Monimiaceae Juss.

This family is accepted.

[FTEA]

Monimiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

Morphology General Habit
Trees, shrubs or rarely climbers, often aromatic; leaves exstipulate, opposite or rarely alternate, simple, entire or toothed (the teeth sometimes glandular)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers small, hermaphrodite or unisexual, sometimes polygamous, often dioecious, regular or rarely irregular, arranged in axillary or terminal racemes, panicles or racemes of cymules
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth-lobes 4–?, small, imbricate in 2–several whorls, rarely absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens free, 6–?; anthers dehiscing introrsely or extrorsely by longitudinal slits, more rarely by valves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Ovary superior, of 1–numerous 1-locular carpels; style long or short or stigma sessile; ovules solitary in each carpel, usually anatropous, pendulous or erect
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Sterile Parts
Staminodes sometimes present in the ? flowers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit of l–? separate drupes or achenes, sometimes enclosed by the calyx or in or on the fleshy receptacle
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds with fleshy endosperm

[NTK]

Rener, S. (2009). Neotropical Monimiaceae.

Morphology
Description

Evergreen scambling shrubs, treelets or trees, with spherical oil cells in all parts of the plants. Leaves oppposite, decussate or in whorls of 3-4, simple , exstipulate , those of a pair often unequal in size, with simple or stellate hairs, glabrescent, the margin variously serrate , dentate , or entire . Inflorescences axillary or cauliflorous , cymose or fasciculate . Flowers radial, unisexual or rarely bisexual , plants dioecious , floral cup ( receptacle ) well-developed (the perigon perigynous ), subglobose or cup-shaped, tepals 3 to numerous, petaloid , sepaloid, or connate and forming a calyptra; stamens few to very numerous, dispersed irregularly in the floral cup, filaments lacking appendages or more rarely with paired basal nectary glands on the filaments, anthers with 4 pollen sacs dehiscing by longitudinal, lateral , or circumscissile slits; carpels 1 to numerous, free or immersed in and fused with the receptacle tissue, the stigmas and/or styles free or joined by mucilage plugs, ovules solitary, pendulous and anatropous, bitegmic, crassinucellate. Fruitingreceptacle repand and with few to many sessile or stipitate drupes, or the drupes enclosed in a fleshy receptacle and exposed at maturity by the splitting of the receptacle ; the mesocarp fleshy , rarely half covered by an orange stylar aril , the endocarp stony.

Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics

Currently 28 genera and 195-200 species, mostly in the Malagasy floristic region, New Guinea (this has 75 species), and the Neotropics (four genera and ca. 24 species), with a few species in the rest of Malesia, Eastern Australia, and New Zealand. A single species, Xymalos monospora Baill., occurs from South Africa to Kenya, Uganda, and Cameroon.

  • Hennecartia Poisson: monospecific (H. omphalandra Poisson), Argentina.
  • Macropeplus Perkins: monospecific (M. ligustrinus (Tul.) Perkins) in gallery forest of southern Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina.
  • Macrotorus Perkins: monospecific (M. utriculatus (Mart.) Perkins) in gallery forest of southern Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina.
  • Mollinedia Ruiz & Pav.: ca. 20 species in understorey lowland moist forest, from Central America to the Amazon basin and in gallery forests in Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina.
  • Peumus Molina: monospecific (P. boldus Molina) included here despite being outside the Flora region, in sclerophyllous Chilean forests between 30º and 41º latitude.
Diagnostic
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Leaves opposite, decussate or in whorls of 3 to 4.
  • Flowers closed, somewhat fig-like, only the style tips or anther tips emerging from an apical ostiole.
Key differences from similar families
  • Rarely confused.
Useful tips for generic identification
  • An inordinate number of genera are monotypic (and hence devoid of informative generic characters).
  • Several others are poorly circumscribed.
  • Renner et al. 2010 paper, which has sequences for all but one genus and the majority of species.
General Description
Status
  • Monimiaceae are not cultivated, with the exception of Peumus, which is cultivated in a few botanical gardens in Europe.
General notes
  • The fossil record of Monimiaceae is relatively extensive. Fossils from the Upper Senonian of the eastern Cape Province (Hedycaryoxylonhortonioides Mädel) and the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) of James Ross Island in Antarctica (Hedycaryoxylontambourissoides Poole & Gottwald) undoubtedly represent Monimiaceae. Somewhat younger fossil woods, referred to Xymaloxylonzeltenense (Louvet) Louvet (syn. Monimiaxylonzeltenense Louvet), have been described from the Early Oligocene of Oman.
  • There are also leaves from Paleocene/Eocene boundary strata on King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula (Monimiophyllumantarcticum Zastawniak). Even fossil woods from the Late Eocene of Germany, namely Hedycaryoxylomsubaffine (Vater) Süss and Hortonioxylonhenericiungeri Gottwald, have been compared to Hortonia Wight ex Arn., Hedycarya Forst., and Tambourissa Sonn. [This is from S. S.Renner, unpublished manuscript, which contains all the refs.]
Notes on delimitation
  • Morphologically and molecularly strongly supported as monophyletic (once Siparunaceae, Atherospermataceae, Amborellaceae, and Trimeniaceae were excluded).
Number of genera

