Datura L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 179 (1753)
This genus is accepted
The native range of this genus is SW. & S. Central U.S.A. to Colombia, Caribbean.

Descriptions

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Bushy annuals, glabrous or with indumentum of simple sometimes glandular hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, simple, entire or sinuate-dentate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, axillary, erect
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tubular, shortly lobed, circumscissile near base after flowering and with the lower part persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla tubular or funnel-shaped, lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted near base of corolla, included or exserted; anthers dehiscing longitudinally
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2–4-celled, with numerous ovules; stigma 2-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a capsule, dehiscing regularly by 4 valves or irregularly, prickly or unarmed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds flattened, minutely pitted.
Distribution
Some 14 species native in North and South America
[FSOM]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Morphology General Habit
Annual or semiperennial herbs and shrubs, often malodorous.
Morphology Stem
Main stem often stout, woody and dichotomously branched, spherical stalked brownish glands present on all parts
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate or opposite
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually solitary and in branch forks, always erect, usually fragrant, opening diurnally and remaining open during anthesis, with prominent venation; pedicels short, elongating during fruiting
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tubular, usually enclosing the lower half of the corolla tube; calyx lobes five; base circumsessile, forming a ridged collar which often persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla tubular below becoming funnel- or trumpet-shaped above, sometimes double or triple; tube long and slender, the lobes fused almost to the apex, with 5 or 10 terminal acuminate to caudate lobes or teeth
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted on lower half of corolla tube and alternating with lobes, equal, included; filaments glabrous above, slender, filiform, widening towards point of adnation to corolla tube from where usually sparsely pilose; anthers oblong, basifixed, free, dehiscing longitudinally, often with long hairs on dehiscent margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary superior, conical, softly spinose or tuberculate, bilocular above, but 4-loculate basally owing to a false septum, ovules numerous, placentation axile; style long, filiform, glabrous, sometimes exserted beyond anthers but included; stigma bilobed, clasping the stylar apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ovoid or globose 2–4celled capsules, dehiscing irregularly or by 2 or 4 valves from the apex; valves usually spinose or tuberculate, rarely smooth, subtended by the persistent discoid remains of the calyx which adherent or reflexed, forming a frill or collar beneath capsule; fruiting pedicels elongated and stout, erect or pendulous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds large, reniform or discoid, with a thick (suberose) corky testa; funicular caruncle (elaiosome) welldeveloped, numerous.
Note
All Old World Daturas, collectively known as the Thorn Apples, were introduced from the Americas during the early years of intensive European colonization of the New World ( cf. Symon & Haegi, 1991 in Solanaceae III: 197; Persson et al., 1999). Three naturalised species are found throughout the East African region, where they are probably also widely cultivated for their hallucinogenic, medicinal and narcotic effects as well as for their ornamental value. They all contain the tropane alkaloids scopolamine and hyoscyamine, plus steroidal lactones of the withanoloid group ( cf. Hunziker, 2001 for extensive references).
[FTEA]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Morphology General Habit
Annual or short-lived perennial herbs or sometimes subshrubs or shrubs from a woody rootstock, often foetid, glabrous or pubescent to glabrescent; indumentum of erect to appressed, simple non-glandular to glandular trichomes, dense on immature foliage, pedicels and calyces, sparse or absent on mature parts, or sometimes remaining pubescent Annual or short-lived perennial herbs or sometimes subshrubs or shrubs from a woody rootstock, often foetid, glabrous or pubescent to glabrescent; indumentum of erect to appressed, simple non-glandular to glandular trichomes, dense on immature foliage, pedicels and calyces, sparse or absent on mature parts, or sometimes remaining pubescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, the upper ones in the floral region sometimes in pairs appearing opposite with one larger than the other, petiolate, entire or deeply or shallowly sinuate-dentate or coarsely and sharply incised-dentate Leaves alternate, the upper ones in the floral region sometimes in pairs appearing opposite with one larger than the other, petiolate, entire or deeply or shallowly sinuate-dentate or coarsely and sharply incised-dentate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually solitary, axillary or in the forks of the branching stem, actinomorphic or almost so. Flowers usually solitary, axillary or in the forks of the branching stem, actinomorphic or almost so; pedicels ± erect but sometimes becoming pendulous in fruit.