Genus:
Cyperus L.

Cyperus esculentus L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical to N. America. It is used as animal food, a medicine and invertebrate food, has environmental uses and social uses and for fuel and food.

[FWTA]

Cyperaceae, Miss S. S. Hooper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Diagnostic
Generally distinguished from the other slenderly rhizomatous, tuber-bearing species by its golden, rather blunt spikelets, 1–2 cm. long and nerved sides to the glumes
Ecology
Weed in cultivated and waste places.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean, Caribbean, Orinoquia. Elevation range: 230–1550 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Arauca, Atlántico, Bogotá DC, Cundinamarca, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Tolima, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Herb.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, shrubland, artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Chingo, Chufa, Coquito, Corocillo, Corocito

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Fairly robust stoloniferous perennial; stolons to c. 15 cm long and 0.5–1.5 mm thick, covered with brown to blackish scales and ending in a blackish tuber 3–8 mm in diam.
Morphology Stem
Stems 15–70 cm long and 1–5 mm thick, triangular, glabrous, with 3–many crowded leaves near the base
Morphology Leaves
Largest leaf-blades 10–30 cm long and 3–9 mm wide, flat, scabrid on margin and major ribs; leaf-sheaths green to reddish brown, rarely blackish
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Spikes 1–3 cm long and wide, with 4–12 spreading spikelets Inflorescence a 3–20 cm long and 3–15 cm wide anthela consisting of 1 sessile and 3–10 stalked spikes on 0.5–15 cm long peduncles, often with 1–5 secondary (usually stalked) spikes from the base of some primary spikes; primary inflorescence-bracts 3–9, leafy, erect or spreading, the largest 3–20 cm long and 2–9 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 5–20 x 1.5–2 mm, linear-lanceolate with obtuse tip, brown or rust-coloured, 6–22-flowered
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes 2.2–2.6 mm long, ovate-elliptic, reddish brown with an uncoloured marginal border and 3–4 distinct nerves on each side of the midrib; midrib ending in the obtuse apex or slightly excurrent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 3-branched
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet 1.3–1.5 x 0.6–0.7 mm, elliptic, triangular, grey and shiny; surface with minute isodiametric cells.
Distribution
S3 pantropical and subtropical.
Ecology
Altitude below 100 m.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 230 - 1550 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
coquito, corocito

[FTEA]

Cyperaceae, K Hoenselaar, B. Verdcourt & H. Beentje. Hypolytrum, D Simpson. Fuirena, M Muasya. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2010

Type
Type: “Habitat Monspelii, inque Italia, Oriente”, lectotype: “Cyperus rotundus esculentus angustifolius” in Bauhin, Theatri Bot., 221, 222, 1658, chosen by Simpson in Jarvis & al. (ed.), Regnum Veg. 127: 41 (1993)
Morphology General Habit
Perennial, stoloniferous, up to 1 m high.
Vegetative Multiplication Stolons
Stolons to ± 15 cm long, 0.5–1.5 cm thick, covered with brown scales and ending in a blackish tuber 3–8 mm in diameter.
Morphology Culms
Culms 18.5–74 cm long, 1.6–3.5 mm wide, trigonous to triquetrous, glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaf sheath pale brownish-green to green, 2–9 cm long. Leaf blade linear, flat, 11.5–29 cm long, 2.3–8 mm wide, with 2 main veins next to primary vein, apex acuminate, glabrous to minutely scabrid on margins and veins Leaves up to 38 cm long, crowded near the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Involucral bracts 2–6. Leaf-like, spreading, the lowermost 4–16.5 cm long, 2.1–8 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence simple or compound, primary branches 5–10, 1–18 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets in loose clusters on elongated axis, sessile and at the end of primary and secondary branches, 9–20 per cluster, linear-lanceolate, 5.5–16 mm long, 1.2–2.5 mm wide, the apex of the spikelet obtuse.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes yellowish-brown to reddish-brown, elliptic-ovate to obovate, with 3–4 distinct veins on each side of the keel, glabrous, 2.4–3.5 mm long, 1.4–2 mm wide, keel green to reddish-brown, apex obtuse
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments 2.5–4 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers 1–2 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet shiny grey, ellipsoid, trigonous, 1.3–1.5 mm long, 0.6–0.7 mm wide, surface with minute isodiametric cells
Figures
Fig. 35, p228
Ecology
Swamps and seasonally wet grasslands, weed of shambas and gardens; 0–2100 m
Conservation
Least Concern (LC) due to its wide distribution and common habitat.
Distribution
Range: Widespread in Africa; S Europe Flora districts: U2 U3 U4 K3 K4 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T7 T8

