Arundinaria Michx.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Central & E. U.S.A.

[FZ]

Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets pedicelled, 1–several-flowered, all hermaphrodite or often the uppermost one reduced, linear in outline, cylindrical or laterally compressed, usually somewhat loose; rhachilla disarticulating between the florets, with the joints thickened towards the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes 2 (more rarely 1), slightly unequal, much shorter than the florets, persistent, few- to many-nerved, membranous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Lemmas large, membranous, chartaceous or coriaceous, dorsally rounded, 5-13-nerved, usually with transverse veinlets, with the apex acute, acuminate or mucronate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Palea
Palea several-nerved, 2-keeled, only little shorter than the lemma, often ciliate along the keels, embraced by the lemma.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Lodicules
Lodicules 3, relatively large, ovate-lanceolate, ciliate, with nerves in the lower part.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3 (very rarely 6).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary sub-globular; styles 2 or rarely 3.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis narrowly oblong in outline, indurate, dorsally rounded, ventrally with a longitudinal furrow; scutellum circular.
Morphology General Habit
Shrubby or tree-like bamboos.
Morphology Stem
Culms woody with many prominent nodes.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves usually with tessellate venation; laminae finally disarticulating from the sheaths.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence terminal and/or lateral, variable, paniculate or racemose.

