Rhizophora mangle L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 443 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is S. Florida to Tropical America, W. Tropical Africa to Angola. It is a shrub or tree and grows primarily in the wet tropical biome. It is used as a poison and a medicine and for fuel and food.

Descriptions

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.19592

Conservation
Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident
[AERP]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/178851/69024847

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description
Red mangrove trees produce thickets of submerged stilt roots which form an important habitat for a variety of marine life, especially young fish.

Rhizophora mangle is one of the most prominent members of a group of evergreen trees and shrubs that colonize tropical and subtropical coastlines, forming intertidal forests and thickets. These particular trees and shrubs are generally known as mangroves, and this unique ecosystem, adapted to coping with muddy, waterlogged soils of varying salinity, is called 'mangal'. In its natural range, from West Africa to the Pacific coast of tropical America, red mangroves often grow alongside white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) and, at more landward, brackish water locations, buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus). 

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Rhizophora mangle occurs worldwide between 28 degrees north and south of the equator. Temperature appears to be the factor limiting its distribution outside of this latitudinal range; R. mangle is killed by frost and cannot survive long periods of near-freezing temperatures.

Red mangroves are native to the western coast of Africa, and the eastern and western coasts of subtropical and tropical America. They have also been introduced to Hawaii, USA, and Queensland, Australia.

Description

Rhizophora mangle is an evergreen small shrub to medium-sized tree, growing up to 20 m in favourable conditions. 

Its most prominent feature is an array of aerial stilt roots (props) arising from the main trunk at 2.0-4.5 m height. These roots not only anchor and stabilize the plant in the shifting intertidal zones (substrates) but also play an important role in gaseous exchange. Abundant pores, called lenticels, on root surfaces connect to spongy internal tissues that can hold large volumes of air. On tidal submergence, the lenticels close, oxygen is used by the plant and carbon dioxide is absorbed into the seawater. This results in lower pressure within the root system. When the tide falls and the lenticels re-open, air is sucked into the roots to rapidly replenish vital oxygen supplies. 

Its bark is grey-brown and smooth when young, becoming more furrowed when mature. The thick, leathery leaves are arranged opposite each other and have a simple, elliptic (oval) shape with smooth margins (edges). They are glossy dark green above with a lighter, yellow-green underside, and are usually 6-12 cm in length and 2.5-6.0 cm wide.

Red mangroves produce hermaphroditic flowers (male and female sex organs in the same flower) throughout the year. Flower production peaks in the wet season in equatorial regions and spring to early summer in subtropical regions. The 2 cm long, bell-shaped, yellow-green flowers arise on short, forked stalks from the leaf axils and are wind- or self-pollinated. The fruit is a reddish-brown berry around 25 cm long and 12 mm in diameter.

Rhizophora mangle is a viviparous species: its seeds readily germinate while still attached to the mother plant, producing seedlings 20-25 cm long. As soon as seedlings (propagules) are ready they detach and fall to the ground. If they fall into the sea or brackish water, they can float for up to a year before settling in a suitable location, where they promptly root. Red mangrove propagules are often distributed over long distances by water currents - an important dispersal mechanism for this species. 

Related species

Rhizophora samoensis occurs in the eastern tropical Pacific. It is closely related to R. mangle and the two were previously considered to be the same species. They can only be distinguished by minor anatomical differences in the flower's calyx, that is the sepals that enclose the flower. R. samoensis has bracts (modified leaves) twice as wide as the pedicel (stalk within the inflorescence) and R. mangle has small or no bracts at all.

A 'living armour'

Of the numerous mangrove species, red mangrove grows closest to the sea and has stilt (or prop) roots adapted to withstand total submersion in salt water and the action of tidal waves. These stilt root thickets form important habitats for a variety of marine life, particularly as nursery grounds for young fish. They also act as 'living armour', protecting tropical coastlines by dissipating the energy contained in storm waves breaking on the shore.

However, there is only a certain energy level up to which mangroves can dissipate energy and mangroves are destroyed by large waves and high winds. The jury is out on whether or not mangroves do really dissipate tsunami waves - and these long waves are different in character from shorter, steeper storm waves.

Threats and conservation

Red mangrove is regarded as an invasive alien species in some parts of the world where it has been introduced for coastal protection and stabilization of muddy foreshores (Hawaii and Queensland, Australia). Here it has begun to outcompete native coastal vegetation through the formation of dense thickets. However, mangrove habitats are globally in decline for various reasons: agriculture, urban development, land and water pollution, and the spread of tourist facilities and shrimp farms.

Uses

Red mangrove provides a number of useful products. Its timber is used for traditional house building (for poles, beams, rafters and flooring) and underground mine supports. Its wood is also used for making canoes, fences and fishing spears. It is burnt as fuel (either as firewood or charcoal). The bark is used to make a reddish-brown or black dye and contains tannins used for tanning leather. The bark fibres are pounded to make cordage. 

