Apiaceae Lindl.

Bupleurum L.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical Northern Hemisphere, S. Africa.


Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial glabrous herbs, or more rarely shrubs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple and entire, sometimes perfoliate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Umbels compound, of few to many often very unequal rays
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Involucre
Involucre and involucel present or involucre absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx teeth obsolete (very rarely obvious, and not in Iraqi species)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers yellow or yellowish, petals with tips inflexed, cucullate, variable in shape, smooth or occasionally finely papillose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Mericarps with 5 prominent primary ridges, fruit laterally compressed, usually ovoid to oblong, rarely subglobose, commissure broad
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Vittae
Vittae in valleculae 1–5, variously developed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds Endosperm
Commissural face of endosperm flat or shallowly excavate, rarely more deeply excavate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stylopodium
Stylopodium depressed, flat, margin usually entire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Styles short, reflexed.
Some 150 species in Europe, Asia, Africa and N America; nine species in Iraq.
Bupleurum (Gr. name of plant from βους, bous, ox, πλευρα, pleura, rib, used for a plant of this affinity by Nicander; Hare’s Ear, Thorow-wax or Throw-away etc. (Eng.). Bedevian gives the name UDHN AL-ARNAB (“hare’s ear”, Ar.) which appears to be merely an Arabic translation of the English common name.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, France, Free State, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Idaho, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Libya, Madeira, Magadan, Manchuria, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands, New Mexico, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Sahara, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Yukon

Introduced into:

Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Eritrea, Finland, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, Norway, Ohio, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Québec, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia

Bupleurum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Schimper, W. [290], Arabian Peninsula K000687140 isotype Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 238 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.


Flora of Iraq

  • Linnaeus, Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 110 (1754);
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1: 236 (1753);
  • Neves & Watson in Ann. Bot. 93: 379 (2004)
  • Wolff in Engler & Prantl, Pflanzenr. 4, 228: 36 (1910);

  • Flora of Iraq

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.