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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Assam to S. China and Indo-China.
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (Kunth) Schult.

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Robust perennial (rarely annual); culms stout, 50–200 cm. high, often decumbent and rooting in mud at the lower nodes.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades broad, 15–60 cm. long, 5–25 mm. wide, thin in texture, often lush; ligule absent; sheaths smooth.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence large, loose, untidily ovate, 10–30 cm. long, the racemes mostly compound with short secondary branchlets; lowest raceme 3–15 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets elliptic, 2–3(–3.5) mm. long, hispid; lower floret ♂ or barren, acute to acuminate or with a short curved awn 1–3(–7) mm. long; upper lemma 2–2.5(–3) mm. long.
Habitat
Shallow water or swamps and streamsides; 800–2000 m.
Distribution
tropical and South Africatropical America K1 K6 T1 T4 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2 U3 U4

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2500 m.; Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FZ]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

Morphology General Habit
Robust annual.
Morphology Culms
Culms 50–200 cm. high, stout, often decumbent and rooting in mud at lower nodes; ligule absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence large, 10–30 cm. long, loose, untidily ovate; racemes typically compound with short secondary branchlets but superior racemes of weaker plants simple; lowest raceme 3–15 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 2–3(3.5) mm. long, elliptic, hispid.
Inferior
Inferior lemma acute to acuminate, or with a short curved awn 1–3(7) mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Superior lemma 2–2.5(3) mm. long. Inferior lemma acute to acuminate, or with a short curved awn 1–3(7) mm. long.
Superior
Superior lemma 2–2.5(3) mm. long.

[FWTA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Morphology General Habit
Erect annual 1–2 m. high
Ecology
Near water.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Culms geniculately ascending, or decumbent; robust; 50-200 cm long; without nodal roots, or rooting from lower nodes. Leaf-sheaths smooth. Ligule absent. Leaf-blades 15-60 cm long; 5-25 mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes numerous; borne along a central axis; unilateral; 3-15 cm long; secondarily branched; secondary branches racemulose. Central inflorescence axis 10-30 cm long. Rhachis angular. Spikelet packing 4 -rowed. Spikelets solitary, or clustered at each node. Fertile spikelets sessile; 2-4 in the cluster.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; gibbous; acuminate; 2-3(-3.5) mm long; falling entire.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; gibbous; acuminate; 2-3(-3.5) mm long; falling entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; clasping; 0.3-0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Lower glume surface hispid. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; membranous; without keels; 5 -veined. Upper glume surface hispid. Upper glume apex cuspidate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; hispid; acute, or acuminate; awned. Awn of lower sterile floret 1-3(-7) mm long. Fertile lemma ovate; gibbous; 2-2.5 mm long; indurate; much thinner above; shiny; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex acuminate; laterally pinched. Palea reflexed at apex; indurate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3; 0.5 mm long.
Distribution
Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: China. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. North America: south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
Reference
Paniceae. FTEA.

Native to:

Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Malawi, Myanmar, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre

Introduced into:

Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, California, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colombia, Colorado, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Kansas, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Maryland, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Guinea, New Mexico, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Oklahoma, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, West Himalaya, Windward Is.

