Tweedie [s.n.], Argentina K001166741 Yes
Lehmann, F.C. [4950], Ecuador K001166639 Yes
Harley, R.M. [21984], Brazil K001162425 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132482 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Tamil Nadu K001132476 Yes
s.coll [115/35] K001152472 Yes
Streimann, H. [HS618], Australia K001154065 Yes
Ruiz, J. [1212], Peru K001166648 Yes
Lambert, M.R.K. [440], Australia K001155244 Yes
Evans, M.S. [3485], Australia K001155261 Yes
Plowman, T.C. [11550], Peru K001166647 Yes
Ash, J.W. [467], Ethiopia K001156065 Yes
Lambert, M.R.K. [586], Australia K001155268 Yes
Child, A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171027 Yes
Savatier, P.A.L. [875], Japan K001152465 Yes
Sakuragui, C.M. [15163], Brazil K000545844 Yes
Tarn, R.T. [78pipi], Mexico K001160981 Yes
Grández, C. [1208], Peru K001166650 Yes
Darwin, C.R. [157] K001166742 Yes
Lörzing [12947], Indonesia K001153549 Yes
Edwards, K.S. [637], Colombia K001166626 Yes
Balls, E.K. [B.4381], Mexico K000064043 Yes
Goodman, C.M. [294], United Kingdom K001151651 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001168826 Yes
Preston, T.A. [798-12], Brazil K000449578 Yes
Nee, M. [16069], USA K001170998 Yes
Cuming, H. [266], Chile K001166734 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.] K001058129 Yes
Johnson, R.W. [2784], Australia K001171003 Yes
Roxburgh, W. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132488 Yes
Vasconcellos, J. [20868], Brazil K001058088 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171018 Yes
Corradi, R. [2924], Italy K001151654 Yes
Johns, R.J. [9565], Indonesia K000172378 Yes
Prance, G.T. [14392], Brazil K001058909 Yes
Maas, P.J.M. [P 12713], Brazil K001058912 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132481 Yes
Thwaites [CP1901], Sri Lanka K001152843 Yes
Hawkes [6722] K001170993 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132474 Yes
Cordillera, C. [266] K001166740 Yes
Johnstone, R. [2728], Australia K001155242 Yes
Tessmann, G. [6044], Brazil K001058036 Yes
Cunningham, R.O. [s.n.] K001166737 Yes
Herb. Lehmann [K226], Colombia K001166625 Yes
Hepper, F.N. [2146], Cameroon K000028576 Yes
Pirani, J.R. [2902], Brazil K001058578 Yes
Atkins, S. [4709], Brazil K001058937 Yes
Herb Felippone, F. [6166], Uruguay K001167944 Yes
Faurie, P. [6720], Japan K001152468 Yes
Hutchison, J. [3767], Zambia K001158708 Yes
Saunders, S.G.E. [1289], Peru K001166643 Yes
Steinbach, J. [14844], Bolivia K001166669 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001166738 Yes
Hahn, M. [s.n.] K001160985 Yes
Okada [7618A], Argentina K001167934 Yes
Forbes [s.n.] K001158870 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132478 Yes
Forrest, G. [9473] K001152616 Yes
Blake, A.L. [33A], Argentina K001167936 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132477 Yes
Davies, S. [s.n.] K001151652 Yes
Lambert, M.R.K. [601], Australia K001155265 Yes
J.H.H. [7113], Australia K001155263 Yes
Esteves, R. [15], Brazil K001162414 Yes
Mexia, Y.E.J. [8245], Peru K001166656 Yes
Herb. Terasaki, T. [s.n.], Japan K001152466 Yes
Constable, E.F. [NSW 25622], Australia K001154064 Yes
Verdcourt, B. [1146], Kenya K001169833 Yes
Palmer, E.J. [7771], USA K001159750 Yes
Ule, E. [7475], Brazil K001058932 Yes
Harley, R.M. [27342], Brazil K001058071 Yes
Barclay, A.S. [617], Colombia K001171022 Yes
Lima, H.C. [2533], Brazil K001058938 Yes
Vélez, I. [3233], Grenada K001161020 Yes
Nee, M. [16082], USA K001170997 Yes
Symon, D.E. [5232], Australia K001155255 Yes
Albrecht, D.E. [12007], Australia K001155262 Yes
Ruiz, J. [1580], Peru K001166644 Yes
Ratter, J.A. [626], Brazil K001058904 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], Japan K001152463 Yes
Leonard, A. [5309], Congo K001169829 Yes
França, F. [1187], Brazil K001058891 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132471 Yes
Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia K001155257 Yes
Herb Blackburn, J. [s.n.] K001167685 Yes
Milliken [47], Venezuela K001166634 Yes
Bang, M. [2868], Bolivia K001166670 Yes
Morawetz, W. [33-311075], Brazil K001058905 Yes
Elwes, H.J. [s.n.] K001166733 Yes
Knapp, S. [6314], Peru K001166655 Yes
O'Ryan, K. [38], Australia K001154063 Yes
Duthie, J.F. [s.n.], Pakistan K001153239 Yes
Hawkes [6722] K001170992 Yes
Paula, C.H.R. [720], Brazil K001058927 Yes
Lambert, M.R.K. [535], Australia K001155248 Yes
Schunke Vigo, J. [4325], Peru K001166654 Yes
Furuse, M. [9548], Japan K001152473 Yes
Knapp, S. [6527], Peru K001166666 Yes
Symon, D.E. [35848], Australia K001169515 Yes
Verdcourt, B. [1146], Kenya K001169832 Yes
Wood, J.R.I. [19846], Bolivia K000658320 Yes
André [K1413] K001166621 Yes
Balls, E.K. [B4747], Mexico K000064045 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], Chile K001166739 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171006 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171017 Yes
Rios, P. [110], Costa Rica K001160983 Yes
s.coll. [3882] K001058889 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171025 Yes
Holland, F.W. [s.n.], Egypt K001152218 Yes
Simaga, J.M. [713], Papua New Guinea K001153834 Yes
Talbot, W.A. [s.n.] K001169542 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], Chile K001166736 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], USA K001159846 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132472 Yes
Rabelo, B.V. [2906], Brazil K001058917 Yes
Dunlop [2146], Australia K001154706 Yes
White, C.T. [9478], Australia K001155260 Yes
Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia K001155256 Yes
Harley, R.M. [21254], Brazil K001162422 Yes
Hunte, G.R. le [s.n.], Papua New Guinea K001153830 Yes
Verdcourt, B. [1146], Kenya K001169830 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001171020 Yes
Whibley, D.J.E. [306], Australia K001154469 Yes
Lleras, E. [P17459], Brazil K001058908 Yes
Collenette, I.S. [9378], Saudi Arabia K001152210 Yes
Nee, M. [16083], USA K001170996 Yes
Lester [9], USA K001160978 Yes
Nee, M. [16093], USA K001171000 Yes
Williams, R.G. [11844], Trinidad & Tobago K000819158 Yes
Mathias, M.E. [5326], Peru K001166641 Yes
Eiten, G. [7884], Brazil K001058934 Yes
Klug, G. [1857], Colombia K001166624 Yes
Magogo, F.C. [17], Kenya K001169835 Yes
Pipoly, J.J. [16923], Colombia K001166631 Yes
Ganev, W. [2852], Brazil K001058899 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001171004 Yes
Haught, O.L. [2859], Colombia K001166619 Yes
Sands, M.J.S. [2073], Papua New Guinea K001153832 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171007 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001171011 Yes
Hepper, F.N. [1981], Cameroon K000028575 Yes
Armstrong [s.n.], Brazil K001058890 Yes
Knapp, S. [6577], Peru K001166640 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Meghalaya K001132489 Yes
Lambert, M.R.K. [476], Australia K001155245 Yes
s.coll [6686], Suriname K001162412 Yes
Fendler, A. [1009], Venezuela K001166636 Yes
Finlayson, G. [Cat. no. s.n.], Thailand K001132468 Yes
Herb Morrison, A. [14229], Australia K001154667 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 184 (1753)

Accepted by

  • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
  • Särkinen, T. & al. (2018). A revision of the Old World black nightshades (Morelloid clade of Solanum L., Solanaceae). PhytoKeys 106: 1-223.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 4, 2: 207.

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Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by J. Edmonds, I. Friis and M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]
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  • Synopsis: 5 (1816)

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