Family:
Apiaceae Lindl.

Smyrnium L.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Macarinesia, E. Central Europe to Medit. and Turkmenistan.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Erect glabrous biennial or perennial herbs
Morphology Leaves
Radical and lower leaves ternate-pinnately dissected, the upper undivided, or at least much less so
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Involucre
Involucre and involucel small or absent on the compound umbels
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers yellow, hermaphrodite or polygamous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx teeth absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals obovate or oblong, with a short inflexed tip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Mericarps subterete or angular with 3 (rarely 5) distinct ridges Fruit ovoid or broader than long, laterally compressed, ± didymous, commissure narrow
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Vittae
Vittae many, in valleculae and commissure
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds Endosperm
Commissural face of endosperm excavate, with the margins involute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stylopodium
Stylopodia conical or finally flattened, the margins entire or almost so.
Distribution
Eight European and Mediterranean species; only one species in Iraq.
Note
Smyrnium (from the Gr. name for myrrh, σμύρνα, smyrna, alluding to the aroma of the species S. olusatrum). Ibn al-Baitar (c. 1240 AD) mentions the name SMIRNIŪN and calls the plant “wild celery”.

[FIQ]
Use
Alisander or Alexanders, as it has been called (S. olusatrum) was indeed formerly used as a potherb, its taste being not unlike that of celery, though much stronger and less agreeable. Bedevian (1936) gives the name KARAFS BARRI (Ar. “wild celery”) to the above species and also to another species with similar properties (S. perfoliatum).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Azores, Baleares, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Chad, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, East Aegean Is., France, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, North Caucasus, Palestine, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, Spain, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Austria, Bermuda, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Netherlands, New Zealand North, Sweden

Smyrnium L. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl.: 262 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • Linnaeus, Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 127 (1754)
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1: 262 (1753)

  • Flora of Iraq

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0