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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.
A specimen from Kew's Herbarium

[FZ]

Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

Morphology General Habit
Inflorescence of few to many slender, typically digitate racemes, rarely these borne along an elongated axis.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 2–4(6)-flowered, shortly pedicelled or subsessile, alternate in 2 rows on a tough axis, disarticulating above the glumes; glumes unequal, membranous, narrowly elliptic to lanceolate in profile, 1-nerved, acute, acuminate or with an awn-point, usually persistent; floret callus rounded or pungent; lowermost floret fertile; fertile lemma cartilaginous, laterally compressed and keeled, 3-nerved, usually ciliate on the margins and keel, entire or 2-lobed at the apex, with a subapical awn; 2nd–6th florets sterile, sometimes the second male or rarely fertile, embraced by or projecting from the side of the fertile floret; lemmas ± reduced or vestigial, awned or awnless, usually without a palea.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis ovoid, ellipsoid or obovoid, usually trigonous in section.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (13), or perennial (47). Rhizomes absent (56), or short (3). Stolons absent (42), or present (29). Culms erect (27/43), or geniculately ascending (26/43), or decumbent (10/43), or prostrate (1/43); robust (2/4), or slender (2/4); 5-50.41-300 cm long; firm (56), or wiry (2), or woody (1); without nodal roots (9/11), or rooting from lower nodes (11/11). Culm-internodes terete (1/2), or elliptical in section (1/2). Lateral branches lacking (2/3), or sparse (2/3), or ample (1/3). Ligule an eciliate membrane (3), or a ciliolate membrane (29), or a ciliate membrane (23), or a fringe of hairs (3), or absent (2). Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (58).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes; not deciduous as a whole (55), or deciduous as a whole (4); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (58), or an inflated leaf-sheath (1); exserted (56), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (3). Peduncle persistent (55), or disarticulating (4). Racemes single (2), or paired (5), or digitate (54), or borne along a central axis (3); not compacted (54/56), or in a multilateral false spike (2/56); side by side (55/56), or appressed back to back (1/56); appressed (1), or erect (10), or ascending (41), or spreading (15), or radiating (4), or drooping (1), or deflexed (3); unilateral. Rhachis flattened (1/36), or angular (4/36), or subterete (31/36). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded (7), or contiguous (46), or lax (6); 2 -rowed (1/1). Raceme-bases brief (57), or filiform (2). Spikelets appressed (17/22), or ascending (1/22), or spreading (2/22), or pectinate (1/22), or pendulous (1/22); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile, or sessile and pedicelled (1), or pedicelled (1). Pedicels reduced to a stump (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets, or 2 fertile florets (3); with a barren rhachilla extension (1), or with diminished florets at the apex (58). Spikelets lanceolate (1), or oblong (1), or ovate (1), or cuneate (56); laterally compressed; 1.5-3.116-6.2 mm long; falling entire (4), or breaking up at maturity (55); deciduous with accessory branch structures (4/4); disarticulating below each fertile floret (55/55). Floret callus brief (56), or evident (3); glabrous (1/57), or pubescent (18/57), or pilose (5/57), or bearded (33/57); obtuse (56), or acute (2), or pungent (1).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets, or 2 fertile florets (3); with a barren rhachilla extension (1), or with diminished florets at the apex (58). Spikelets lanceolate (1), or oblong (1), or ovate (1), or cuneate (56); laterally compressed; 1.5-3.116-6.2 mm long; falling entire (4), or breaking up at maturity (55); deciduous with accessory branch structures (4/4); disarticulating below each fertile floret (55/55). Floret callus brief (56), or evident (3); glabrous (1/57), or pubescent (18/57), or pilose (5/57), or bearded (33/57); obtuse (56), or acute (2), or pungent (1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent (55/55); shorter than spikelet (29), or reaching apex of florets (23), or exceeding apex of florets (20); thinner than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas (1), or gaping (58). Lower glume lanceolate (56), or ovate (8); 0.4-0.6381-1 length of upper glume; hyaline (1), or membranous (56), or chartaceous (1), or scarious (1); 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute (54), or acuminate (8); muticous (58), or mucronate (1). Upper glume lanceolate (55), or oblong (1), or ovate (6), or obovate (1); 0.3-0.9897-2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (57), or scarious (1); with undifferentiated margins (57), or hyaline margins (2); 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume apex entire (58), or erose (1); truncate (1), or obtuse (1), or acute (50), or acuminate (6), or setaceously attenuate (4); muticous (55), or mucronate (5).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma linear (2), or lanceolate (15), or elliptic (37), or oblong (3), or ovate (16), or obovate (5); laterally compressed; not gibbous (57), or gibbous (2); lanceolate in profile (6/21), or elliptic in profile (8/21), or oblong in profile (2/21), or ovate in profile (5/21); cartilaginous (58), or coriaceous (1); of similar consistency on margins (58), or much thinner on margins (1); keeled; wingless (58), or winged on margins (1); 3 -veined. Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (54), or scaberulous (4), or scabrous (2); eciliate (34), or ciliolate (3), or ciliate (20), or pubescent (6). Lemma surface smooth (54), or scabrous (5), or tuberculate (1); without grooves (58), or with 2 longitudinal grooves (1); glabrous (54), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (7), or pilose (3); hairy on back (8/10), or between veins (2/10); with simple hairs (8/10), or tubercle-based hairs (1/10), or clavate hairs (1/10); without hair tufts (58), or with conspicuous apical hairs (1). Lemma margins flat (58), or involute (1); eciliate (11), or ciliolate (7), or ciliate (36), or pubescent (8). Lemma apex entire (52), or dentate (6), or lobed (1); 2 -fid (7/7); incised 0.1-0.2017-0.33 of lemma length; emarginate (2/46), or truncate (2/46), or obtuse (19/46), or acute (26/46), or acuminate (2/46); muticous (3), or mucronate (3), or awned (58); 1 -awned (56/58), or 3 -awned (2/58). Principal lemma awn apical (2), or subapical (49), or from a sinus (7), or dorsal (1); straight, or curved (1). Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal (2/2). Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (3/3). Palea keels separated (58), or approximate (1); eciliate (57), or ciliolate (2). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (34/58), or 2 in number (16/58), or 3 in number (13/58), or 4 in number (4/58), or 5 in number (1/58); male (2/58), or barren (57/58); separate (39/58), or in a clump (19/58); linear (2/58), or lanceolate (10/58), or elliptic (10/58), or oblong (15/58), or ovate (1/58), or orbicular (1/58), or cuneate (23/58). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (8/58), or mucronate (2/58), or awned (54/58).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2 (58/58); fleshy (58/58). Anthers 3. Stigmas 2 (58/58).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (58), or tardily free pericarp (1); fusiform (3/34), or ellipsoid (26/34), or oblong (1/34), or ovoid (4/34), or obovoid (6/34); laterally compressed (1/33), or dorsally compressed (32/33); trigonous (56/56); smooth (1/1); apex unappendaged (1/1). Embryo 0.66-0.705-0.75 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (23/23).
Distribution
Africa (21), or Temperate Asia (8), or Tropical Asia (13), or Australasia (11), or Pacific (6), or North America (13), or South America (26).