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels ± erect but sometimes becoming pendulous in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx shorter than the corolla tube, tubular, usually 5-angled to 5-ribbed, somewhat inflated or appressed to the corolla tube, 5-lobed or narrowly toothed; tube circumscissile near the base after anthesis, leaving an annular basal remnant which in fruit is often enlarged into a spreading or reflexed shield or cup; lobes much shorter than the tube, with valvate aestivation Calyx shorter than the corolla tube, tubular, usually 5-angled to 5-ribbed, somewhat inflated or appressed to the corolla tube, 5-lobed or narrowly toothed; tube circumscissile near the base after anthesis, leaving an annular basal remnant which in fruit is often enlarged into a spreading or reflexed shield or cup; lobes much shorter than the tube, with valvate aestivation.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or violet to purplish, infundibuliform to ± tubular, sometimes double or triple; tube long and narrow widening towards the throat; limb broad, plicate, spreading, 5(6)-lobed, or 10(12)-lobed when a secondary lobe appears between the main lobes; lobes short and cuspidate or sometimes long-caudate, with a conduplicate-contorted aestivation Corolla white or violet to purplish, infundibuliform to ± tubular, sometimes double or triple; tube long and narrow widening towards the throat; limb broad, plicate, spreading, 5(6)-lobed, or 10(12)-lobed when a secondary lobe appears between the main lobes; lobes short and cuspidate or sometimes long-caudate, with a conduplicate-contorted aestivation.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens (4)5(6), ± equal, included or slightly exserted; filaments linear-subulate, adnate to the lower half of the corolla tube; anthers basifixed, linear-oblong to narrowly elliptic or ovate in outline, slightly curved, dehiscing by longitudinal slits Stamens (4)5(6), ± equal, included or slightly exserted; filaments linear-subulate, adnate to the lower half of the corolla tube; anthers basifixed, linear-oblong to narrowly elliptic or ovate in outline, slightly curved, dehiscing by longitudinal slits.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk none Disk none.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary ± globose, provided with soft excrescences (rarely smooth), 2-locular, sometimes with a false septum and 4-locular below; ovules numerous in each locule on placentas adnate to the septa, hemicampylotropous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style slender.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma often 2-lobed to 2-lamellate at the tip, included
Note
All parts of the plants are extremely toxic. Flour made from grain containing datura seed has caused poisoning and stock poisoning can occur when datura plants are gathered together with fodder plants. Satina & Avery in Chron. Bot. 20: 36 (1959) considered Datura sensu lato to include Brugmansia, however, recent workers treat these as distinct and I follow D'Arcy in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 582 (1974) in keeping the genera separate. Two sections are recognized: sect. Datura (sect. Stramonium Bernhardi) with D. stramonium and D. ferox and sect. Dutra Bernhardi with D. inoxia and D. metel.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary ± globose, provided with soft excrescences (rarely smooth), 2-locular, sometimes with a false septum and 4-locular below; ovules numerous in each locule on placentas adnate to the septa, hemicampylotropous; style slender; stigma often 2-lobed to 2-lamellate at the tip, included.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a capsule, globose to ellipsoid or ovoid, erect or deflexed, leathery, covered with soft or woody spine-like excrescences or tubercles (rarely smooth), semi-4-locular, apically dehiscent by 2 loculicidal and sometimes also 2 septicidal slits to ± halfway, the 4 dry valves incomplete. Fruit a capsule, globose to ellipsoid or ovoid, erect or deflexed, leathery, covered with soft or woody spine-like excrescences or tubercles (rarely smooth), semi-4-locular, apically dehiscent by 2 loculicidal and sometimes also 2 septicidal slits to ± halfway, the 4 dry valves incomplete
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds numerous, relatively large, laterally compressed, wedge-shaped or reniform, or ± oblong in outline, sometimes with a funicular caruncle (elaiosome); testa moderately crustaceous, hard, or moderately subereous, very thick, smooth or roughened; embryo ± circinnate, flattened, subperipheral, in the fleshy or horny endosperm, with radicle terete; cotyledons semi-terete or linear in outline. Seeds numerous, relatively large, laterally compressed, wedge-shaped or reniform, or ± oblong in outline, sometimes with a funicular caruncle (elaiosome); testa moderately crustaceous, hard, or moderately subereous, very thick, smooth or roughened; embryo ± circinnate, flattened, subperipheral, in the fleshy or horny endosperm, with radicle terete; cotyledons semi-terete or linear in outline
[FZ]

Uses

Use
All species containing alkaloids with intoxicant properties.
[FSOM]

Sources

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0