Typha L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 971 (1753)
This genus is accepted
The native range of this genus is Cosmopolitan.

Descriptions

Typhaceae, D. M. Napper. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
Stout glabrous marsh herbs with sympodial branched rhizomes covered by distichous cataphylls and having terminal erect shoots
Morphology Leaves
Lower leaves transitional, short-bladed; upper leaves with a long sheath closely enveloping the stem, often auricled at the junction with the blade, and a linear obtuse or acute blade gradually widening from a narrow subpetiolar base, semi-cylindric to lenticular in section, sometimes keeled beneath
sex Male
Male inflorescence apical, dense; flowers reduced to a pedicellate group of 2–4(–7) stamens with the filaments fused below; anthers dithecous, oblong, with the connective produced above; bracteoles filiform, spathulate or spathulate-laciniate; pollen grains shed singly or in tetrads
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Female inflorescence a single spike beneath the ♂, remote from it or contiguous, rarely with 1 or 2 additional ♀ spikes remote from each other beneath the first; flowers with the perigonous hairs and bracteoles of similar length, the styles conspicuously longer; bracteoles filiform, broadening into an expanded ovate or spathulate lamina; carpodia about as long as the bracteoles Male inflorescence apical, dense; flowers reduced to a pedicellate group of 2–4(–7) stamens with the filaments fused below; anthers dithecous, oblong, with the connective produced above; bracteoles filiform, spathulate or spathulate-laciniate; pollen grains shed singly or in tetrads
sex Female
Female inflorescence a single spike beneath the ♂, remote from it or contiguous, rarely with 1 or 2 additional ♀ spikes remote from each other beneath the first; flowers with the perigonous hairs and bracteoles of similar length, the styles conspicuously longer; bracteoles filiform, broadening into an expanded ovate or spathulate lamina; carpodia about as long as the bracteoles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Follicle narrowly ellipsoid; seed fusiform.
[FTEA]

George R. Proctor (2012). Flora of the Cayman Isands (Second Edition). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Morphology General Habit
Erect, perennial, gregarious herbs with creeping rhizomes, erect terete flowering stems, and long linear leaves sheathing at the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers unisexual, densely crowded in elongate, cylindric, terminal spikes, the staminate above, the pistillate below Staminate flowers composed of 1–7 stamens (usually 3), subtended by hairs; filaments very short, connate; anthers linear, 4-celled
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth lacking
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Pistillate flowers consisting of a 1- celled ovary elevated on a short hairy stalk, containing 1 anatropous ovule, and terminated by a short style and a linear to spatulate stigma
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a linear or fusiform achene, elevated on a long hairy stalk, and terminating in the persistent but fragile, greatly elongated style.
Note
It should be noted that the pistillate flower-spikes contain numerous sterile flowers mingled with the fertile ones; these enlarge after anthesis and become dilated at the apex.
Distribution
A genus of about 10 species, all marsh plants, widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions.
[Cayman]

M. Thulin. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1–4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Distribution
Some 15 species, almost cosmopolitan, in and around fresh or brackish water.
Note
Description as for the family.
[FSOM]

Uses

Use
In some countries, the fibrous stems and leaves are used for many purposes, such as for thatch, soft matting, ropes and baskets. The downy wool of the inflorescence can be applied like cotton to wounds and ulcers. The young shoots are edible, and are said to taste like asparagus. The pollen can be used as flour to make bread, and is also highly inflammable.
[Cayman]

Sources

  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of the Cayman Islands

    • Flora of the Cayman Islands
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images