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets laterally compressed, with 1 fertile floret, sometimes with a smaller male floret, the rhachilla terminating in 1 or more reduced lemmas; glumes acute; fertile lemma keeled, cartilaginous to coriaceous, mostly pallid, often decoratively ciliate on the margins, entire or bilobed, comspicuously awned from the tip or just below it
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Grain ellipsoid and trigonous to lanceolate and subterete, the pericarp free (though sometimes reluctantly).
Distribution
About 55 species in tropical and warm temperate regions of both hemispheres.
Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes digitate or rarely crowded on an elongated axis, the spikelets pectinate or appressed

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Tufted, rhizomatous or stoloniferous perennials or annuals
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades linear, flat or folded, acute to acuminate or obtuse; ligule membranous, short, ciliolate; sheaths rounded or keeled and flabellate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence of few–many slender, typically digitate spikes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 2–4(–6)-flowered, shortly pedicelled or subsessile, alternate, in 2 rows on a tough rhachis; glumes unequal, membranous, usually lanceolate in side view, 1-nerved, acute, acuminate or with an awn-point, usually persistent; lowest floret hermaphrodite; lemma cartilaginous (coriaceous in C. lamproparia), mostly laterally compressed and keeled, usually ciliate on the margins and keel, entire or 2-lobed at the apex with a subapical awn; callus rounded or pungent, ciliate; 2nd–6th florets sterile, sometimes ♂, rarely hermaphrodite, embraced by or projecting from the side of the lowest floret; lemmas ± reduced or vestigial, awned or awnless; paleas usually absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis ellipsoid to linear, usually trigonous, occasionally dorsally compressed.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Stolons present. Culms decumbent; 10-90 cm long. Ligule a ciliate membrane.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes digitate; unilateral. Rhachis deciduous from axis; angular. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 4-8 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic, or oblong; laterally compressed; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 4-8 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic, or oblong; laterally compressed; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 0.5 length of upper glume; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume oblong; 0.7 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma ovate; chartaceous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma surface glabrous, or pilose. Lemma margins pubescent. Lemma apex acute; muticous, or mucronate. Palea keels ciliate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with free soft pericarp.
Distribution
Africa, or Temperate Asia, or Tropical Asia.

