Brachypodium P.Beauv.

First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 100 (1812)
This genus is accepted
The native range of this genus is Mexico to Bolivia, Old World.

Descriptions

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Tufted or rhizomatous perennials, rarely annual
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades flat and thin, or stiff and convolute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a raceme, the pedicels 1–3 mm. long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 6–22-flowered; glumes 3–7-nerved; lemmas usually awned, rarely apiculate; palea a little shorter than the lemma, ciliolate on the keels, truncate.
[FTEA]

Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets subsessile, solitary, several- to many-flowered, at first cylindric, later elatrally slightly compressed, usually awned.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Florets hermaphrodite, all fertile but the uppermost usually reduced.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes unequal, 3-7(-9)-nerved.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Lemmas 7-9-nerved, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, densely imbricate at first, later somewhat spreading, mucronate or with a straight awn, dorsally rounded: callus very short, obtuse.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Palea
Paleas slightly shorter than the corresponding lemmas, oblong, with the apex broadly obtuse to truncate, 2-keeled, pectinate-ciliate along the keels.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Lodicules
Lodicules 2, lanceolate, with the apex usually truncate, ciliate or more rarely glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3, rarely 2.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary with a villous apical appendage or simply hairy; styles inserted at the appendage, short; stigmas plumose, laterally exserted.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis oblong to linear in outline, convex-concave, with an apical ciliate appendage, usually tightly enclosed by the palea; hilum filiform, very long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a simple terminal raceme (pseudo-spike), with the spikelets alternating in 2 rows on opposite sides of the rhachis. Rhachilla disarticulating above the glumes and between the florets, glabrous, smooth.
Morphology General Habit
Perennial or more rarely annual grasses of varying habits, often rhizomatous.
Morphology Leaves Ligules
Ligule membranous.
[FZ]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (1), or perennial (15). Rhizomes absent (13), or short (1), or elongated (2). Stolons absent (14), or present (2). Culms erect (9/14), or geniculately ascending (9/14), or decumbent (3/14); 3-49.78-150 cm long; firm (12), or wiry (4); rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (2/4), or sparse (2/4), or ample (1/4). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades aciculate (1), or filiform (1), or linear (13), or lanceolate (1); stiff (2), or firm (11), or flaccid (4).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes (15), or comprising only a few spikelets (1). Racemes single (15/15); erect (4/15), or ascending (11/15), or drooping (3/15); bilateral (15/15); bearing few fertile spikelets (15/15); bearing 1-5-15 fertile spikelets on each. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis (15/15); crowded (1/15), or contiguous (2/15), or lax (12/15); 2 -rowed (8/8). Spikelets appressed (2/7), or ascending (6/7), or spreading (1/7); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile (2), or pedicelled (14). Pedicels linear (3/9), or oblong (7/9), or cuneate (1/9).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 2-10-22 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (9), or elliptic (1), or oblong (9), or ovate (1); laterally compressed (15), or subterete (1); 9-24.84-42 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous (15), or pilose (1). Floret callus glabrous (2/2), or pubescent (1/2).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 2-10-22 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (9), or elliptic (1), or oblong (9), or ovate (1); laterally compressed (15), or subterete (1); 9-24.84-42 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous (15), or pilose (1). Floret callus glabrous (2/2), or pubescent (1/2).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume linear (1), or lanceolate (12), or elliptic (1), or oblong (3), or ovate (1); 0.5-0.7381-1 length of upper glume; membranous (14), or chartaceous (1), or coriaceous (1); without keels; 3 -veined (3), or 4 -veined (2), or 5 -veined (14), or 6-7 -veined (5), or 8-11 -veined (1). Lower glume lateral veins distinct (15), or prominent (1); without ribs (15), or ribbed (1). Lower glume surface glabrous (14), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2). Lower glume apex obtuse (2), or acute (10), or acuminate (5). Upper glume linear (1), or lanceolate (10), or elliptic (1), or oblong (5), or ovate (2); 0.5-0.8641-1.3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (14), or chartaceous (1), or coriaceous (1); without keels; 5 -veined (4), or 6 -veined (3), or 7 -veined (14), or 8 -veined (4), or 9 -veined (5). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (15), or ribbed (1). Upper glume surface glabrous (14), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2). Upper glume apex obtuse (2), or acute (10), or acuminate (5).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma lanceolate (4), or elliptic (1), or oblong (12); laterally compressed (1/1); membranous (4/9), or chartaceous (4/9), or coriaceous (1/9); without keel; 5 -veined (2), or 6 -veined (1), or 7 -veined (15), or 8-9 -veined (1). Lemma lateral veins prominent (2/2). Lemma surface smooth (12), or scaberulous (3), or scabrous (1); glabrous (14), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (4), or pilose (2). Lemma margins eciliate (15), or ciliolate (1). Lemma apex obtuse (4), or acute (11), or acuminate (2); muticous (4), or mucronate (1), or awned (13); 1 -awned (13/13). Palea 1 length of lemma. Palea keels eciliate (5), or pubescent (1), or ciliolate (11). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2 (2/2); glabrous (1/2), or ciliate (1/2). Anthers 3 (15/15). Ovary unappendaged (4), or with a fleshy appendage below style insertion (12); pubescent on apex (13/13).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (14/14); ellipsoid (1/1); apex fleshy (12/12). Embryo 0.25 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (13/13); 1 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
Europe (5), or Africa (11), or Temperate Asia (8), or Tropical Asia (3), or Australasia (3), or North America (3), or South America (4).
[GB]

Sources

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora

    • Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora.
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0