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Rhizomes absent (2), or short (6), or elongated (21); leptomorph (21/27), or pachymorph (6/27). Culms erect (17/19), or arching (1/19), or scandent (2/19); 20-244.2-800 cm long; woody; without nodal roots (1/2), or with aerial roots from the nodes (1/2). Culm-internodes similar in length (2/2); terete (27), or semiterete (1), or channelled (1). Culm-nodes swollen (3/3); without obvious supra-nodal ridge (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (3), or sparse (3), or suffrutescent (3), or dendroid (23). Branch complement one (2/19), or two (4/19), or three (11/19), or several (8/19), or many (2/19); solitary (1/7), or in a horizontal line (1/7), or in a clump (5/7); at the node (28), or subtended by a bare patch above the node (1); with subequal branches (6/7), or 1 branch dominant (1/7); as thick as stem (2/14), or thinner than stem (12/14). Culm-sheaths persistent (6/12), or tardily deciduous (1/12), or deciduous but leaving a persistent girdle (1/12), or deciduous (5/12); without auricles (18/18). Culm-sheath blade linear (5/15), or lanceolate (9/15), or narrowly ovate (1/15), or triangular (2/15); narrower than sheath (1/1). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (26), or erect (1), or falcate (2). Ligule an eciliate membrane (24), or a ciliolate membrane (14), or absent (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (3), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (27). Leaf-blades persistent (14), or deciduous at the ligule (15); linear (4), or lanceolate (27), or elliptic (1), or oblong (2); herbaceous (24), or chartaceous (2), or coriaceous (3); stiff (1), or firm (28). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (16), or with obscure cross veins (3), or with distinct cross veins (11). Leaf-blade margins unthickened (1/3), or cartilaginous (2/3).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Synflorescence simple (22/23), or compound (1/23); fasciculate (1/1). Inflorescence a panicle (8/23), or composed of racemes (4/23), or comprising only a few spikelets (11/23); terminal (22/23), or terminal and axillary (1/23); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (20/23), or a spatheole (3/23); exserted (21/23), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2/23). Spatheole lanceolate (1/1). Panicle open (8/8). Racemes single (4/4); bearing few fertile spikelets (4/4); bearing 2 fertile spikelets on each (2/3), or 3 fertile spikelets on each (3/3), or 4 fertile spikelets on each (2/3), or 5-6 fertile spikelets on each (1/3). Spikelets solitary (23/23). Fertile spikelets pedicelled (23/23). Pedicels filiform (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1-6-15 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (1/23), or with diminished florets at the apex (23/23). Spikelets linear (13/23), or lanceolate (3/23), or elliptic (1/23), or oblong (6/23); laterally compressed (23/23); 5-36.2-110 mm long; breaking up at maturity (23/23); disarticulating below each fertile floret (23/23). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (22/23), or elongated between glumes (1/23), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (1/23); glabrous (9/22), or sparsely hairy (1/22), or pubescent (11/22), or pilose (2/22).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1-6-15 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (1/23), or with diminished florets at the apex (23/23). Spikelets linear (13/23), or lanceolate (3/23), or elliptic (1/23), or oblong (6/23); laterally compressed (23/23); 5-36.2-110 mm long; breaking up at maturity (23/23); disarticulating below each fertile floret (23/23). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (22/23), or elongated between glumes (1/23), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (1/23); glabrous (9/22), or sparsely hairy (1/22), or pubescent (11/22), or pilose (2/22).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (5/23), or one to two the lower present in some spikelets (1/23), or two (20/23), or several (1/23); persistent (21/23), or deciduous (2/23); shorter than spikelet (23/23). Lower glume linear (1/21), or lanceolate (11/21), or oblong (1/21), or ovate (8/21); 0.3-0.5-0.7 length of upper glume; chartaceous (20/20); without keels (17/18), or 1-keeled (1/18); 0 -veined (1/11), or 1 -veined (2/11), or 3 -veined (1/11), or 5 -veined (4/11), or 6 -veined (1/11), or 7 -veined (4/11). Lower glume lateral veins absent (3/21), or distinct (18/21). Lower glume surface glabrous (20/21), or pilose (1/21). Lower glume apex acute (13/19), or acuminate (4/19), or attenuate (2/19); muticous (19/21), or mucronate (1/21), or awned (1/21). Upper glume lanceolate (7/23), or elliptic (4/23), or oblong (1/23), or ovate (12/23); 0.2-0.3825-0.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous (23/23); without keels (19/20), or 1-keeled (1/20); 3 -veined (2/14), or 4 -veined (1/14), or 5 -veined (4/14), or 6 -veined (1/14), or 7 -veined (9/14), or 8-9 -veined (1/14), or 11 -veined (1/14). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (2/2). Upper glume surface glabrous (22/23), or pilose (1/23). Upper glume apex acute (13/22), or acuminate (6/22), or attenuate (2/22), or setaceously attenuate (1/22); muticous (21/23), or mucronate (1/23), or awned (1/23); 1 -awned (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate (3/23), or elliptic (3/23), or ovate (17/23); chartaceous (23/23); without keel (21/22), or keeled (1/22); 5-9-15 -veined. Lemma surface smooth (22/23), or scabrous (2/23); glabrous (19/23), or puberulous (3/23), or pubescent (1/23), or pilose (1/23). Lemma margins eciliate (20/23), or ciliolate (2/23), or ciliate (1/23). Lemma apex obtuse (1/23), or acute (4/23), or acuminate (12/23), or attenuate (2/23), or setaceously attenuate (3/23), or apiculate (1/23); muticous (19/23), or mucronate (3/23), or awned (3/23); 1 -awned (3/3). Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (2/9), or 7 -veined (2/9), or 8 -veined (3/9), or 9 -veined (2/9), or 10-14 -veined (1/9). Palea keels separated (21/23), or contiguous above a sulcus (2/23); wingless (20/23), or winged (3/23); smooth (21/23), or scabrous (2/23); eciliate (14/23), or ciliolate (4/23), or ciliate (5/23). Palea surface glabrous (19/23), or puberulous (2/23), or pubescent (1/23), or pilose (1/23). Palea apex dentate (2/2); muticous (20/23), or with excurrent keel veins (3/23). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (23/23).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 3 (23/23); glabrous (9/23), or ciliate (15/23). Anthers 3 (23/23). Stigmas 2 (5/21), or 3 (16/21). Ovary glabrous (2/2).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (23/23); fusiform (1/5), or ellipsoid (3/5), or oblong (1/5); apex unappendaged (21/22), or rostrate (1/22). Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (2/2); 1 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
Europe (1), or Temperate Asia (20), or Tropical Asia (9), or Australasia (3), or North America (2).

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Shrubby or tree-like bamboos with woody culms
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades finally disarticulating from the sheath
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence variable, paniculate or racemose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 1–many-flowered, all hermaphrodite or the uppermost reduced, cylindric or ± compressed, often large, loose and linear; rhachilla disarticulating below each floret; glumes 2, persistent, membranous to herbaceous, few- to many-nerved; lemmas usually larger and exceeding the glumes, rounded on the back, herbaceous, becoming chartaceous or coriaceous, 5–13-nerved usually with transverse veinlets, obtuse, acute or acuminate; palea several-nerved, 2-keeled; lodicules 3; stamens 3; stigmas 2–3.

Native to:

Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia

Introduced into:

Kansas, Pennsylvania

Arundinaria Michx. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Hu, S.Y. [12493], Hong Kong K000795289 No
Dransfield, S. [SD1355], Madagascar K000795286 No

First published in Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 73 (1803)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 73 (1803).

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 73 (1803).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 73 (1803)

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0