Cyperus iria L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 45 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Tropical & Subtropical Old World to Central Asia. It is an annual or perennial and grows primarily in the subtropical biome. It is used as animal food and a medicine.

Descriptions

Extinction risk predictions for the world's flowering plants to support their conservation (2024). Bachman, S.P., Brown, M.J.M., Leão, T.C.C., Lughadha, E.N., Walker, B.E. https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/nph.19592

Conservation
Predicted extinction risk: not threatened. Confidence: confident
[AERP]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 6 - 230 m.; Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada
[CPLC]

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/169017/140393291

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

J. Browning, K.D. Gordon-Gray†, M. Lock, H. Beentje, K. Vollesen, K. Bauters, C. Archer, I. Larridon, M. Xanthos, P. Vorster, J. Bruhl, K. Wilson and X. Zhang (2020). Flora Zambesiaca Volume: 14: Cyperaceae. M.Á. García, J.R. Timberlake (Eds). Kew Publish

Type
India, Osbeck 70.16 (LINN lectotype), lectotypified by Tucker in Syst. Bot. Monogr. 43: 91 (1994).
Morphology General Habit
Annual, up to 60 cm tall; culms tufted, 21–36 cm long, 1.4–2.2 mm wide, trigonous, glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves up to 37 cm long; leaf sheath green to reddish-brown, 3.5–8 cm long; leaf blade linear, flat to folded, 17–29 cm long, 3.2–5 mm wide, scabrid on margins and veins, apex acuminate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Involucral bracts leaf-like, spreading, 2–4, lowermost 14–30 cm long, 2.1–5.0 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence anthelate-paniculate, primary branches 3–8, 1–11 cm long, umbellately or near- umbellately branched at apex; spikelets in irregular clusters, sessile and at the end of primary branches, few to many per cluster, 4–14.3 mm long, 1.6–3.3 mm wide, the rachis straight to zigzag; glumes golden brown with an uncoloured margin, obovate to rounded, 1.4–1.9 mm long, 1.4–1.7 mm wide, keel greenish, with a slightly excurrent midrib, apex rounded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 2–3; filaments ± 1.3 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet dark brown to almost black, ellipsoid-obovoid, strongly trigonous, 1.3–1.6 mm long, 0.6–0.8 mm wide, apiculate, smooth on the ridges, minutely papillose to almost smooth elsewhere.
Distribution
Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Mozambique. Widespread throughout Africa and Asia, Australia.
Ecology
Swamp grassland, edge of seasonal pools, streambanks in dry zones, a weed of rice fields; 90–1000 m.
Conservation
Least Concern; a widespread species.
Note
Probably more widespread than the records suggest; it is often small and easily overlooked, although material from the flora area is often larger than stated in the description in F.T.E.A.
[FZ]

Cyperaceae, K Hoenselaar, B. Verdcourt & H. Beentje. Hypolytrum, D Simpson. Fuirena, M Muasya. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2010

Type
Type: India, Osbeck 70.16 (LINN 7016,chosen by Tucker in Syst. Bot. Monogr. 43: 91 (1994))
Morphology General Habit
Annual, up to 45 cm tall.
Morphology Culms
Culms tufted, 21–36 cm long, 1.4–2.2 mm wide, trigonous, glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaf blade linear, flat to folded, 17–29 cm long, 3.2–5 mm wide, scabrid on margins and veins, apex acuminate Leaf sheath green to reddish brown, 3.5–8 cm long. Leaves up to 37 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Involucral bracts leaf-like, spreading, 2–4, lowermost 14–30 cm long, 2.1–4.3 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence simple, primary branches 3–8, 1–11 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets in irregularly shaped clusters, sessile and at the end of primary branches, few to many per cluster, 4–14.3 mm long, 1.6–3.3 mm wide, the rachis straight to zigzag.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes golden brown with an uncoloured margin, obovate to rounded, 1.4–1.9 mm long, 1.4–1.7 mm wide, keel greenish, with a slightly excurrent midrib, apex rounded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 2–3.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments ± 1.3 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet dark brown to almost black, ellipsoid-obovoid, trigonous, 1.3–1.6 mm long, 0.6–0.8 mm wide, with a very short apiculus, minutely papillose in longitudinal rows to almost smooth.
Ecology
Swamp grassland, edge of seasonal pools, streambanks in dry zones, rice fields; 750–1200 m
Conservation
Least Concern (LC) due to its wide distribution and common habitat
Distribution
Flora districts: U1 U3 K2 K3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Range: Widespread throughout Africa and Asia, Australia
[FTEA]

Cyperaceae, Miss S. S. Hooper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Morphology General Habit
Annual up to 76 cm. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Obtuse, golden, very compressed spikelets in oblong, erect spikes
Ecology
Edge of open water.
[FWTA]

Distribution
Biogeografic region: Caribbean, Orinoquia, Pacific. Elevation range: 6–230 m a.s.l. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Arauca, Atlántico, Córdoba, Huila, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Tolima.
Habit
Herb.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, artificial - terrestrial.
[UPFC]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Tussocky annual with numerous short roots
Morphology Stem
Stems 8–50 cm long and 0.6–3 mm thick, triangular, glabrous, green
Morphology Leaves
Largest leaf-blades 4–25 cm long and 1–5 mm wide, flat, scabrid on margin and major ribs; leaf-sheaths green to reddish brown
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a lax anthela 1.5–20 cm long and 1–20 cm wide, with groups of spikes sessile or on 0.5–15 cm long major peduncles (rays); involucral bracts leafy, the largest 5–30 cm long and 1–6 mm wide Spikes sessile or almost so, rather irregular in shape and length
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 2–10 x 1.5–2 mm, 5–20-flowered, golden to yellowish green
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes 1.3–1.6 mm long, obovate or rounded, golden brown with an uncoloured margin and a greenish slightly excurrent midrib
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 3-branched
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet 1.2–1.4 x 0.6–0.7 mm, obovate, triangular with a short apiculus, dark brown to nearly black as mature; surface almost smooth.
Distribution
?S3 pantropical at least as a weed.
Ecology
Altitude probably below 100 m.
Note
This was said to occur in southern Somalia in Cuf. Enum. (1970), but no specimen has been seen and the record needs confirmation.
[FSOM]

Uses

Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
[UPFC]

Sources

  • Angiosperm Extinction Risk Predictions v1

    • Angiosperm Threat Predictions
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Plants and People Africa

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    • © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0