Red mangrove has a number of traditional medicinal uses. For example, the bark is used for treating angina, boils and fungal infections, whereas leaves and bark are antiseptic and used to treat diarrhoea and dysentery.

Mangroves are important for erosion control, land reclamation and soil stabilisation around tropical coastlines. They provide natural 'nursery grounds' for many species of fish and other marine life, thereby supporting many commercial fisheries. By trapping sediments, mangroves reduce the turbidity (muddiness) of coastal waters, allowing development of healthy off-shore coral reefs, well known for their spectacular biological diversity - the marine equivalent of tropical rain forest. Such 'biofiltration' can also remove excess nutrients and other pollutants, most notably from sewage discharges and aquaculture operations.

Finally, high rates of productivity of mangrove forests, and accumulation of peaty sediments, may help to reduce carbon emissions and provide an important sink for carbon. 

Cultivation

Mangroves are relatively easy to cultivate in Kew's glasshouses at a constant temperature above 20°C with high air humidity. The preferred compost is loam, which should be kept constantly damp or even submerged in water. Mangroves need high levels of light and as much exposure to direct sun as possible. This is especially important for young saplings, which benefit from supplementary artificial lighting over the winter months, until they reach a good size and can cope with the low light levels of the British winter.

Remarkably, salt or sea water is not necessary at all. Although mangroves can cope with the stress of salinity, it is not a requirement for them. They benefit greatly from a daily shower of pressurized water, which will detach any leaves about to drop, wash out pests such as mealy bugs and scale insects, and lubricate newly developing buds so that they unfurl with ease.

This species at Kew

A specimen of Rhizophora mangle is held in Kew's Herbarium, where it is available to researchers from around the world by appointment. The details of this specimen can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

Specimens of Rhizophora mangle wood, bark and resin are held in the Economic Botany Collection in the Sir Joseph Banks Building and are available to researchers by appointment.

Ecology
Tropical and subtropical coastlines, riverine estuaries and brackish water; tolerates permanent submersion and seasonal flooding and grows poorly in dry (arid) regions.
Conservation
Currently categorized as of Least Concern according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Hazards

None known (although advisable not to get entangled in the roots!)

[KSP]

George R. Proctor (2012). Flora of the Cayman Isands (Second Edition). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Vernacular
RED MANGROVE
Morphology General Habit
A tree, sometimes low, shrubby and diffuse, otherwise up to 18 m tall or more; leaves 5–15 cm long, obtuse, entire, deep green, the nerves obscure; stipules 2.5–4 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Peduncles
Peduncles mostly 2–3-flowered; calyx 1 cm long, becoming reflexed; petals creamy yellow, 7–8 mm long, villous inside, chiefly below the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 8, ca. 5 mm long. Fruit 2.5–3.5 cm long but soon appearing much longer because of the developing radicle.
Distribution
Cayman Islands. Tropical America and islands of the Pacific
Ecology
Muddy or sandy seashores. The red mangrove with associated species forms an important plant community of tropical coasts, and is abundant in the Cayman Islands. Rhizophora is especially adapted to saline aquatic habits partly by virtue of its numerous prop-roots; these roots catch and hold mud and silt so that coast-lines are not only protected from erosion but are actually extended into the sea, the mangrove thickets gradually filling with soil and eventually becoming more or less solid land. Mangrove seedlings also drift about and take root on sand-bars to form small islands. The prop-roots form a tangle that becomes the habitat for numerous marine and semi-marine organisms.
[Cayman]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
mangle, mangle colorado, mangle piñón, mangle rojo, mangle rosado
[UNAL]

Distribution
Biogeografic region: Caribbean, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–6 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Atlántico, Bolívar, Cauca, Chocó, Córdoba, La Guajira, Magdalena, Nariño, San Andrés y Providencia, Sucre, Valle del Cauca.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC. National Red List of Colombia (2021): Potential LC.
Habit
Tree.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Kino, Mangle, Mangle cativo, Mangle colorado, Mangle piñón, Mangle rojo, Mangle salado, Pargua
[UPFC]

Rhizophoraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree, to 15 ft. high
Ecology
In mangrove swamps.
[FWTA]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 6 m.; Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico.
Morphology General Habit
Árbol
Conservation
Preocupación Menor
[CPLC]

Uses

Use
Timber, charcoal, medicine, coastal erosion control, nursery grounds for fish.
[KSP]

Use
Rhizophora has hard, heavy, strong, durable wood, used in some regions for many purposes, such as miscellaneous construction and for posts, pilings, and railway ties. It produces a superior kind of charcoal, and the bark has been much used for tanning leather. The young shoots are used to produce various dyes, the colours depending on the kind of salts used in preparing them. In spite of these various potential uses, mangroves should not be indiscriminately cut for any purpose without due consideration of their very real value in protecting shorelines from sea-erosion.
[Cayman]

Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
[UPFC]

Common Names

English
Red Mangrove, Red mangrove

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of the Cayman Islands

    • Flora of the Cayman Islands
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • 'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Kew Species Profiles

    • Kew Species Profiles
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Neotropikey

    • Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0