Flueggea Willd.

This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Dioecious or rarely monoecious trees or shrubs, usually without indumentum
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, shortly petiolate, stipulate, simple, entire, penninerved
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers axillary, usually in the proximal axils of leafy branches, the males numerous, fasciculate, the females few or occasionally solitary Male flowers: pedicels capillary; sepals (4–)5(–7), unequal, imbricate; petals 0; disc-glands (4–)5(–7), interstaminal, alternating with the sepals; stamens (4–)5(–7), filaments free, anthers extrorse, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode usually large, deeply 2–3-partite, the divisions often appendiculate or bilobate Female flowers: pedicels and sepals as in the ♂ flowers; petals 0; disc flat, annular, entire or shallowly 5–6-lobed; ovary smooth, (2–)3(–4)-locular, with 2 ovules per locule; styles (2–)3(–4), connate at the base, recurved or spreading, bifid or bilobate
sex Male
Male flowers: pedicels capillary; sepals (4–)5(–7), unequal, imbricate; petals 0; disc-glands (4–)5(–7), interstaminal, alternating with the sepals; stamens (4–)5(–7), filaments free, anthers extrorse, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode usually large, deeply 2–3-partite, the divisions often appendiculate or bilobate
sex Female
Female flowers: pedicels and sepals as in the ♂ flowers; petals 0; disc flat, annular, entire or shallowly 5–6-lobed; ovary smooth, (2–)3(–4)-locular, with 2 ovules per locule; styles (2–)3(–4), connate at the base, recurved or spreading, bifid or bilobate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit slightly or scarcely fleshy, usually loculicidally dehiscent; endocarp crustaceous, 3-locular or rarely 2- or 1-locular by abortion
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2 per locule, trigonous, dorsally convex, often invaginated, usually smooth, ecarunculate; testa fairly thick, crustaceous; albumen rather scanty; embryo usually incurved; cotyledons ovate, elliptic or obovate, flat.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Trees or shrubs, usually glabrous, usually dioecious
Morphology General Shoots
Shoots all similar
Morphology Leaves
Leaves shortly petiolate, stipulate, simple, entire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in axillary clusters, 5-merous, petals absent Male flowers: disc glands between stamens; stamens free; pistillode well-developed Female flower: disc annular; ovary (2–)3(–4)-celled, 2 ovules per cell
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit often rather fleshy, tardily dehiscent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2 per cell, 3-sided, smooth.
Distribution
About 16 species widespread through the tropics and subtropics and with extentions into temperate regions. Only two taxa in tropical Africa.
Note
Until very recently Flueggea was included within Securinega Juss., but Webster has demonstrated that the two differ fundamentally in several details and that Securinega should be restricted to a small group of species from Madagascar and the associated islands.

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

Morphology General Habit
Dioecious, or rarely monoecious, usually glabrous trees or shrubs.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, shortly petiolate, stipulate, simple, entire, penninerved, usually deciduous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers axillary, the males numerous and fasciculate, the females few or solitary. Male flowers: pedicels capillary; sepals (4)5(7), unequal, imbricate; petals absent; disk glands (4)5(7), interstaminal, alternating with the sepals; stamens (4)5(7), filaments free, anthers extrorse, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode usually large, 2–3-partite, the arms often appendiculate or 2-lobed. Female flowers: pedicels and sepals as in the male ; petals absent; disk flat, annular, entire or shallowly 5–6-lobed; ovary smooth, glabrous, (2)3(4)-locular, ovules 2 per locule, hemitropous; styles (2)3(4), connate at the base, recurved or spreading, bifid or 2-lobed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 3-lobed (4-lobed)-subglobose, fleshy and indehiscent or dry and loculicidally dehiscent; exocarp fleshy or thin; endocarp crustaceous, 3-locular or rarely by abortion 2- or 1-locular; columella persistent (not persistent in African taxa).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2 per locule, or 1 by abortion, trigonous, dorsally convex, hilum often invaginated, ecarunculate; testa smooth or occasionally reticulate or verruculose, thick or thin, crustaceous; albumen scanty or copious; embryo straight or curved; cotyledons ovate, elliptic or obovate, flat, longer than the radicle.

Native to:

Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Comoros, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, India, Inner Mongolia, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mongolia, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Turkey, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Florida

Flueggea Willd. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 4: 637, 757 (1806)

Accepted by

  • Barker, C. & van Welzen, P.C. (2010). Flueggea (Euphorbiaceae s. l. or Phyllanthaceae) in Malesia Systematic Botany 35: 541-551.
  • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Flora Zambesiaca

  • G.L. Webster in Allertonia 3, 4: 273 (1984).
  • Sp. Pl. 4, 2: 757 (1805).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. G. Gilbert [updated by M. Thulin 2008]
  • Webster in Allertonia 3: 287 (1984).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • G.P. 3(1): 276 (1880)
  • Hutch. in F.T.A. 6(1): 736 (1912)
  • Sp. Pl. 4(2): 757 (1805)
  • Webster in Allertonia 3(4): 287 (1984)

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0