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Stoloniferous perennials
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades linear, flat, tapering to a fine acuminate tip; ligule membranous, truncate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of several slender racemes arranged digitately at the top of the culm or scattered along a central axis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets several-flowered, plump, subsessile or shortly pedicelled, disarticulating above the glumes but not between the florets; glumes persistent, membranous, unequal, shorter than the lemmas; lemmas broad, rounded on the back, 5–11-nerved with the nerves slightly shorter than the lemma, tough and cartilaginous at least in part, appressed villous with the hairs usually ± concentrated in 3–6 longitudinal rows, the central nerve extended into a stout awn or awn-point normally arising from the back below the emarginate or 2-lobed tip, rarely arising from the sinus
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Grain smooth, light brown, strongly dorso-ventrally flattened, enclosed within a free hyaline pericarp
Distribution
Species 2; eastern and south-eastern Africa.

[FZ]

Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

Morphology General Habit
Inflorescence composed of several slender racemes, these digitate or subdigitate at the top of the culm or scattered along a central axis.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets several-flowered, plump, subsessile or shortly pedicelled, alternate in 2 rows, disarticulating above the glumes but not between the florets, the 2–4 lowermost florets fertile, the remainder progressively smaller and sterile; glumes persistent, membranous, unequal, shorter than the lemmas; lemmas broad, dorsally rounded, 5–11-nerved, with the lateral nerves confluent at the base, the inner ones confluent at the apex, the body tough and cartilaginous at least in part, appressed clavate-villous with the hairs usually concentrated in 3–6 longitudinal rows, the central nerve extended into a short awn or awn-point normally arising from the back below the emarginate or 2-lobed apex, rarely from the sinus.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis strongly flattened, with free pericarp.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Stolons present. Culms erect (1), or decumbent; 22-47.5-75 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes digitate (1), or borne along a central axis (1); unilateral. Rhachis subterete. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; contiguous (1), or lax (1); 2 -rowed (1/1). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile (1), or pedicelled (1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 4-7 fertile florets, or 8-10 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic (1), or orbicular (1), or cuneate (1); laterally compressed; 5-7.1-11 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets. Floret callus truncate.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 4-7 fertile florets, or 8-10 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic (1), or orbicular (1), or cuneate (1); laterally compressed; 5-7.1-11 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating above glumes but not between florets. Floret callus truncate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 0.6-0.675-0.8 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels (1), or 1-keeled (1); 0 -veined (1), or 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute (1), or acuminate (1). Upper glume oblong (1), or ovate (1); 0.6-0.675-0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels (1), or 1-keeled (1); 1-3 -veined (1). Upper glume apex emarginate (1), or obtuse (1), or acute (1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma elliptic (1), or ovate (1), or obovate (1); chartaceous (1), or coriaceous (1); without keel; 5-6 -veined (1), or 7 -veined, or 8-11 -veined (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (1), or distinct (1). Lemma surface pubescent; hairy on back (1), or between veins (1); with simple hairs (1), or capitate hairs (1). Lemma apex entire (1), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); emarginate (1/1); awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical; straight (1), or flexuous (1). Palea 2 -veined. Palea keels wingless (1), or winged (1); ciliolate (1), or ciliate (1). Palea surface glabrous (1), or pubescent (1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2; fleshy.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with free soft pericarp; ellipsoid; flattened; biconvex; smooth.
Distribution
Africa.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Guinea, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, South Dakota, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Utah, Venezuela, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wyoming, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Amur, Ascension, Belgium, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Chagos Archipelago, China North-Central, China South-Central, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Comoros, Cook Is., Czechoslovakia, Desventurados Is., East Himalaya, Easter Is., Fiji, Gilbert Is., Hawaii, Inner Mongolia, Iraq, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kazan-retto, Kermadec Is., Khabarovsk, Korea, Lebanon-Syria, Line Is., Manchuria, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mongolia, Mozambique Channel I, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Caucasus, Ogasawara-shoto, Oregon, Palestine, Phoenix Is., Primorye, Qinghai, Samoa, Sardegna, Society Is., Solomon Is., Spain, St.Helena, Sumatera, Tibet, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Tuamotu, Tunisia, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuelan Antilles, Wake I., Wallis-Futuna Is., Wisconsin, Xinjiang

Chloris Sw. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3812] K001117263
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3812] K001117267
Castellanos, A. [25005], Brazil K001102059
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3808] K001117258
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3810], India K001117260
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3813], Myanmar K001117270
Giulietti, A.M. [1694], Brazil K001102058
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3811] K001117262
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3812] K001117265
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3809] K001117259
Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [9027], Brazil K001102060
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3812] K001117264
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3812] K001117268
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3812] K001117269
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3812], India K001117266
s.coll. [Cat. no. 3811] K001117261

First published in Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ.: 25 (1788)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Prod. Veg. Ind. Occ. 25 (1788).

Flora Zambesiaca

  • D.E. Anderson in Brigham Young Univ. Sci. Bull., Biol. Ser. 19, 2: 1–133 (1974).
  • Prodr.: 25 (1788).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by T. A. Cope [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Prod. Veg. Ind. Occ.: 25 (1788)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0