Genus:
Bromus L.

Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Yukon to Central America, Venezuela, Peru. It is used as animal food and a medicine and has environmental uses.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; short-lived. Culms 30-100 cm long. Culm-internodes distally glabrous, or pubescent. Leaf-sheaths tubular for much of their length; with 0.75 of their length closed; pilose. Leaf-sheath auricles absent, or falcate; 0.5 mm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-3 mm long; glabrous on abaxial surface, or pilose on abaxial surface; erose. Leaf-blades 3-12 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous to pilose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; lanceolate; 10-25 cm long. Primary panicle branches appressed, or ascending. Panicle branches terete. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 4-12 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 15-45 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 4-12 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 15-45 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; dissimilar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 5-9 mm long; 0.5 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume lanceolate; 10-15 mm long; 1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 5(-7) -veined. Upper glume apex acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma ovate; 11-15 mm long; herbaceous; keeled; 7 -veined. Lemma surface smooth, or scaberulous; glabrous to pubescent. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; acute; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical; 3-15 mm long overall. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 3; 1-5 mm long; eventually exserted, or retained within floret. Ovary with a fleshy appendage above style insertion; pubescent on apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; hairy at apex; apex fleshy. Hilum linear.
Distribution
Europe: northern and central. Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. North America: Subarctic, western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana and western South America.
Reference
Bromeae. Fl Pac NW 1993.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Colombian departments: Bogotá DC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial; caespitose. Butt sheaths persistent and investing base of culm; with soft dead sheaths. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 45-80 cm long. Culm-internodes distally pubescent. Leaf-sheaths pubescent to hirsute. Leaf-sheath auricles absent, or falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-3 mm long; lacerate. Leaf-blades flat, or involute; 8-14 cm long; 1-3 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface pubescent, or pilose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; 5-15 cm long. Primary panicle branches ascending; simple. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 5-7 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 20-30 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 5-7 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 20-30 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 8-11 mm long; 0.8-0.9 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; (3-)5-7(-9) -veined. Lower glume surface pubescent. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume lanceolate; 10-13 mm long; 0.9-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 7-9(-11) -veined. Upper glume surface pubescent. Upper glume apex acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate; laterally compressed; 10-14(-17) mm long; chartaceous; much thinner on margins; keeled; distinctly keeled; 7 -veined. Lemma surface pubescent. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn subapical; (3-)4-8(-10) mm long overall. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 3; 4.5-6 mm long. Ovary with a fleshy appendage above style insertion.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; apex fleshy.
Distribution
North America: northwest USA and southwest .
Reference
Bromeae. Pavlick 2010.

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.

Doubtfully present in:

Cyprus

Native to:

Alberta, British Columbia, California, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, New Mexico, Oregon, Peru, Texas, Venezuela, Washington, Yukon

Introduced into:

Alaska, Austria, Belgium, China North-Central, Colorado, Cyprus, Germany, Great Britain, Illinois, Japan, Kansas, Korea, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Ontario, Poland, Primorye, Taiwan, Transcaucasus

English
California Brome

Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Douglas [221] K000913873 Yes
Douglas [s.n.], California K000913856 Yes
Coulter [760], California K000913858 Yes
Cope, T.A. [RBG 101], United Kingdom K000914547 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.] K000308515 Yes
Scouler, J. [s.n.] K000913874 Yes
Fremont, J.C. [450], California K000913871 Yes
Geyer, C.A. [244], USA K000913860 Yes
Douglas [s.n.], Oregon K000913855 Yes
Pringle, C.G. [4897], Mexico K000308514 Yes
Nuttall, T. [s.n.], Oregon K000913859 Yes
Coulter [764], California K000913857 Yes
Douglas [s.n.] K000913854 Yes
s.coll. [766] K000913872 Yes
Gay, J.E. [s.n.] K000913625 Yes

First published in Bot. Beechey Voy.: 403 (1840)

Accepted by

  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dickoré, W.B. & Springer, S. (2016). Weitere Notizen zur Flora von München. Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft zur Erforschung der Heimischen Flora 86: 262-276.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (2020). Flora of Japan IVa: 1-430. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
  • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkowa, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M (2020). Vascular plants of Poland an annotated checklist: 1-526. W. Szafer institute of botany, Polish academy of sciences, Krakow, Poland.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Powell, A.M. & Worthington, R.D. (2018). Flowering plants of Trans-Pecos Texas and ajacent areas: 1-1444. BRIT Press.
  • Saarela, J.M., Peterson, P.M. & Váldes-Reyna, J. (2014). A taxonomic revision of Bromus (Poaceae: Pooideae: Bromeae) in México and Central America. Phytotaxa 185(1): 1-147.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae. Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dickoré, W.B. & Springer, S. (2016). Weitere Notizen zur Flora von München. Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft zur Erforschung der Heimischen Flora 86: 262-276.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (2020). Flora of Japan IVa: 1-430. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Kozhevnikov, A.E., Kozhevnikov, Z.V., Kwak, M. & Lee, B.Y. (2019). Illustrated flora of the Primorsky Territory, Russian Far East: 1-1124. National institute of biological resources.
  • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Powell, A.M. & Worthington, R.D. (2018). Flowering plants of Trans-Pecos Texas and ajacent areas: 1-1444. BRIT Press.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • USDA, NRCS (2005- continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae. Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Living Collection Database

    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0