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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Europe to Iran, Arabian Peninsula, Africa.
Gladiolus dzavakheticus (sword lily)

[FTEA]

Iridaceae, Peter Goldblatt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996

Morphology General Habit
Perennials with corms with coriaceous to fibrous and reticulate tunics
Morphology Leaves
Leaves few-several, the lower (2-)3 entirely sheathing and mostly below ground (cataphylls); foliage leaves usually contemporary with the flowering stem, occasionally borne later on separate shoots, few-several, basal or cauline, blades well developed or reduced and largely to entirely sheathing, lanceolate to linear and plane or filiform and terete, the margins, midrib and sometimes other veins thickened and hyaline (margins sometimes winged)
Morphology Stem
Stem terete, simple or branched
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a spike, the flowers secund (distichous in a few SPECIES); bracts usually green, firm to soft, sometimes dry and brown at anthesis, relatively large, the inner usually smaller than the outer
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers zygomorphic (actinomorphic in a few SPECIES from South Africa, Zaire and Madagascar); tepals united in a well-developed, sometimes very long tube, subequal to unequal, then the uppermost (dorsal) broader and arching to hooded over the stamens, the lower 3 narrower, shorter or longer than the dorsal
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Filaments unilateral and arcuate, included or exserted from the tube; anthers unilateral (symmetrical in actinomorphic flowers)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style exserted, the branches simple, expanded above and sometimes apically bilobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsules large and slightly inflated
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds usually many, with a broad membranous circumferential wing (wingless in a few SPECIES).

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Perennials with corms with coriaceous to fibrous and reticulate tunics
Morphology Leaves
Leaves few to several, the lower (2–)3 entirely sheathing and mostly below ground; foliage leaves usually contemporary with the flowers (or leaves produced after flowering, then on the same shoot or on separate shoots), few to several, basal or cauline, blades well developed or reduced and largely to entirely sheathing, lanceolate to linear and plane or filiform and terete, the margins, midrib and sometimes other veins thickened and hyaline (margins sometimes winged)
Morphology Stem
Stem terete, simple or branched
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a spike, the flowers turned to one side or sometimes in 2 rows; bracts usually green, soft to firm, sometimes dry and brown at anthesis, relatively large, the inner usually smaller than the outer
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers zygomorphic or sometimes regular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Tepal
Tepals united in a well developed, sometimes very long tube, subequal to unequal with the uppermost broader and arching to hooded over the stamens, the lower three narrower, shorter or longer than the dorsal
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Filaments unilateral and curved, included or exserted from the tube; anthers unilateral (symmetrical in regular flowers)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style exserted, the branches simple, usually expanded above and sometimes apically bilobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsules large and slightly inflated
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds usually many, usually with a broad membranous wing.
Distribution
Some 285 species, centred in southern Africa and extending through tropical Africa and Madagascar to Europe and the Middle East.

[FZ]

Iridaceae, P. Goldblatt. Flora Zambesiaca 12:4. 1993

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs with corms, aerial parts dying back annually; corms with coriaceous to fibrous and reticulate tunics.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves few to several, the lower (2)3 entirely sheathing and mostly below ground (cataphylls); foliage leaves usually synanthous (more or less fully developed at flowering), or hysteranthous (developing after flowering on the same shoot or borne on separate shoots), few to several, basal or cauline, blades well developed or reduced and largely to entirely sheathing, lanceolate to linear and plane or filiform and terete, the margins, midrib and sometimes also other veins thickened and hyaline (margins sometimes winged).
Morphology Stem
Stem terete, simple or branched.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a spike with flowers secund or, in a few species, distichous); floral bracts usually green, soft to firm, sometimes dry and brown at anthesis, relatively large, the inner usually smaller than the outer.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers zygomorphic (actinomorphic in a few species from South Africa, Zaire and Madagascar); tepals united in a well developed, sometimes very long perianth tube; subequal, or unequal with the uppermost broader and arching to hooded over the stamens, the lower 3 narrower, shorter or longer than the upper.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens unilateral and arcuate; filaments included or exserted from the perianth tube; anthers unilateral (symmetrical in actinomorphic flowers).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style exserted; style branches simple, expanded above and sometimes apically bilobed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsules large and slightly inflated.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds usually many, with a broad membranous wing about the circumference (wingless in a few species).

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Angola, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Benin, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, Congo, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Oman, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Siberia, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Arkansas, California, East Himalaya, Finland, Florida, Georgia, Great Britain, Hawaii, Jamaica, Kentucky, Louisiana, Madeira, Mexico Central, Mississippi, New Zealand North, North Carolina, Peru, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Western Australia

Gladiolus Tourn. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Congo, DRC 18184.000
Congo, DRC 18185.000
19040.000
19041.000
Brenan, J.P.M. [4945], Zambia 22823.000
Bullock, A.A. [2345], Tanzania 23533.000
Malawi 23534.000
Milne-Redhead, E. [3009], Zambia 38426.000
Pollard, B.J. [334], Cameroon 77439.000
Rico, L. [1665], Armenia K000297354

First published in Sp. Pl.: 36 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325.
  • Innes, C. (1985). The World of Iridaceae: 1-407. Holly Gare International Ltd., Ashington.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • F.T.A. 7: 360.
  • Sp. Pl. 36 (1753)

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Baker in F.T.A. 7: 360 (1898).
  • G.J. Lewis et al. in J. S. African Bot., Suppl. 10: 6–316 (1972).
  • Goldblatt & de Vos in Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. sér. 4, B, Adansonia 11: 417–428 (1989).
  • Sp. Pl.: 36 (1753).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by I. Nordal [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Baker in F.T.A. 7: 360 (1898)
  • Goldblatt, Gladiolus Trop. Afr. (1996)
  • sp Pl.: 36 (1753)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0