Clusiaceae Lindl.

First published in Intr. Nat. Syst. Bot., ed. 2. 74. 1836 [13 Jun 1836] , nom. alt.: Guttiferae (1836)nom. cons.
This family is accepted

Descriptions

George R. Proctor (2012). Flora of the Cayman Isands (Second Edition). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Morphology General Habit
Trees, shrubs, or sometimes herbs, terrestrial or epiphytic, often with white or yellowish latex
Morphology Leaves
Leaves mostly opposite and decussate, simple, entire, sometimes with black or transparent dots or lines; stipules lacking
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers regular, perfect, or unisexual and dioecious or monoecious, in terminal or axillary inflorescences or sometimes solitary, generally white or yellow, sometimes pink; sepals 2–6, persistent; petals 2–6 Staminate flowers with numerous stamens of indefinite number, these free or united at the base, an ovary lacking or rudimentary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Pistillate or perfect flowers with fewer stamens or staminodes, these often definite in number; ovary superior, with 1 to many cells; stigmas sessile or terminating separate styles; ovules 1 to numerous in each cell
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a capsule, berry or drupe; seeds often enveloped in an aril, without endosperm.
Distribution
A chiefly tropical family of about 45 genera and 1,000 species.
Recognition
Related to the Theaceae but differing especially in the presence of oil glands or tubes in the tissues.
[Cayman]

Guttiferae, N. K. B. Robson. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

Morphology General Habit
Trees, shrubs, woody climbers or perennial or annual herbs; juice resinous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite or rarely subopposite to alternate or whorled, simple, usually entire, exstipulate, containing various glandular secretions
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers actinomorphic, bisexual, dioecious or polygamous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals (2) 4–5 (6 or more), quincuncial or decussate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4–5 (6 or more), free, usually convolute (sometimes imbricate or decussate, rarely absent), alternating with the sepals
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Androecium basically of two whorls of stamen fascicles, the outer (antisepalous) one often sterile (fasciclodes) or absent, filaments variously united or free (when the androecium may appear polyandrous); antipetalous fascicles variously united or free, very rarely each one reduced to a single stamen
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Ovary superior, 1–5-locular (rarely to 12-locular), placentation usually axile, sometimes ± parietal, loculi 1–?-ovulate; styles free, ± united or absent; stigmas equal in number to the loculi
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a septicidal (rarely loculicidal) capsule or a berry or drupe
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds sometimes winged, carinate or arillate, without endosperm
[FZ]

Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Morphology General Habit
Terrestrial or hemiepiphytic trees, shrubs or lianas, frequently with adventitious roots; usually glabrous and evidently laticiferous; exudate mostly white to yellow, sometimes orange, rarely clear or not evident
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple, exstipulate, entire and usually opposite, with laticifers or glands
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal or axillary, cymose or less commonly racemose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers hermaphroditic or unisexual (plants then mostly dioecious), with pedicel often with one or more pairs of bracteoles, these sometimes similar to or grading into sepals
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals (2-)4-many, usually free (though may be joined at base)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4-9, often white or cream, less often green, pink, red, orange, purple or blackish
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Androecium extremely variable, consisting of 4 to several hundred stamens that may be fused into fascicles or synandria of varying shape, not uncommonly accompanied by staminodes and frequently secreting resin or oils
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary superior and syncarpous, consisting of 2-8(-20) carpels, often surrounded by staminodes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Styles 1-8 or stigma sessile
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a dry or fleshy capsule or a berry, rarely a drupe
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds often arillate.
Note
Number of genera: Calophyllum Caraipa Chrysochlamys (perhaps including Tovomitopsis Planch. & Triana) Clusia (including Oedematopus Planch. & Triana, Havetia Kunth, Havetiopsis Planch. & Triana, Decaphalangium Melch., Pilosperma Planch. & Triana, Quapoya Aubl., Renggeria Meisn.) Clusiella Dystovomita Garcinia (including Rheedia L.) Haploclathra Kielmeyera Mahurea Mammea Marila Moronobea Neotatea Platonia Symphonia Thysanostemon Tovomita The family occurs in most Neotropical habitats, from sea level to 3,500m altitude (spp. of Clusia). Diversity of genera is highest on the Guayana shield and surrounding areas whereas species diversity is highest in and near the Northern Andes. The West Indies are poor in species. Most species are found in rainforests but species of Clusia, Garcinia and Kielmeyera also occur in dry, open habitats (Clusia then often with almost succulent leaves and Garciniasclerophyllous with spine -tipped leaves). Pollination mechanisms are highly diverse and pollinators include bees, wasps, perching birds, bats, flies, beetles, moths, cockroaches and perhaps small arboreal mammals. Several lineages in the family offer resin as a reward for some groups of bees that use it in nest construction, a phenomenon otherwise known only from Dalechampia Plum. ex L. (Euphorbiaceae). The family comprises some important timber trees, particularly Calophyllum spp. Several species are cultivated as fruit trees, e.g. Mammeaamericana L., Platoniainsignis Mart. and Garcinia spp. The latex has several traditional technical and medicinal uses, and contains compounds with antibiotic and antitumor activity. Notes on delimitation: Clusiaceae are members of the large and heterogeneous order Malpighiales. The two subfamilies Clusioideae and Kielmeyeroideae are well supported groups, but with few uncontradicted characters uniting them. The Hypericaceae have often been included in Clusiaceae, but have recently been shown to be more closely related to Podostemaceae.
Diagnostic
Clusia (over 400 spp. all Neotropical). Widespread hemiepiphytes, lianas, small trees and shrubs with fleshy capsules and seed less than 6 mm long with an orange aril. Flowers often with resin. Chrysochlamys (over 60 spp. all Neotropical).  Common understorey treelets in rainforests. Like Clusia but usually ramiflorous, and seeds ca 10 mm long. Tovomita (over 30 spp., all Neotropical).  Like Chrysochlamys but inflorescence usually terminal, sepals only two, and inner fruit wall bright red. Symphonia (one or two spp., ca. 20 in total).  Common trees in swamp forests with bright red globular flowers and stamens fused into a tube with 5 lobes, each bearing 3 anthers. Kielmeyera (ca. 50 spp. most Brazilian).  Small trees of dry open habitats with alternate leaves with distant secondary veins, often large flowers with white or pink contorted petals. Caraipa (ca. 30 spp. all Neotropical).  Common forest trees on acidic soils with sparse latex, alternate leaves, stellate trichomes and white contorted petals. Calophyllum (ca. 10 spp. in Neotropics, ca 180 in total).  Tall forest and beach trees with leaves with dense, parallel secondary veins. Key to genera of Neotropical Clusiaceae 1. Leaves opposite—21. Leaves alternate —3 2. Fruit a fleshy capsule, seeds arillate—62. Fruit a dry capsule or indehiscent —9 3. Secondary veins closely parallel, tertiary veins not evident—Neotatea 3. Tertiary veins well developed—4 4. Plant with stellate hairs, seeds 1-3—Caraipa 4. Without stellate hairs, seeds numerous—5 5. Seeds (including wing) >2 mm—Kielmeyera 5. Seeds <2 mm—Mahurea 6. Seed less than 6 mm long, usually several per carpel —Clusia 6. Seed longer than 10 mm, one per carpel —7 7. Leaves almost as wide as long, apex rounded, leaf bases deeply excavated—Dystovomita 7. Leaves at least twice as long as wide, leaf bases not strikingly excavated—8 8. Inside of capsule valves dark red, inflorescence usually terminal —Tovomita 8. Inside of capsule pale, inflorescence often pendulous, below leaves—Chrysochlamys 9. Fruit a dry capsule.... 109. Fruit indehiscent —. 11 10. Inflorescence racemose, seeds numerous—Marila 10. Inflorescence not racemose, seeds 8 or fewer—Haploclathra 11. Liana with resiniferous flowers, fruit with numerous minute seeds—Clusiella 11. Trees or shrubs with flowers without resin, seeds 1-40—12 12. Style and stigma undivided—1312. Style distally branched or stigma sessile —14 13. Leaves with secondary veins closely parallel, fruit one-seeded—Calophyllum 13. Venation reticulate, fruit 4-seeded—Mammea 14. Petals not contorted, stamens not obviously fasciculate, stigma sessile —Garcinia 14. Petals contorted, stamens fasciculate, style distally 5-branched—15 15. Flowers umbel-like petals dark red, stamen fascicles fused into 5- lobed tube—Symphonia 15. Flowers borne singly, petals white, pink or orange, fascicles free —16 16. Stamens >15 per fascicle —Platonia 16. Stamens <14 per fascicle —17 17. Petals broad, fascicles spirally twisted—Moronobea 17. Petals narrow, fascicles not twisted—18 18. Anthers 8-9 mm long—Thysanostemon 18. Anthers 10-40 mm long—Lorostemon Ducke Key differences from similar families: Apocynaceae may be vegetatively similar to some Clusiaceae, but have abundant, fast-flowing latex. Caraipa, Mahurea and Kielmeyera have alternate leaves and sparse latex and may be confused with a number of other families, e.g. the Bonnetiaceae, which completely lack latex, and the Sapotaceae which have latex, and sometimes similar venation and even occasionally opposite leaves, but can be distinguished vegetatively based on the presence of T-shaped hairs. Most Clusiaceae have a tendency to form adventitiousroots. White to yellow latex. Coriaceous opposite leaves. Parallel secondary and intersecondary veins. Many stamens, often variously fused. Distinguishing characters (always present): Woody plants with entireexstipulate leaves with glands and/or canals. Viscous exudate. Radially symmetrical, choripetalous flowers. Superior, syncarpous ovary.
Distribution
Native The family occurs throughout the Neotropics: Calophyllum L., Chrysochlamys Poepp. & Endl., Clusia L., Clusiella Planch. & Triana, Garcinia L., Marila Sw., Symphonia L.f. and Tovomita Aubl. are found in rainforests throughout most of mainland South and Central America. Caraipa Aubl., Haploclathra Benth., Kielmeyera Mart. & Zucc., Mahurea Aubl., Moronobea Aubl., Neotatea Maguire, Platonia Raf., and Thysanostemon Maguire occur in northern South America east of the Andes. Dystovomita (Engl.) D'Arcy and Mammea L. are predominantly Central American.
[NTK]

