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Hopbush is a highly variable evergreen shrub or small tree with several subspecies and varieties. It occurs around most of the southern hemisphere, and its numerous useful properties have been discovered independently by people of different continents. The flowers are relatively unspectacular but its winged fruits can become red or purple as they mature, making it an attractive garden plant in the tropics and subtropics. One cultivated variety also develops purple leaves when grown in direct light. The scientific name, Dodonaea, refers to Rembert Dodoens (a 16th century Flemish royal physician, botanist and professor), viscosa to the stickiness of its leaves.

Dodonaea viscosa (hopbush)

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 250 - 3900 m.; Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FTEA]

Sapindaceae, Davies & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1998

Morphology General Habit
Monoecious or dioecious semi-prostrate shrub or small tree, 0.5–9 m. tall; bark black or brown, ± rough; twigs black or reddish brown, glandular, glabrescent, ridged and developing vertical fissures.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple, variable; blades oblanceolate or broadly to narrowly elliptic, (1–)4–13 cm. long, (0.4–)1.3–4.2 cm. wide, widest at or above the midpoint, obtuse and minutely apiculate at apex, gradually narrowed below the middle to a narrowly cuneate base; margin entire, recurved (in dried specimens); both surfaces glabrous and glandular, coated especially when young with viscid glandular exudate; lateral nerves 15–20(–30), often indistinct; petioles 0–2.5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers greenish yellow, unisexual or bisexual, in loose thyrsoid panicles at the ends of twigs; pedicels 0.8–1.5 cm. long in flower and fruit, glabrous and glandular. Bisexual flowers similar:sepals 3–4, greenish yellow, ovate, 2–2.5 mm. long, spreading; anthers 1.6–1.9 mm. long. Female flowers:calyx green, cup-like but sepals free; staminodes lacking or with anthers ± 1.5 mm. long; ovary green, oblong in outline, flattened, bilobed, glandular; style 2–3-lobed, equalling the ovary; disk inconspicuous. Male flowers:sepals 3–4, straw-coloured or greenish yellow, 2–2.5 mm. long, spreading; stamens 7(–9); anthers 2–3 mm. long; ovary rudiment minute.
sex Male
Male flowers:sepals 3–4, straw-coloured or greenish yellow, 2–2.5 mm. long, spreading; stamens 7(–9); anthers 2–3 mm. long; ovary rudiment minute.
sex Female
Female flowers:calyx green, cup-like but sepals free; staminodes lacking or with anthers ± 1.5 mm. long; ovary green, oblong in outline, flattened, bilobed, glandular; style 2–3-lobed, equalling the ovary; disk inconspicuous.
sex Hermaphrodite
Bisexual flowers similar:sepals 3–4, greenish yellow, ovate, 2–2.5 mm. long, spreading; anthers 1.6–1.9 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit disk-shaped, the body 1.5–2.3 cm. long, 8–11 mm. wide, with an encircling papery venose wing 3–7 mm. wide or a few with 3(–4) locules and wings.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2 per locule, black, subspherical, or somewhat compressed with a raised dorsal rim, 2–3 mm. diameter, 1.5–3 mm. thick.

[UNAL]
Vernacular
Chamano, Florida hopbush, Hayuelo, Hopshrup

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 250 - 3900 m.
Conservation
Least concern.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.
Morphology General Habit
Shrub.
Vernacular
Hopshrup.

[FZ]

Sapindaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

Morphology General Habit
Small tree up to 10 m. tall or shrub; branchlets angular, glabrous, resinous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple, spirally arranged; petiole up to 6 mm. long, glabrous; lamina up to 10 × 3 cm., narrowly elliptic, glabrous, resinous, apex acute and usually acuminate, margin entire, base narrowly cuneate and decurrent into the petiole; lateral nerves numerous (usually up to c. 20 pairs).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence usually c. 2 cm. long, terminal or subterminal, somewhat corymbose; peduncle short (rarely more than 5 mm. long).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers greenish-yellow (often bisexual fide Radlkofer); pedicels up to 5 mm. long (accrescent to 12 mm. long in fruit), filiform, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens usually 6; anthers 3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary (2)3(4)-locular; style 4–6 mm. long, (2)3(4)-lobed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit up to 2 × 2 cm., 2–3(4)-locular, subcircular in outline, emarginate at apex and base, with 2–3 glabrous membranous wings c. 4–6 mm. broad, very shortly stipitate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed black, 3 × 2 mm., lenticular, glabrous.

