Muhlenbergia Schreb.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Afghanistan to Russian Far East and Tropical Asia, America.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (34), or perennial (128). Rhizomes absent (122), or short (12), or elongated (28). Stolons absent (157), or present (2). Culms erect (80/115), or geniculately ascending (31/115), or decumbent (27/115), or prostrate (5/115); robust (11/40), or slender (24/40), or weak (5/40); 1-55.99-300 cm long; firm (148), or wiry (9), or woody (2); without nodal roots (7/16), or rooting from lower nodes (15/16). Culm-internodes terete (1/2), or elliptical in section (1/2). Culm-nodes constricted (1/2), or flush with internodes (1/2). Lateral branches lacking (13/48), or sparse (10/48), or ample (31/48), or fastigiate (1/48). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (145), or erect (17). Ligule an eciliate membrane (139), or a ciliolate membrane (21), or a ciliate membrane (1). Leaf-blades persistent (157), or deciduous at the ligule (4); filiform (12), or linear (148), or lanceolate (1); herbaceous (157), or coriaceous (2); stiff (10), or firm (148), or flaccid (1). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (5/8), or widened (3/8). Leaf-blade margins unthickened (1/12), or cartilaginous (12/12). Leaf-blade apex muticous (157), or pungent (2).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle (158), or composed of racemes (1), or comprising only a few spikelets (1); terminal (154), or terminal and axillary (5); not deciduous as a whole (158), or deciduous as a whole (2); exserted (156), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (8). Panicle open (98/158), or contracted (52/158), or spiciform (16/158). Primary panicle branches not whorled (157/158), or whorled at most nodes (1/158). Panicle axis bearing persistent branches (156/158), or deciduous branches (3/158). Racemes borne along a central axis (1/1); spreading (1/1), or drooping (1/1); paucilateral (1/1); bearing few fertile spikelets (1/1); bearing 2-4 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Rhachis deciduous from axis (1/1). Spikelet packing distant (1/1). Spikelets appressed (17/25), or ascending (3/25), or spreading (5/25), or pendulous (2/25), or deflexed (3/25); solitary, or in pairs (1). Fertile spikelets sessile (2), or pedicelled (157). Pedicels filiform (39/60), or linear (17/60), or oblong (3/60), or reduced to a stump (1/60); tip widened (8/9), or pyriform (1/9).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets, or 2 fertile florets (1); without rhachilla extension (158), or with a barren rhachilla extension (1), or with diminished florets at the apex (4). Spikelets lanceolate (154), or elliptic (3), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); laterally compressed (157), or subterete (1), or dorsally compressed (1); 0.9-3.176-8.4 mm long; falling entire (3), or breaking up at maturity (157); deciduous with accessory branch structures (3/3); disarticulating below each fertile floret (157/157). Spikelet callus pubescent (1/1). Floret callus glabrous (13/71), or sparsely hairy (1/71), or pubescent (49/71), or pilose (7/71), or bearded (1/71); truncate (2), or obtuse (157).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets, or 2 fertile florets (1); without rhachilla extension (158), or with a barren rhachilla extension (1), or with diminished florets at the apex (4). Spikelets lanceolate (154), or elliptic (3), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); laterally compressed (157), or subterete (1), or dorsally compressed (1); 0.9-3.176-8.4 mm long; falling entire (3), or breaking up at maturity (157); deciduous with accessory branch structures (3/3); disarticulating below each fertile floret (157/157). Spikelet callus pubescent (1/1). Floret callus glabrous (13/71), or sparsely hairy (1/71), or pubescent (49/71), or pilose (7/71), or bearded (1/71); truncate (2), or obtuse (157).