Timothy M. A. Utteridge and Laura V. S. Jennings (2022). Trees of New Guinea. Kew Publishing. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Distribution
The family has been much reduced in the APG classification and its circumscription in the new strict sense now encompasses 14 genera and about 600 species.
Recognition
For genera formerly included in the wider Clusiaceae, see Calophyllaceae. Clusiaceae can be distinguished from the Calophyllaceae by the fairly inconspicuous secondary veins which are not close and parallel, the unisexual flowers, the stamens without an apical gland which are often fused into bundles, the large, broad stigma, and the fleshy berry-like fruit.
[TONG]

Guttiferae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
Trees or shrubs, with resinous juice
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, simple; stipules absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers actinomorphic, unisexual, polygamous or dioecious, rarely hermaphrodite
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 2–6; rarely more, imbricate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals the same number, hypogynous, contorted or imbricate, very rarely subvalvate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens mostly numerous, hypogynous, free or variously united in the lower part or into bundles opposite the petals; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Sterile Parts
Rudimentary ovary sometimes present in the male flower; staminodes often present in the female flower
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Ovary sessile, superior, 1- to many-celled; ovules 1 to many, on the inner angle of the cells or erect from their base, rarely parietal (Allanblackia); stigmas various, sometimes radiating
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit dehiscent or not, sometimes large and globose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds often with an aril, without endosperm; embryo large; cotyledons often minute
[FWTA]