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description
A highly variable, extremely widespread plant with numerous medicinal uses, hopbush is known by over 50 different common names.

Hopbush is a highly variable evergreen shrub or small tree with several subspecies and varieties. It occurs around most of the southern hemisphere, and its numerous useful properties have been discovered independently by people of different continents. The flowers are relatively unspectacular but its winged fruits can become red or purple as they mature, making it an attractive garden plant in the tropics and subtropics. One cultivated variety also develops purple leaves when grown in direct light. The scientific name, Dodonaea, refers to Rembert Dodoens (a 16th century Flemish royal physician, botanist and professor), viscosa to the stickiness of its leaves.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Widely distributed through the southern hemisphere including Australia, New Zealand, South and Southeast Asia, Africa and Latin America; also occurring in the southern United States. It is tolerant of drought and can grow in coastal environments. It is intolerant of frost and does not grow well in shade.

Description

Hopbush is an evergreen shrub or small tree, which grows up to about 5 m in height. The leaves are variable in shape, from elongated to spoon- or wedge-shaped, are sometimes reddish or purplish, and are usually shiny and sticky to the touch. They generally have conspicuous veins and their edges may be weakly toothed or undulating. The flowers, which grow at the ends of the branches, are either male or female, and individual plants generally bear one or the other (in which case plants of both sexes are required for successful reproduction). In other cases, however, they may bear flowers of both sexes. The pollen is transported by the wind, and the lack of petals maximises exposure to the breeze. The female flowers, after pollination, develop into 3 or 4 winged papery capsules, each with 2-3 black seeds. These capsules turn red or purple as the fruit matures.

More common names for this species

'A'ali'i, 'a'ali'i kü makani (""'a'ali'i upright in the wind"") [Hawai'i]; ake, akeake, akerantangi [Nz]; alipata [Philipines (Tagalog)]; 'apiri [Tahiti]; bandari [India]; calapinai [Philipines (Tagalog)]; candlewood, dogwood [Bahamas]; chacataya [Bolivia]; chamana [Ecuador, Peru]; chamiso [Argentina]; chanamo, hayuelo [Colombia]; chapuliztle, cuerco de calva, granadina [Mexico]; chulita [Guatemala]; florida, hopbush, hopshrub [England]; gansies [Afrikan]; gelampaya, serengan laut [Malaya]; gitaran [Puerto Rico]; granadillo, hayo [Venezuela]; hopbush, native hop [Australia]; hopwood [England]; kabunda [Congo]; kankerbos [Afrikan]; kayu berthi. letup letup [Malaya]; kayu mesen, kisig, mesen [Java]; kharata [India]; mai pek [Thailand]; manglier petites feuilles [Haiti]; mukusao, umusasa [Congo]; native birch, native lignum vitae [Tasmania]; sanatha [Pakistan]; sanatta [Sanskrit]; switch sorrel [Jamaica]; vassoura vermelha [Brazil]; vrali [Spain]; walaytinahndi [Hindi]; yxichapulin [Aztec].

Uses

To list the many uses of this plant around the world would be a huge task. However, Kew's Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) has undertaken a comprehensive collation of uses recorded in available scientific literature. In the western part of the island of New Guinea, for example, Yali highlanders use the wood for house construction and firewood, and apply heated leaves as plasters for wounds. D. viscosa is also used for house construction elsewhere in Southeast Asia, West Africa and Brazil.

Hopwood is also used in New Guinea for making tools and fish traps, for stimulating lactation in mothers, as incense for funerals, and as a remedy for dysentery. Various parts of the plant are used traditionally in Africa and Asia for treating digestive system disorders, infections, rheumatism, respiratory complaints and skin problems. Early settlers in Australia used D. viscosa as a substitute for hops for brewing beer (as reflected in some of common names of this plant), a use also recorded from Iraq. Hopwood leaves have been reported to be chewed as a stimulant in some parts of the world (such as in Colombia and Peru, where the leaves are sometimes mixed with coca, Erythroxylum coca ).