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (1), or two (158); persistent (157/157); shorter than spikelet (118), or reaching apex of florets (36), or exceeding apex of florets (26); thinner than fertile lemma (8), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (151). Lower glume linear (2/157), or lanceolate (112/157), or elliptic (16/157), or oblong (19/157), or ovate (22/157), or orbicular (2/157), or obovate (1/157); 0.25-0.9075-1 length of upper glume; hyaline (4/157), or membranous (151/157), or chartaceous (1/157), or coriaceous (1/157); without keels (119/157), or 1-keeled (38/157); 0 -veined (8/157), or 1 -veined (152/157), or 2 -veined (4/157), or 3 -veined (2/157), or 4-5 -veined (1/157). Lower glume lateral veins absent (154/158), or obscure (1/158), or distinct (5/158). Lower glume surface smooth (130/158), or asperulous (29/158), or scabrous (17/158); glabrous (143/158), or puberulous (6/158), or pubescent (5/158), or pilose (4/158), or hirsute (1/158), or villous (1/158), or hispidulous (1/158). Lower glume apex entire (149/158), or erose (10/158), or dentate (4/158); 2 -fid (4/4); emarginate (2/157), or truncate (4/157), or obtuse (42/157), or acute (97/157), or acuminate (44/157), or attenuate (12/157), or setaceously attenuate (10/157); muticous (141/157), or mucronate (22/157), or awned (21/157). Upper glume linear (2), or lanceolate (109), or elliptic (16), or oblong (22), or ovate (22), or orbicular (2), or obovate (2); 0.05-0.7304-2.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (6), or membranous (151), or chartaceous (1), or coriaceous (1); without keels (121), or 1-keeled (38); 0 -veined (8/152), or 1 -veined (140/152), or 2 -veined (4/152), or 3 -veined (13/152), or 4-5 -veined (1/152). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (154/156), or ciliolate (1/156), or pubescent (1/156). Upper glume lateral veins parallel at apex (1/1). Upper glume surface smooth (131), or asperulous (30), or scabrous (19); glabrous (144), or puberulous (4), or pubescent (6), or pilose (4), or hirsute (1), or villous (1), or hispidulous (1). Upper glume apex entire (144), or erose (11), or dentate (12), or lobed (1); 2 -fid (6/13), or 3 -fid (10/13), or 4 -fid (1/13); emarginate (2/158), or truncate (9/158), or obtuse (44/158), or acute (87/158), or acuminate (45/158), or attenuate (14/158), or setaceously attenuate (12/158); muticous (139), or mucronate (22), or awned (26), or awned only on distal spikelets (1); 1 -awned (25/25), or 3 -awned (1/25).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma linear (8), or lanceolate (123), or elliptic (18), or oblong (8), or ovate (8), or oblanceolate (1); subterete (1/2), or dorsally compressed (1/2); membranous (151), or cartilaginous (6), or coriaceous (2); without keel (120), or keeled (39); 1 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (158). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (157), or scabrous (2); eciliate (130), or ciliolate (2), or ciliate (1), or pubescent (27). Lemma lateral veins obscure (8/18), or prominent (10/18); excurrent (2/2). Lemma surface smooth (113), or granulose (3), or asperulous (6), or scaberulous (29), or scabrous (26); glabrous (105), or puberulous (6), or pubescent (32), or pilose (12), or villous (6); hairy on back (50/56), or on veins (3/56), or between veins (3/56). Lemma margins eciliate (122), or ciliolate (3), or ciliate (8), or pubescent (30), or villous (1). Lemma apex entire (127), or erose (3), or dentate (29), or lobed (2); 2 -fid (30/31), or 4 -fid (1/31); incised 0.25-0.3183-0.5 of lemma length; emarginate (3/135), or truncate (1/135), or obtuse (15/135), or acute (66/135), or acuminate (55/135), or attenuate (7/135), or setaceously attenuate (1/135), or apiculate (2/135); muticous (51), or pungent (1), or mucronate (27), or awned (119); 1 -awned (118/119), or 3 -awned (1/119). Principal lemma awn apical (108/136), or subapical (6/136), or from a sinus (23/136); straight (95/136), or curved (1/136), or flexuous (44/136), or coiled (1/136), or hooked (1/136), or geniculate (1/136); 0.9-1-1.1 length of lemma. Palea 0.5-0.984-1.1 length of lemma; membranous (155), or cartilaginous (4); 2 -veined. Palea keels smooth (158), or scaberulous (1); eciliate (158), or pubescent (1), or ciliolate (1). Palea surface glabrous (122), or puberulous (3), or pubescent (22), or pilose (11), or villous (4). Palea apex dentate (2/3), or lobed (1/3); muticous (150), or with excurrent keel veins (8), or awned (1). Apical sterile florets 0 in number (1/4), or 1 in number (4/4); male (4/4), or barren (2/4); lanceolate (4/4). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (3/4), or awned (1/4).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2; fleshy (158/158); truncate (1/1). Anthers 1 (1/152), or 3 (150/152), or 11-12 (1/152). Ovary glabrous (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (158/158); linear (1/143), or fusiform (133/143), or ellipsoid (6/143), or oblong (3/143); isodiametric (1/1). Embryo 0.25-0.485-0.75 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Cleistogene
Cleistogenes absent (157), or present (2); in lower sheaths (2/2).
Distribution
Temperate Asia (7), or Tropical Asia (4), or Pacific (1), or North America (134), or South America (46).