Echinochloa crus-pavonis (Kunth) Schult. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jun 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [9405], Cameroon K000107900
Jan 1, 2000 Cheek, M. [9831], Cameroon K000339560
May 1, 1998 Cheek, M. [8722], Cameroon K000339559
Jan 1, 1986 Hopkins, M.J.G. [889], Brazil K001075954
Feb 1, 1976 Stolz, A. [1297], Tanzania K000282385 syntype
Sep 1, 1973 Klein, R.M. [10790], Brazil K001075940
Jan 19, 1973 Dombrowski, L.T.D. [1799], Brazil K001075948
Jan 19, 1973 Dusén, P. [7910], Brazil K001075950
Jan 19, 1973 Glaziou, A.F.M. [14394], Brazil K001075952
Jan 18, 1973 Glaziou, A.F.M. [4394], Brazil K001075969
Jan 17, 1973 Eiten, G. [3481], Brazil K001075968
Jan 17, 1973 Clayton, W.D. [4833], Brazil K001075959
Jan 1, 1973 Irwin, H.S. [9578], Brazil K001075965
Jan 1, 1973 Irwin, H.S. [27373], Brazil K001075964
Oct 1, 1962 Brunt, M.A. [864], Cameroon K000182447
Oct 1, 1962 Brunt, M.A. [112], Cameroon K000182454
Nov 1, 1960 Boughey, A.S. [11588], Cameroon K000182455
Hage, J.L. [1730], Bahia K000003889
Mori, S.A. [10556], Bahia K000003894
Noblick, L.R. [2959], Bahia K000003896
Gardner [2448], Brazil K000003893
Gardner [2448], Brazil K000003892
Brito, H.S. [50], Bahia K000003890
Harley, R.M. [16354], Bahia K000003895
Salzmann [s.n.], Bahia K000003891
Buchanan, J. [269], South Africa K000282261 syntype
Wood, J.M. [3992], South Africa K000282260
Buchanan, J. [4], South Africa K000282262
Drège, South Africa K000282263
Drège, South Africa K000282264
Gerrard, W.T. [496], South Africa K000282265
Vanderyst, H. [6361], Zaire K000282411
Vanderyst, H. [5065], Zaire K000282412
Vanderyst, H. [7009], Zaire K000282413
Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K000309358
Hinton, G.B. [5517], Michoacán K000476135
Hinton, G.B. [4221], México State K000476137
Hinton, G.B. [4474], México State K000476139
Riedel, L. [1649], Brazil K001075957
Trail, J.W.H. [1255], Brazil K001075958
Burchell, W.J. [3456-2], Brazil K001075966
Riedel, L. [1259], Brazil K001075943
Hinton, G.B. [4345], México State K000476130
Hatschbach, G.G. [12770], Brazil K001075944
Glaziou, A.F.M. [16616], Brazil K001075953
Dombrowski, L.T.D. [7213], Brazil K001075955
Skvortzov, B.V. [103], Brazil K001075960
Burchell, W.J. [1603], Brazil K001075974
Rambo, B. [41456], Brazil K001075962
Brunt, M.A. [962], Cameroon K000182448
Hinton, G.B. [12195], Michoacán K000476133
Hinton, G.B. [1177], México State K000476131
Glaziou, A.F.M. [5442], Brazil K001075967
Brazil K000309357
Skvortzov, B.V. [102], Brazil K001075956
Hinton, G.B. [3302], México State K000476136
Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K000309359
Hinton, G.B. [4443], México State K000476138
Poiteau, P.A. [s.n.], Guyana K001075945
Burchell, W.J. [2440], Brazil K001075975
Hatschbach, G.G. [23973], Brazil K001075951
Hinton, G.B. [12195], Michoacán K000476134
Glaziou, A.F.M. [15627], Brazil K001075972
Skvortzov, B.V. [103], Brazil K001075961
Hatschbach, G.G. [12770], Brazil K001075947
Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001075970
Carauta, J.P.P. [4965], Brazil K001075941
Hinton, G.B. [1616], México State K000476132
Hepper, F.N. [1983], Cameroon K000182457
Hatschbach, G.G. [50404], Brazil K001075942
Gardner, G. [4048], Brazil K001075971
Skvortzov, B.V. [8], Brazil K001075963
Burchell, W.J. [2720], Brazil K001075973
Hepper, F.N. [1983], Cameroon K000182458
Brunt, M.A. [1094], Cameroon K000182450
Bumpus [July 46 Bam/30], Cameroon K000182456
Poiteau, P.A. [s.n.], Guyana K001075946
Dombrowski, L.T.D. [1569], Brazil K001075949

First published in Mant. 2: 269 (1824)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • A. Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 14: 17
  • Aké Assi, Contrib. 2: 292.
  • F.T.A. 9: 612
  • Mant. 2: 269 (1824)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Hallé, N. (1980). Les Orchidees de Tubuai (archipel des Australes, Sud Polynesie), suivies d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des iles Australes Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique 2(3): 69-130.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Robyns, W. (1934). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 2: 9-386. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
  • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 440 (1972).
  • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 65 (1965).
  • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 16 (1947).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 44 (1956).
  • Jackson & Wiehe, Ann. list Nyasaland grasses: 37 (1958).
  • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 27 (1960).
  • Robyns, Fl. Agrost. Congo Belge 2: 140 (1934).
  • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 3: 92 (1955).
  • Schult., Syst. Veg. Mant. 2: 269 (1824).
  • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 612 (1920).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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