Dodonaea viscosa readily colonizes open areas and secondary forest, and is tolerant of salinity, drought and pollution. It is therefore useful for dune stabilization, restoring degraded lands and for reforestation. Its fast growth and tolerance of strong winds make it an excellent hedge and windbreak, and it is planted as a decorative shrub (e.g. in South Africa, Australia and southern U.S.A.).

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

Description of seeds: Black, 2-3 mm in length and firm when ripe, contained in three- or four-winged capsules that become brittle when mature.

Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank: 20.

Seed storage behaviour: Orthodox (the seeds of this plant survive being dried without significantly reducing their viability, and are therefore amenable to long-term frozen storage such as at the MSB)

Germination testing: 100% germination when chipped with scalpel (on 1% agar, at 15, 20 and 25 oC, 8/16). 49-67% germination (pre-sowing treatment = 80% sulphuric acid for 4 minutes) on 1% agar under range of temperature & lighting conditions.

Composition values: 7.6-19% oil content (entire seed/nut). 20.4-21.4% protein content (entire seed/nut).

Cultivation

Hopbush is cultivated in the Tropical Nursery, one of the behind-the-scenes areas of Kew. It is grown from seed; some sources recommend pre-treatment of the seed in very hot water. Kew's general potting mix is used, which consists of coir and Silvafibre, with screened loam, Osmacote and Kieserite. Alternatively, a light, well-drained soil could be used. 

Hopbush can also be propagated by taking cuttings; this method can be used to obtain female plants for the aesthetic value of their winged fruits. At Kew, hopbush is grown in a glasshouse zone where the minimum temperature is 16˚C, and is kept under natural light. Hopbush will tolerate lengthy dry periods and does not require heavy feeding. Occasional mealy bug and whitefly infestations are dealt with using biological controls and, if necessary, by chemical sprays.

Hopbush at Kew

Hopbush is cultivated in the Tropical Nursery, one of the behind-the-scenes areas of Kew.

Dried and alcohol-preserved specimens of hopbush are held in the Herbarium, and details of some of these specimens can be seen in the online Herbarium Catalogue.

Specimens of hopbush are also held in the Economic Botany Collection.

South Africa Landscape - Kew at the British Museum

Between April and October 2010, Kew and the British Museum brought a small corner of South Africa to the heart of London. The South Africa Landscape celebrated a shared vision to strengthen cultural understanding and support biodiversity conservation across the world.

Dodonaea viscosa (hopbush) was one of the star plants featured in the Landscape.

"
Distribution
Australia, New Zealand, USA
Ecology
Generally occurring in open habitats, including open woodland, on well-drained soil in tropical and subtropical climates.
Conservation
Not threatened.
Hazards

Contains low levels of toxic chemicals known as cyanogenic glycosides. Although there are no recorded cases of human poisonings it should be treated with caution. It is known to cause liver damage in cattle.

[FWTA]

Sapindaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A plant
Ecology
Of sandy coastal areas
Note
At least one other form is commonly grown as a hedge plant inland.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree; all parts glabrous and resinous when young
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple; petiole short; blade narrowly elliptic to narrowly obovate, entire, acute or rarely rounded to truncate at the apex, attenuate at the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal or axillary, paniculate, 1–4 cm long, often merging into a compound terminal inflorescence; pedicels 2–7(–12 in female flowers) mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 4, ovate, 2–3.5 x 1.5–2 mm, yellowish green, shortly united at the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens (5–)7–9(–10), subsessile; anthers c. 3 mm long; style 4–7 mm long, 2–3-fid; stigmas 2–3 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit circular in outline, 0.7–1.6 x 1–1.8 cm, yellowish with reddish tinged wings
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds subglobose to lens-shaped, c. 3 x 2 mm.
Note
Var. viscosa is restricted to coastal habitats and is distributed along the tropical shores of Africa, Asia, Australia, the Pacific Is. and America. It is known from the coast of Kenya, but has not yet been found in Somalia. Var. viscosa is a shrub or small tree up to about 4 m tall, with leaves mostly wider than in var. angustifolia (up to 12 x 4 cm). Also the scars of fallen sepals below the fruit are strongly bilobed, and the seeds are subglobose and mostly rolling easily when dropped on a flat surface.