See above.

Literature
Important literature

Philipson, W.R. 1986. Monimiaceae. In: Steenis, C.G.G.J. van, ed. Flora Malesiana Spermatophyta: flowering plants. vol.10, part 2. Revisions. Dordrecht etc., Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 255-326.

Renner, S.S. 2004. Monimiaceae. Pp. 252-253. In: Smith, N., Mori, S.A., Henderson, A., Stevenson, D.W. & Heald, S.V. (eds.). Flowering Plants of the Neotropics. New York Botanical Garden, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Renner, S.S., and Hausner, G. 1997. Siparunaceae, Monimiaceae. In: Harling, G. & Andersson, L. (eds.). Flora of Ecuador no. 59, Pp. 1-124. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.Renner, S. S., J. S. Strijk, D. Strasberg, and C. Thébaud. 2010. Biogeography of the Monimiaceae (Laurales): A role for East Gondwana and long distance dispersal, but not West Gondwana. Journal of Biogeography 37(7): 1227-1238.

[FZ]

Monimiaceae, B.L. Stannard. Flora Zambesiaca 9:2. 1997

Morphology General Habit
Trees, shrubs or rarely lianes, often aromatic
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite or less often alternate, exstipulate, simple, entire or toothed, sometimes glandular-toothed, coriaceous, sometimes minutely pellucid-punctate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences axillary or terminal, racemose, cymose or fasciculate; bracts small or absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, actinomorphic or more rarely zygomorphic; plants monoecious, sometimes dioecious, less often polygamous Staminodes sometimes present in female flowers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth 4–many-lobed; lobes in 2–several whorls, imbricate, rarely absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens few to numerous, 1–2- seriate or irregular, usually free; filaments very short, sometimes with glands at the base; anthers erect, 2-locular, dehiscing by longitudinal slits, or more rarely by valves
sex Female
Staminodes sometimes present in female flowers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Ovary superior; carpels usually several, rarely solitary, 1-locular; stigma sessile or with a long or short style; ovules solitary, erect or pendulous, usually anatropous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit of separate drupes, or more rarely achenes, often enclosed by the perianth or in a fleshy receptacle
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds erect or pendulous, endosperm fleshy, copious

[FWTA]

Monimiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
Trees or shrubs, rarely climbers, usually fragrant, with opposite, or rarely alternate, entire or serrate, coriaceous leaves with pellucid dots; stipules absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers actinomorphic, rarely oblique, hermaphrodite, polygamous or unisexual, cymose or racemose, rarely solitary, small or medium-sized; inflorescence axillary or rarely terminal Female fl.: staminodes present or none; carpels several or rarely solitary, 1-celled; style short or elongated; stigma terminal; ovule solitary, erect or pendulous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth inferior, with 4 to many often connivent teeth or lobes in 2 to many series and imbricate, equal, or the outer sepaloid and the inner petaloid, rarely obsolete
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Nectaries
Disk adnate to the perianth-tube
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens numerous or few in 1–2 series; filaments very short, often flattened, with or without glands at the base; anthers erect, 2-celled, opening by a longitudinal slit or by valves from the base upwards
sex Female
Female fl.: staminodes present or none; carpels several or rarely solitary, 1-celled; style short or elongated; stigma terminal; ovule solitary, erect or pendulous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Carpels separate in fruit, enclosed by the perianth or the latter deciduous, indehiscent, often drupaceous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed erect or pendulous; testa membranous; endosperm fleshy; embryo small to half as large as the endosperm; cotyledons erect or spreading

Monimiaceae Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 14: 133. 1809 (1809)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Neotropikey

    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0