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Culms erect (2), or geniculately ascending (1), or decumbent (2); 4-30.66-50 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform. Panicle axis bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets pedicelled; 2 in the cluster. Pedicels fused to each other; linear.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 3.5-3.75-4 mm long; falling entire; deciduous in a cluster with fused pedicels.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 3.5-3.75-4 mm long; falling entire; deciduous in a cluster with fused pedicels.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 2 -veined. Lower glume apex awned. Upper glume oblong; 0.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume awned; 1 -awned.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma elliptic; chartaceous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Palea 2 -veined. Palea keels ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; fusiform.
Distribution
North America, or South America.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual. Culms decumbent; 15-50.62-80 cm long; without nodal roots (1), or rooting from lower nodes. Lateral branches lacking (1/1). Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle contracted (2), or spiciform (2). Panicle axis bearing persistent branches (3), or deciduous spikelet clusters (1). Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets pedicelled; 1-2 in the cluster (2), or 3 in the cluster (3), or 4 in the cluster (2). Companion sterile spikelets sessile; 2-3 in the cluster (3), or 4-12 in the cluster (1). Involucre composed of imperfect spikelets. Pedicels oblong.
Sterile
Companion sterile spikelets represented by awns; persistent (3), or deciduous with the fertile (1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (3), or oblong (1); laterally compressed (3), or subterete (1); 1-1.93-3 mm long; falling entire (1), or breaking up at maturity (3); deciduous with accessory branch structures (1/1); disarticulating below each fertile floret (3/3). Floret callus pilose (2/3), or bearded (1/3). Companion sterile spikelets represented by awns; persistent (3), or deciduous with the fertile (1).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (3), or oblong (1); laterally compressed (3), or subterete (1); 1-1.93-3 mm long; falling entire (1), or breaking up at maturity (3); deciduous with accessory branch structures (1/1); disarticulating below each fertile floret (3/3). Floret callus pilose (2/3), or bearded (1/3).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent (3/3); shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma (3), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (1). Lower glume subulate (1), or elliptic (1), or oblong (1), or ovate (2); 1 length of upper glume; membranous (3/3); 1-keeled (3/3); 1 -veined (3/3). Lower glume lateral veins absent (3), or distinct (1). Lower glume surface glabrous (3), or pilose (1). Lower glume apex emarginate (1/3), or acute (2/3); awned (3/3). Upper glume subulate (1), or lanceolate (2), or oblong (1); 0.33-0.605-0.66 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (3/3); 1-keeled (3/3); 1 -veined (3/3). Upper glume surface glabrous (3), or pilose (1). Upper glume apex emarginate (1/3), or acute (2/3); awned (3/3); 1 -awned (3/3).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate (2), or ovate (2); membranous (1), or cartilaginous (3); keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma surface smooth (2), or scabrous (2); glabrous (3), or pubescent (1). Lemma apex entire (3), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); acuminate (3/3); awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn straight (2), or flexuous (2). Palea 1-1.012-1.05 length of lemma; 2 -veined (1/1). Palea keels separated (2), or approximate (2); smooth (3), or scaberulous (1). Palea apex dentate (1/1); muticous (2), or with excurrent keel veins (2).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 2 (1/3), or 3 (2/3).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.
Distribution
North America (3), or South America.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (1), or perennial (1). Culms erect (1/1), or geniculately ascending (1/1); 16-39-70 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliolate membrane (1). Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 1.3-2.325-3.8 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 1.3-2.325-3.8 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (1), or reaching apex of florets (1). Lower glume elliptic, or oblong (1); 0.75-0.9125-1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined (1/1). Lower glume apex obtuse (1), or acute. Upper glume elliptic, or oblong (1); 0.9-0.95-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined (1/1). Upper glume apex obtuse (1), or acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma ovate; membranous; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein ciliate (1), or pubescent (1). Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma apex emarginate (1), or obtuse; muticous, or mucronate (1). Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels eciliate (1), or pubescent (1). Palea surface pubescent (1), or pilose (1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3 (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (1/1).
Distribution
North America.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Culms 50-100 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades filiform.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 2-6 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 5-8 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus bearded.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 2-6 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 5-8 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus bearded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 0.75-1 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume lanceolate; 0.5-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate; chartaceous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma margins pubescent. Lemma apex acute, or acuminate; muticous, or mucronate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid.