[UPB]
Use Materials
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, California, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chatham Is., Chile Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Victoria, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Chagos Archipelago, Easter Is., Iraq, Palestine, Spain

English
Florida hopbush, Hopbush
Spanish
Hayuelo, chamano.

Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Apr 1, 2009 Sigun [126591], Sabah K000575916
Feb 1, 2009 Takeuchi [5724], Hawaii K000575722
Jan 18, 2008 Amin, A. [115322], Malaysia K000512200
Jan 18, 2008 Maikin et al. [131137], Malaysia K000512201
Oct 2, 2006 Amin Sigun [126145], Malaysia K000442112
Pennington, T.D. [12323], Peru 53644.000
Patel, H. [7243], Mozambique K000545204
Spruce, R. [4987], Ecuador K000201209
Linden [2070], Cuba K000586269
Rico, L. [2020], Mexico K000265998
s.coll. [s.n.], Indonesia K000701357

First published in Enum. Syst. Pl.: 19 (1760)

Accepted by

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Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Species Profiles

  • Australian Native Plants Society (Australia) - Dodonaea viscosa.
  • Closs, J. & West, J. (1993). Dodonaea – The Hop Bush. Australian Plants 137.
  • Milliken, W. (1999). Ethnobotany of the Yali of West Papua. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh electronic publication.
  • Prendergast, H.D.V. & Pearman, G. (2001). Comparing uses and collections - the example of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. [Sapindaceae]. Economic Botany 55: 184-186.

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Bernal, R., Galeano, G., Rodríguez, A., Sarmiento, H. & Gutiérrez, M. (2017). Nombres comunes de las plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew’s Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Aubrév. Fl. For. C. Iv. 2: 180, t. 195, 7–10.
  • Chev. Bot. 154
  • Enum. Syst. Pl. Ins. Carib. 19 (1760)
  • F.T.A. 1: 433
  • Radlk. in Engl. Pflanzenr. Sapindac. 1363 (q.v. for infraspecific variants)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Dufour-Dror, J.M. & Fragman-Sapir, O. in Dufour-Dror, J.M. (2019). Alien Plant Species in Natural & Disturbed Areas in Israel Alien Invasive Plants in Israel, ed. 2: 1-246. Dan Perry Pub., Nature & Parks Authority, Israel Ministry of Environmental Protection.
  • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1966). Flora Zambesiaca 2(2): 353-653. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Lorence, D.H. & Wagnwe, W.L. (2020). Flora of the Marquesas Islands 2: 413-1135. National Tropical Botanic Garden, Smithsonian, DRPF.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Santisuk, T. & Larsen, K. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Thailand 7(1): 1-250. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
  • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • USDA, NRCS ( 2021-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wilder, G. P. (1934). The flora of Makatea CNV Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 120: 1-49.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by I. Friis & K. Vollesen [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianas p. 417, map (1994).
  • Exell in Flora Zambesiaca 2: 542 (1966).
  • F. Friedmann in Fl. Masc. 76: 3, t. 1/1–3 (1997).
  • J.G. West in Brunonia 7: 30, fig. 22a (1984)
  • J.G. West in Fl. Austr. 25: 120, fig. 28a (1985).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 557 (1949).
  • Jacq., Enum. Syst. Pl.: 19 (1760).
  • Jex-Blake, Gard. E. Afr., ed. 4: 111, 356 (1957).
  • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 724 (1958).
  • Leenh. in Blumea 28: 285, fig. 1a (1983).
  • Leenh. in Fl. Males., ser. 1, 11: 526 (1994).
  • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 235 (1949).
  • Radlk. in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV, 165: 1363 (1933).
  • Vollesen in Opera Bot. 59: 58 (1980).

Universidad Nacional de Colombia

  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Species Profiles
Kew Species Profiles
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/