Family:
Rubiaceae Juss.

Ixora L.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

[FTEA]

Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or small trees
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite or rarely ternate, sessile or petiolate; blades usually drying greyish, greenish, brown or rarely black (not in Africa), chartaceous to coriaceous, entirely glabrous, less often pubescent beneath, very rarely puberulous above; domatia and bacterial nodules absent; stipules with a truncate to triangular limb, usually connate for most of the length, bearing a short or long cuspidate or aristate lobe, rarely pubescent inside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually fragrant, hermaphrodite, 4(–5)-merous, few–many, usually borne in triads on terminal sessile to long-pedunculate ± lax cymes or rarely spherical heads, occasionally terminal on very short branches so that they appear axillary (not in Africa) or rarely cauliflorous (not in Africa); inflorescence-branches frequently coloured, opposite and articulate or less often absent; pedicels present or absent; inflorescence-supporting leaves (or rudimentary leaves fide Bremekamp l.c.) often present at base of peduncle, usually smaller and frequently differing in shape from the foliage leaves, but with a fully developed stipule; bracts stipule-like; bracteoles present or rarely absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx often reddish in colour, glabrous to shortly pilose or less often pubescent; tube ovoid; limb short, sometimes almost absent, usually as wide as the tube, truncate or more usually 4(–5)-toothed, shortly lobed or occasionally with well-developed lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, yellow, pink or red, glabrous outside or rarely pilose; tube cylindrical, usually slender, only slightly widened at the throat, naked or somewhat bearded at throat; lobes contorted in bud, spreading or reflexing, lanceolate, narrowly elliptic or ovate, much shorter than or occasionally equalling the tube in length
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens attached at the mouth of the tube, exserted and spreading or erect in mature flowers; filaments very short; anthers attached near the base, linear, apiculate and sagittate, twisted when dehisced
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disc annular, fleshy
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary small, 2-locular; placentas fleshy attached near the top of the septum; ovules solitary, immersed in the placentas; style slender, equalling or slighdy exceeding the corolla-tube, glabrous or sometimes pilose; stigma exserted, 2-lobed; lobes always completely separate when mature, usually recurved, equalling or a little shorter than the anthers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a drupe, usually red (dull brown in dry specimens), spherical or 2-lobed, slightly fleshy or coriaceous, containing 1–2, 1-seeded thin-walled pyrenes; calyx-limb persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds frequently undeveloped, rusty brown in colour, 2, hemispherical with a deep circular excavation in the centre of the plane ventral face, convex dorsal face not sculptured but sometimes with minute protuberances which are occasionally shiny; endosperm entire cartilaginous; embryo dorsal, curved; cotyledons foliaceous; radicle pointing downwards.

[FZ]

Rubiaceae, D.M.Bridson & B.Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 5:3. 2003

Morphology General Habit
Shrubs or small trees.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite or rarely ternate, subsessile or petiolate or rarely sessile; mostly entirely glabrous; domatia and bacterial nodules absent (a bacterium causes a leaf spot in some species); petioles articulate (i.e. a joint between stem and petiole is apparent).
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipule limb truncate to triangular, usually connate for most of the length, bearing a short or long cuspidate or aristate lobe, rarely pubescent inside.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually fragrant, hermaphrodite, 4(5)-merous, few to many in terminal sessile to long-pedunculate ± lax corymbs or rarely spherical heads; inflorescence branches frequently coloured, pedicels present or absent*; inflorescence-subtending leaves usually smaller and frequently differing in shape from the foliage leaves, but with a fully developed stipule; bracts stipule-like; bracteoles present or rarely absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tube ovoid; limb short, truncate or more usually 4(5)-toothed, shortly lobed or occasionally with well developed lobes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, yellow, pink or red, glabrous outside or rarely pilose; tube cylindrical, usually slender, only slightly widened at the throat, naked or somewhat bearded at throat; lobes contorted to the right in bud, spreading or reflexing, linear to ovate, much shorter than or occasionally equalling the tube in length.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens attached at the mouth of the tube; anthers twisted when dehisced.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary small, 2-locular (rarely 4-locular outside Africa); placentas fleshy, attached to the top of the septum; ovules solitary, immersed in the placentas; style slender, equalling or slightly exceeding the corolla tube, glabrous or sometimes pilose; pollen presenter exserted, 2-lobed; mature lobes always completely separate, usually recurved, equalling or a little shorter than the anthers.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Drupes spherical or 2-lobed, slightly fleshy or coriaceous, containing 1 or 2 pyrenes; pyrenes thin walled, 1-seeded; calyx limb persistent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2, hemispherical, with a deep circular excavation on plane face, convex face sometimes with minute occasionally shiny protuberances.