Distribution
North America.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual. Culms geniculately ascending; 5-12 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Synflorescence compound; fasciculate. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; enclosed. Spatheole oblong; hyaline. Racemes single; unilateral; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 1-3 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis angular. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 5-6 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus pubescent.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 5-6 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; reaching apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Upper glume oblong; 1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; without keels; 7-9 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins ribbed. Upper glume apex lobed; 2 -fid; awned; 3-7 -awned.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate; membranous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein scaberulous. Lemma lateral veins ribbed. Lemma apex obtuse; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical. Palea tightly convolute around flower; 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels approximate.
Distribution
North America.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Culms decumbent; 8-70 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes; deciduous as a whole. Racemes borne along a central axis; spreading; unilateral. Rhachis angular. Spikelet packing distant. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; laterally compressed; 3-4 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; laterally compressed; 3-4 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes exceeding apex of florets; gaping. Lower glume lanceolate; 0.5 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex attenuate. Upper glume linear; 1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume apex attenuate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate; membranous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma apex acuminate. Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; fusiform. Embryo 0.33 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
North America, or South America.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (4), or perennial (1). Culms erect (1), or geniculately ascending (1), or decumbent (3), or prostrate (1); slender (1/1); 4-18.7-40 cm long; without nodal roots (1/2), or rooting from lower nodes (2/2). Lateral branches sparse (1/1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (4), or a ciliolate membrane (1). Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (4); firm (2), or flaccid (3).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes borne along a central axis; spreading; cuneate; unilateral; bearing a triad of spikelets (4), or few fertile spikelets (1); bearing 2 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Rhachis obsolete; deciduous from axis. Raceme-bases brief (2), or cuneate (3). Spikelets in pairs (1), or in threes (4). Fertile spikelets sessile (2), or pedicelled (3); 1 in the cluster (4), or 2 in the cluster (1). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled (4/4); 2 in the cluster (4/4). Pedicels linear (2), or oblong (3).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Companion sterile spikelets absent (1), or well-developed (4); deciduous with the fertile (4/4). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (1/4), or mucronate (1/4), or awned (3/4). Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 1.5-3.33-7.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Sterile
Companion sterile spikelets absent (1), or well-developed (4); deciduous with the fertile (4/4). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (1/4), or mucronate (1/4), or awned (3/4).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 1.5-3.33-7.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes shorter than spikelet. Lower glume linear (1), or lanceolate (1), or obovate (1), or cuneate (3); 0.8-0.92-1 length of upper glume; membranous, or chartaceous (1); without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface smooth (4), or scabrous (1); glabrous (3), or pubescent (2). Lower glume apex entire (2), or lobed (3); 2 -fid (3/3); obtuse (2), or acute (1), or acuminate (2); muticous (2), or awned (4). Upper glume linear (1), or lanceolate (1), or obovate (1), or cuneate (3); 0.33-0.636-0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous, or chartaceous (1); without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume surface smooth (4), or scabrous (1); glabrous (3), or pubescent (2). Upper glume apex entire (2), or lobed (3); 2 -fid (3/3); obtuse (2), or acute (1), or acuminate (2); muticous (2), or awned (4); 1 -awned (4/4).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma elliptic (2), or ovate (3); laterally compressed; lanceolate in profile (4/4); membranous, or chartaceous (1); keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma lateral veins without ribs (2), or ribbed (3). Lemma surface smooth (4), or scabrous (1); glabrous (3), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (1). Lemma apex lobed; 2 -fid (1), or 3 -fid (4); incised 0.1-0.2333-0.3 of lemma length; acute (1), or acuminate; awned; 1 -awned (1), or 3 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical (4), or from a sinus (1). Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal. Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels separated (1), or contiguous above a sulcus (4). Palea surface glabrous (2), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2). Palea apex dentate (4/4); with excurrent keel veins (1), or awned (4).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2 (4/4); membranous (1/4), or fleshy (3/4). Anthers 3. Stigmas 2 (3/3). Ovary glabrous (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (4/4); fusiform (2/2); isodiametric (2/2); biconvex (2/2); smooth (1/1); apex unappendaged (1/1). Embryo 0.3 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/1).
Distribution
Tropical Asia (2), or North America (4), or South America (3).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, California, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kuril Is., Labrador, Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nepal, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northwest Territorie, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yukon

Introduced into:

Austria, Hawaii, Italy, North Caucasus, Spain, Transcaucasus

Muhlenbergia Schreb. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Dusén, P. [11856], Brazil K001102004 Yes
Regnell, A.F. [III1408], Brazil K001102006 Yes
Dusén, P. [17897], Brazil K001102005 Yes

First published in Gen. Pl., ed. 8[a], 1: 44 (1789)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00997-6. Scientific Data 8: 215.

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0