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Invertebrate Food
Used as invertebrate food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Social
Social uses.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Azores, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, France, Free State, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Mali, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Namibia, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Rwanda, Senegal, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Austria, Belgium, Cambodia, China North-Central, Germany, Hawaii, Jawa, Mauritius, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Poland, Réunion, St.Helena, Taiwan, Tristan da Cunha, Ukraine, Vietnam

English
Earth almond, Ground almond, Nut grass, Tiger Nut, Water grass, Yellow nut sedge

Cyperus esculentus L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jun 5, 1930 South Africa K000362732 Yes
Mar 1, 1892 Rehmann, A. [4776], South Africa K000362730 syntype Yes
Mar 1, 1892 Kraup [97], South Africa K000362728 Yes
Mar 1, 1892 Baines, T. [s.n.], Botswana K000362729 Yes
Mar 1, 1892 Wood, J. M. [1581], South Africa K000362731 Yes
Feb 1, 1892 Buchanan, J. [23], Zambia K000362653 Yes
Jan 1, 1892 Gay, J. [s.n.], Italy K000309422 Yes
Bidgood, S. [5127], Tanzania K000190355 No
Bidgood, S. [5182], Tanzania K000190410 No
Spruce, R. [6414], Ecuador K000632122 Yes
Gay, J. [s.n.], Italy K000309423 Yes
Wailly, M. de [5122], Mali K000391870 No
Jaeger, P. [42], Mali K000391873 No
Bidgood, S. [5277], Tanzania K000190507 No
Chevalier, A. [950], Mali K000391874 No
Jaeger, P. [32], Mali K000391871 No
Jaeger, P. [38], Mali K000391872 No
Waterlot [1203], Mali K000391875 No
Oct 1, 1994 Drummond, J. [452], USA Cyperus esculentus var. macrostachyus K000307937 Unknown type material Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 45 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Cabezas, F., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2004). Checklist of the Cyperaceae of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko, Río Muni). Belgian Journal of Botany 137: 3-26.
  • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2008). Flora Iberica 18: 1-420. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Demissew, S., & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1997). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 6: i-xxviii, 1-586. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Espejo Serna, A. & López-Ferrari, A.R. (1997). Las Monocotiledóneas Mexicanas una Sinopsis Florística 5: 1-98. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de México, México D.F.
  • Govaerts, R. & Simpson, D.A. (2007). World Checklist of Cyperaceae. Sedges: 1-765. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Hoenselaar, K., Verdcourt, B. & Beentje, H. (2010). Cyperaceae. Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-466.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Lye, K.A. & Thery, P. (2012). Flore du Gabon 44: 1-230. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Marais, W. & Araujo, A.C. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 202: 1-99. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Muer, T., Sauerbier, H. & Cabrara Calixto, F. (2020). Die Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Madeiras: 1-792. Verlag und Versandbuchhandlung Andreas Kleinsteuber.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Powell, A.M. & Worthington, R.D. (2018). Flowering plants of Trans-Pecos Texas and ajacent areas: 1-1444. BRIT Press.
  • Rothrock, P.E. (2009). Sedges of Indiana and adjacent states: the non-Carex species: 1-271. Indiana Academy of Sciences.
  • Schäfer, H. (2021). Flora of the Azores a field guide: 1-445. Margraf Publishers GmbH.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon. Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Velayos, M., Aedo, C., Cabezas, F., de la Estrella, M., Barberá, P. & Fero, M. (eds.) (2014). Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial 11: 1-416. Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas, Real jardín botánico, Madrid.
  • Vladimirov, V. & al. (2016). New floristic records in the Balkans: 29. Phytologia Balcanica 22: 93-123.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil. Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
  • de Oliveira Ribeiro, A.R. & al. (2014). Cyperaceae do rio Apodi-Mossoró, estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Hoehnea 41: 149-171.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Flora of West Tropical Africa

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Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
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  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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  • Espejo Serna, A. & López-Ferrari, A.R. (1997). Las Monocotiledóneas Mexicanas una Sinopsis Florística 5: 1-98. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de México, México D.F.
  • Fleischmann, A. (2016). Floristische Kurzmitteilungen. Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft zur Erforschung der Heimischen Flora 86: 277-294.
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  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
  • Marais, W. & Araujo, A.C. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 202: 1-99. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
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  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil. Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
  • de Oliveira Ribeiro, A.R. & al. (2014). Cyperaceae do rio Apodi-Mossoró, estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Hoehnea 41: 149-171.

Flora of Somalia

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Flora of Tropical East Africa

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Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

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  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Living Collection Database

    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Plants and People Africa

    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0