Timothy Utteridge & Gemma Bramley (2020). The Kew Tropical Plant Families Identification Handbook, Second Edition. Kew Publishing Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Note
Trees or shrubs. Cut trunk, twigs or fruit with exudate, usually yellow sap; stipules absent. Leaves simple, opposite, no teeth. Flowers bisexual or unisexual; ovary superior; styles and stigma large, flat and expanded.
Recognition
Characters of similar families: Rubiaceae: sap absent, interpetiolar stipules present, corolla tubular, ovary inferior. Rhizophoraceae: sap absent, stipules present, flowers bisexual, ovary inferior. Celastraceae: sap absent, leaf margins serrate, stamens few, disk present, fruit capsular. Loganiaceae: sap absent, flowers bisexual, corolla tubular, stamens few. Theaceae: sap absent, leaves spirally arranged, margins serrate, flowers solitary.
Morphology General Habit
Trees or shrubs, sometimes lianes, epiphytic (Clusia)
Morphology General Hair
Hairs where present, simple
Morphology General Sap
Sap yellow from cut surfaces, or more rarely red, white or clear, or absent
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules lacking (but note stipulelike structures in Garcinia)
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple, opposite, usually decussate, margins entire, and with resinous gland dots or lines; petioles clasping with basal excavations (‘pouches’)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal or axillary, generally branched (cymose)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers actinomorphic, bisexual or unisexual (plants dioecious, e.g
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit dry or usually fleshy to coriaceous, indehiscent or dehiscent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed 1–many, often arillate.
Distribution
A pantropical family of 19 genera with c. 800 species. The largest genera are Garcinia (with c. 400 species) (G. mangostana (mangosteen) is important as a fruit tree) and Clusia (with c. 310 species restricted to the Americas). The family has traditionally included the Calophyllaceae, which have many lateral veins (e.g. Calophyllum) and stamens that are not obviously fasciculate with anthers that may bear glands; many of these species are used for timber (e.g. Calophyllum and Mesua).
Description Author
Timothy Utteridge
[KTROP-FIH]

Guttiferae, P. Bamps, N. Robson & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Trees, shrubs, subshrubs or herbs, rarely climbers, mostly containing a yellow, orange or clear resinous latex, usually glabrous but occasionally with an indumentum of simple or stellate hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves usually opposite, sometimes verticillate or alternate, simple, entire or very obscurely crenate, exstipulate, usually with glands and resin channels which are often translucent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal or axillary, 2-fid cymes, false racemes, panicles, fascicles or umbels or sometimes the flowers solitary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers regular, often fleshy, hermaphrodite, dioecious or polygamous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals (2–)4–5(–6 or more), imbricate, often decussate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals free, 4–5(–6 or more), imbricate or contorted, sometimes decussate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens usually numerous, free or very often in fascicles or fused into groups, anthers usually with 2 thecae dehiscing by longitudinal slits; the outer fascicles are often sterile “fasciclodes”, frequently forming what is often called the disc, or are absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Ovary superior, 1–several-locular, with parietal, axile, apical or basal placentation; ovules anatropous, l–? per locule; styles free or fused, sometimes very short or absent; stigmas or stigma-lobes mostly equal in number to the locules
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a berry, drupe or septicidal (rarely loculicidal) capsule
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds arillate or not, without albumen, sometimes winged; embryo with cotyledons often very reduced
[FTEA]

Uses

Use
Many species yield useful timber, and one of the most delicious tropical fruits, the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), belongs to this family.
[Cayman]

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of the Cayman Islands

    • Flora of the Cayman Islands
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • 'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Neotropikey

    • Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Trees of New Guinea

    • Trees of New Guinea
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • The Kew Tropical Plant Families Identification Handbook

    • The Kew Tropical Plant Families Identification Handbook
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0