Rhizophora L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 443 (1753)
This genus is accepted
The native range of this genus is Tropics & Subtropics.

Descriptions

Rhizophoraceae, A. R. Torre & A. E. Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Wholly glabrous evergreen shrubs or trees of muddy sea-shores and estuaries, with stems supported by numerous aerial, adventitious, branched, capped prop-roots developed from the upper nodes; pneumatophores absent; branches stout, opposite.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves decussate, petiolate; leaf-lamina entire, leathery, usually black-dotted beneath, with nerves obscure below and visible or distinct above, midrib protruding at the tip into a caducous mucro; stipules large, lanceolate, ± red when fresh.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences cymose, simple or 2–3-dichotomously-branched, axillary, peduncled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers bisexual, 2-bracteolate, shortly pedicellate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx glabrous, leathery, surrounded at the base by a persistent cup-shaped pair of bracteoles, accrescent and reflexed in fruit; calyx-tube ± adnate to the ovary; calyx-lobes 4(5).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals entire, not clawed, inserted at the mouth of the calyx-tube.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4 epipetalous plus 4 or 8 episepalous, inserted on the margin of the crenulate disk, sessile or subsessile; anthers narrowly oblong, triquetrous, pointed, with numerous pollen-sacs within a membranous epidermis, multilocular, opening by a large ventral valve.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary inferior to semi-inferior, 2-locular, each locule 2-ovulate; style obscure or up to 6 mm. long, with a simple or shortly 2-lobed stigma.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a leathery, indehiscent, mostly 1-seeded (very rarely 2–3-seeded) berry, included in and ± adnate to the calyx-tube, with a granular or roughened surface; cotyledons connate into a fleshy body continuous with but set off from a clavate, elongate hypocotyl which perforates the apex of the fruit and falls out of it; endosperm absent.
[FZ]

Rhizophoraceae, John Lewis. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1956

Morphology General Habit
Trees or shrubs of muddy shores and estuaries, with stout opposite branches
Morphology Roots
Aerial roots present as prop-roots and (adventitiously) developed from upper nodes
Morphology Leaves
Leaves evergreen, opposite, petiolate, entire, leathery and glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences cymose; bracteoles paired and persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx connate below, adnate to the ovary, 4 (–5)-partite, persistent, becoming reflexed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 8–12 in a single whorl; anthers narrowly oblong, longer than the filaments, basifixed, triquetrous, having numerous pollen sacs within a membranous epidermis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary inferior to half inferior, 2-celled; placentae 2-ovulate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a leathery indehiscent berry
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Hypocotyl terete, swollen subdistally, pointed Seed usually solitary (very rarely 2), viviparous; endosperm absent Embryo falling by separation from the cotyledons, leaving the fruit on the tree.
[FTEA]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Trees or shrubs with stout opposite branches and aerial roots acting as stilt-roots from the middle and lower nodes of the main stems
Morphology Leaves
Leaves evergreen, petiolate, entire, leathery and glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences cymose; bracteoles prominent, paired and persistent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers with corolla-tube partly adnate to ovary; calyx 4–5-partite, persistent, becoming reflexed in fruit; petals in the same number as the calyx-lobes; stamens 8–12 in a single whorl; anthers subsessile, triquetrous, with numerous pollen sacs within a membranous epidermis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary inferior, 2-celled
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a leathery indehiscent berry
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds solitary, viviparous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds Hypocotyl
Hypocotyl terete, elongated, swollen above the radicle; embryo falling by separation from the cotyledons which remain in the fruit on the tree.
Distribution
Some eleven species in both the Old and the New World.
Ecology
Widespread in mangrove vegetation on muddy tropical shores and in estuaries
[FSOM]

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images