Native to:

Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Northern Territory, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Line Is., Mexico Southeast, Trinidad-Tobago, Western Australia

Ixora L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Aug 19, 2011 Magnago, L.F.S. et al. [987], Brazil K000771101 Yes
Aug 19, 2011 Fontana [1455], Brazil K000771102 Yes
Jan 1, 2010 Kartonegoro, A.R. [ARK 284], Indonesia K000174545 No
Jan 1, 2010 Emiza, S.S. [FRI 54978], Malaysia K000174553 No
Coode, M. [4065], Mauritius 33633.000 No
Richardson, I. [4048], Mauritius 40030.000 No
Richardson, I. [4037], Mauritius 40870.000 No
Davis, A.P. [2212], Madagascar 61293.000 No
Davis, A.P. [2222], Madagascar 61318.000 No
Davis, A.P. [1043], Madagascar 63901.000 No
Davis, A.P. [2297], Madagascar 63999.000 No
Fróes, R.L. [20758], Brazil K001194507 Yes
Vervloet, R.R. [3171], Brazil K001194521 Yes
Assis, M.C. [198], Brazil K001194523 Yes
Maurin, O. [119], Madagascar 76253.000 No
Nunes, T.S. [226], Brazil K001194522 Yes
Luz, A.A. [188], Brazil K001194510 Yes
Prance, G.T. [6777], Brazil K001194509 Yes
Zappi, D. [422], Brazil K001194512 Yes
Vimercati, J.M. [335], Brazil K001194517 Yes
Kollmann, L. [799], Brazil K001194514 Yes
Cuming, H. [1070], Philippines K000771602 Yes
Maurin, O. [119], Madagascar 76234.000 No
Sant'Ana, S.C. et al. [371], Sergipe K000265090 Yes
Cuming, H. [1070], Philippines K000771603 Yes
Rodrigues, R.R. [s.n.], Brazil K001194520 Yes
Maguire, B. [56618], Brazil K001194506 Yes
Ducke, A. [2245], Brazil K001194508 Yes
Luz, A.A. [462], Brazil K001194511 Yes
Folli, D.A. [4012], Brazil K001194518 Yes
Assis, M.A. [58], Brazil K001194519 Yes
Kollmann, L. [1790], Brazil K001194515 Yes
Cuming [1881], Philippines K000771601 Yes
Maurin, O. [117], Madagascar 76235.000 No
Kollmann, L. [1384], Brazil K001194516 Yes
Luz, A.A. [187], Brazil K001194513 Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 110 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 3: 162.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Bremekamp in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. sér. 3: 14 (1937).
  • De Block, Opera Bot. Belg. 9: 1–217 (1998).
  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 48 (1754).
  • J.D. Hooker in Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Pl. 2: 113 (1873).
  • Sp. Pl.: 110 (1753)

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Benth. & Hook.f., G.P. 2: 113 (1873)
  • Bremek. in Bull. Inst. Bot. Buitenz. sér 3, 14: 197–367 (1937)
  • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 48 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl.: 110 (1753)

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

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  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

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  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

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