Campanula L.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical Northern hemisphere to Tropical Mountains.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, rarely subshrubs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, simple
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences panicle-, raceme-, spike-, or head-like, or flowers solitary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-lobes usually 5, sometimes with reflexed appendages in between them
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla campanulate to almost rotate or cylindrical, ± deeply 5-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 5, free; filaments usually broadened and ciliate at the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary ± inferior, 3–5-celled; style without glands, lobes 3–5
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule dehiscing by lateral pores or valves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds numerous.
Distribution
Some 450 species, widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, especially abundant in the Mediterranean region and the Middle East.

[FTEA]

Campanulaceae, Mats Thulin (University of Uppsala). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

Morphology General Habit
Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, rarely subshrubs, glabrous or hairy
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, simple
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences panicle-, raceme-, spike- or head-like, or flowers solitary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-lobes usually 5, sometimes with reflexed appendages in between them
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla campanulate to almost rotate or cylindrical, ± deeply 5-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 5, free; filaments usually dilated and ciliate at the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary ± inferior, 3–5-locular; ovules numerous; style eglandular, with pollen-collecting hairs in the upper part, lower part glabrous or hairy; lobes 3–5
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule dehiscing by lateral pores or valves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds numerous, ± elliptic in outline.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Annual, biennial or perennial herbs
Morphology Stem
Stems erect or decumbent, usually hairy
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, petiolate or sessile, serrate or entire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite, solitary or in terminal corymbs or spikes, pedicellate or sessile
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 5-lobed, with or without reflexed appendages in between the lobes; calyx tube usually adnate to the ovary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla campanulate or tubular, rarely rotate, 5-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 5, free; filaments usually dilated at the base; anthers 2-locular, linear or linear-oblong
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary inferior, 3–5-locular; ovules numerous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigmas 3–5
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 3–5-locular, usually crowned with the persistent calyx lobes, opening by 3–5 lateral valves at base or at the middle or beneath apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds small, numerous, yellowish to brown.
Distribution
A genus of some 300 species, mostly perennial herbs, widely distributed over the northern hemisphere, particularly in the Mediterranean region and W Asia: 16 native species in Iraq.
Note
Campanula (diminutive of the Lat. word campana, bell, referring to the bell-shaped form of corolla); bellflower. It is also sometimes loosely called Harebell, though this name is better reserved for the common harebell (C. rotundifolia); another source of confusion is that the latter plant is usually called bluebell in Scotland and the U.S.A. whereas in England the name bluebell is used for another plant (Hyacynthoides non-scripta) belonging to a different family (Liliaceae).

[FSOM]
Use
Many species are of horticultural value.

[FIQ]
Use
Originally, perhaps on account of their striking appearance rather than due to any intrinsic merit, some species of Campanula and of other genera were prized as medicinal plants. Linnaeus perpetuated an old herbalist name in his species C. erinus (p. 169), and the old generic names Trachelium and Tracheliopsis also remind us of this ancient use of these herbs – but, as medicinal plants, the Campanulaceae have long fallen into disfavour. Though certain species contain alkaloids, none now provides medicinal products or essential oils for commerce; possibly for this reason they are generally palatable and some species play a minor role as constituents of our upland and mountain pastures, being sometimes named as such by the Kurdish shepherds. One edible species of Campanula, the rampion (C. rapunculus), though widely distributed throughout C & S Europe, N Africa and W Asia, has not been found in Iraq; this biennial plant was formerly much cultivated as a vegetable in European gardens for its tuberous roots which are eaten boiled or (with the lower leaves) raw as a salad. However, it is as colourful ornamental garden herbs in borders and rockeries, generally with bellshaped flowers of striking bluish-mauve hue, that the Campanulaceae are best known. The most popular cultivated species of bellflower is the Canterbury bell (C. medium), a favourite garden flower in Europe for over 400 years, of which there are many cultivars with large bell-shaped flowers ranging from blue and pink to mauve, purple and white. Bali (1946) lists this biennial among common garden flowers in Iraq: it is usually propagated from seed sown in autumn and flowers in late spring and early summer in the following year. There are several double forms, among them the well-known cup-and saucer flower, known horticulturally as ‘Calycanthema’; this is merely a garden form and not a true variety. Hussain & Kasim (1975) also list C. medium among garden plants now cultivated in Lower Iraq; but no specimens of this species from Iraq have yet been seen.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Arizona, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Gulf States, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Labrador, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Northeast, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Québec, Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Svalbard, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon

Extinct in:

Sri Lanka

Introduced into:

Argentina South, Delaware, Falkland Is., Kansas, Mexico Central, Nevada, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Prince Edward I., Rhode I.

Campanula L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
11606.000 No
17816.000 No
Rico, L. [1912], Morocco K000564916 No
Rico, L. [1960b], Morocco K000564867 No

First published in Sp. Pl.: 164 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Bernini, A., Marconi, G. & Polani, F. (2002). Campanule d'Italia e dei territori limitrofi: 1-185. Univ. di Trieste, Italy.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • Linnaeus, Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 77 (1754).
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1: 163 (1753);

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, (2000) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. DC., Monogr. Camp.: 213 (1830)
  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 77 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 163 (1753)

  • Flora of Iraq

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0