Cyperus distans L.f.

First published in Suppl. Pl.: 103 (1782)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Tropics & Subtropics. It is a perennial or rhizomatous geophyte and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome. It is used as animal food and a medicine and for food.

Descriptions

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/177093/99016461

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.19592

Conservation
Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident
[AERP]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 970 - 1630 m.; Andes, Orinoquia, Valle del Cauca.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada
[CPLC]

J. Browning, K.D. Gordon-Gray†, M. Lock, H. Beentje, K. Vollesen, K. Bauters, C. Archer, I. Larridon, M. Xanthos, P. Vorster, J. Bruhl, K. Wilson and X. Zhang (2020). Flora Zambesiaca Volume: 14: Cyperaceae. M.Á. García, J.R. Timberlake (Eds). Kew Publish

Type
India, Herb. Linn. 70.42 (LINN lectotype).
Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial, (15)30–150 cm tall, with a short thick rhizome; stems tufted, usually set in a row, or solitary, trigonous to triangular, green and shiny, 1.5–5 mm in diameter, glabrous, the basal part covered with leaf sheaths
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with leaf sheath grey to dark purple, black on old culms; leaf blade green above, linear, slightly channelled, 5–45 × 0.2–1 cm, scabrid on margin and primary vein, attenuate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Involucral bracts 3–5, leaf-like, erect or spreading, longest to 33 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence twice anthelate-spciate with the spikelets tending to be aggregated towards tips of branches, to 25 cm in diameter, with 5–15 primary branches to 15 cm long; secondary and tertiary branches very slender, a few cm long or spikelets sessile; spikelets rather laxly set, often at right angles to axis, brown to pale brown, sometimes tinged with green, 6–20 × 0.5–2 mm; rachilla straight to zig-zag when glumes are spreading, with wide transparent wing on two sides, the spikelet often breaking at base with glumes and nutlets persistent on the rachilla; glumes laxly placed, red-brown with green keel, oblong-elliptic, 1.7–2.6 mm long, 3–5-veined, apex obtuse
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style with 3 branches, white
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet yellowish when young, grey with metallic shine when mature, narrowly ellipsoid, 1.4–1.7 × 0.4–0.5 mm, minutely papillose in longitudinal rows.
Distribution
Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique. Widespread in Africa, Asia and the Americas.
Ecology
Streamsides, permanently or seasonally swampy or moist sites often in shade, moist sites in cultivated land, forest margins; 200–2300 m.
Conservation
Least Concern; common and widely distributed.
[FZ]

Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean, Orinoquia. Elevation range: 970–1630 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Santander, Valle del Cauca, Vichada.
Habit
Herb.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC. National Red List of Colombia (2021): Potential LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
[UPFC]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Tufted perennial with a short thick rhizome and stems usually set in a row, or stems solitary
Morphology Stem
Stems 20–60 cm long and 1.5–5 mm thick, triangular, glabrous, the basal part covered with leaf-sheaths
Morphology Leaves
Leaves 5–30 cm long and 2–8 mm wide, flat, scabrid on margin and midrib; leaf-sheaths grey to dark purple (or black on old stem), rather lax
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Spikes 2–4 x 1-4 cm, spikelets rather loosely set and often spreading at an angle of 90° Inflorescence a compound umbel-like anthela 5–25 cm wide and 3–25 cm long; major branches 5–15, 1–18 cm long; secondary and tertiary branches short or spikes sessile
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 7–20 x 0.5–1 mm (or 1–2 mm wide with glumes spreading), linear or zigzag when glumes spreading, often breaking at its base with the glumes and nutlets persistent on its rhachis, 10–20-flowered; rhachis with a wide transparent wing on two sides
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes 1.7–2.6 mm long, oblong-elliptic, straw-coloured, light to dark reddish brown with a 3–5-nerved often green or paler keel; apex obtuse with a reddish brown or transparent margin into which the keel does not reach; glumes placed rather distant, falling off with the nutlet or persistent until the whole spikelet falls as one unit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 3-branched
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet 1.4–1.7 x 0.4–0.5 mm, narrowly elliptic with short apiculus, yellowish and almost smooth when young, grey with a metallic shine and minute papillae in longitudinal rows when mature.
Distribution
S1, 3 pantropical.
Ecology
Altitude up to 500 m.
[FSOM]

Cyperaceae, K Hoenselaar, B. Verdcourt & H. Beentje. Hypolytrum, D Simpson. Fuirena, M Muasya. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2010

Type
Type: India, Linn 70.42 (LINN, lecto.)
Morphology General Habit
Perennial, rarely described as annual, (15–)30–150 cm tall, with a short thick rhizome.
Morphology Stem
Stems tufted, usually set in a row, or solitary, trigonous to triangular, green and shiny, 1.5–5 mm in diameter, glabrous, the basal part covered with leaf sheaths
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with leaf sheath grey to dark purple, black on old culms. Leaf blade green above, linear, slightly channeled, 5–45 × 0.2–1 cm, scabrid on margin and primary vein, attenuate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Involucral bracts 3–5. Leaf-like, erect or spreading, the longest to 33 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a compound umbel-like anthela to 25 cm in diameter, with 5–15 primary branches to 15 cm long; secondary and tertiary branches a few cm long or spikelets sessile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets rather laxly set, often at right angles to axis, brown to pale brown, sometimes tinged with green, 6–20 × 0.5–2 mm; rachilla straight to zigzag when glumes are spreading, with wide transparant wing on two sides, the spikelet often breaking at base with glumes and nutlets persistent on the rachilla.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes laxly placed, red-brown with green keel, oblong-elliptic, 1.7–2.6 mm long, 3–5veined, apex obtuse
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style with 3 branches, white
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet yellowish when young, grey with metallic shine when mature, narrowly ellipsoid, 1.4–1.7 × 0.4–0.5 mm, minutely papillose in longitudinal rows.
Ecology
Streamsides, permanently or seasonally swampy or moist sites in shade (within dry bushland/wooded grassland/woodland/forest zones), moist sites in cultivated land, forest margins; 0–1800(–2100) m
Conservation
Widespread; least concern (LC)
Note
A widespread and variable species, recognizable by its narrow spikelets in a lax umbellike compound anthela. The subspecies longibracteatus was considered distinct in its longer involucral bracts and ‘slightly larger glumes’, with the spikelets falling off entire; these differences are quite gradual, and not enough (I believe) to warrant subspecific status. I hereby put this taxon in the synonymy of distans sensu lato. The variety rubrotinctus, considered distinct in ‘shorter involucral bracts and more reddish spikelets’; and var. niger, distinct in ‘very dark spikelets and slightly longer glumes’ undergo the same fate, for the same reason.
Distribution
Range: Widespread in Africa, Asia and the Americas Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Z
[FTEA]

Cyperaceae, Miss S. S. Hooper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Diagnostic
Similar to M. longibracteatus but with more compact spikes of very dark spikelets
Ecology
Damp grassland or marshes.
[FWTA]

Cyperaceae, Miss S. S. Hooper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Diagnostic
Tufted plant up to 120 cm. high; with a spreading inflorescence similar to that of Cyperus distans Linn. f. which is laxer with flexuose spikelets shedding their glumes; and to Torulinium odoratum (Linn.) Hooper which is a more robust plant with mucronate tipped glumes and the rhachilla breaking into segments when ripe
Ecology
Swampy ground.
[FWTA]

Uses

Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
[UPFC]

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • 'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0