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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.
Cyperus rotundus

[FWTA]

Cyperaceae, Miss S. S. Hooper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Morphology General Habit
Common weed
Vegetative Multiplication Rhizomes
Slender, elongated rhizomes
Vegetative Multiplication Tubers
Rounded, fibre-covered tubers at the stem bases
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Large spikelets, characteristically dark red-brown, in short spikes
Ecology
Cultivated and other damp places.

[FTEA]

Cyperaceae, K Hoenselaar, B. Verdcourt & H. Beentje. Hypolytrum, D Simpson. Fuirena, M Muasya. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2010

Type
Type: India, Herb. Hermann 1, 3: 36 (BM, lecto., chosen by Tucker in Syst. Bot. Monogr. 43: 100 (1994))
Morphology General Habit
Perennial or sometimes seemingly annual, 10–100 cm tall, gregarious, but not clump-forming, with a somewhat swollen culm-base arising from rather thick scalecovered stolons; nodules on roots white turning brown;  culms few, green, 1–3 mm wide, triangular, glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves glossy green. Leaf blade linear, 10–40 × 0.2–0.8 cm wide, slightly M-shaped in cross-section, scabrid on margin and major veins, attenuate Leaf sheath green to reddish-brown.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Involucral bracts leaf-like, 1–5, erect or spreading, lowermost 3–26 cm long, 2–9 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a simple to compound anthela, primary branches 1–8, 0.5–12 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets in rather dense clusters, 3–15 per cluster, bright to golden to dark brown, linear-lanceolate and slightly flattened, 6–70 mm long, 1–2.5 mm wide, rachilla straight, remaining attached to rachis while lower glumes and nutlets are shed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes pale to dark reddish brown, ovate, 2.7–4.3 mm long, keel green, glabrous or slightly scabrid, with 1–2 veins on either side, apex obtuse
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 3, yellow, 1.6–2.2 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style white, 3-branched
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet greyish to brown, obovoid, trigonous, 1.3–1.7 mm long, 0.5–1 mm wide, minutely papillose
Figures
Fig. 32, p212
Ecology
Swamps, damp sites, riverbanks, drainage lines in coastal bush or forest glades, common weed in rice and maize fields, seasonally wet grassland; 0–1950 m
Conservation
Least Concern
Note
After looking at all the East African material available, a few hundred specimens, I believe that for East Africa we are dealing with a single taxon, rotundus, with a few colour forms (and this was the basis on which specimens were mostly sorted, I think), and some variability in spikelet length and cross-section (the latter character used for distinguishing tuberosus) as well as in glume length. I am quite unable to write any key to the various forms that works on the bulk of the material; of course, the extremes are distinct, but there are more intermediate specimens than there are extreme ones. There are no constant qualitative characters separating the taxa, and hardly any convincing quantitative ones, either; geographically and habitat-wise there are no differences. Therefore I am reducing these names into synonyms of rotundus. Regarding the merkeri taxon, C.B. Clarke, when describing his new species C. merkeri only compared it to an unknown taxon, C. neuerensis; he gave the length of the culm as 30 cm. Kükenthal in E.P. 4, 20 (101) combined what was a full species ( merkeri) into a subspecies of rotundus. He did not give a key, but from his brief descriptions we can see he thought this subspecies differed from the typical one in longer culms (45–60 cm rather than 15–30 cm), and darker-coloured spikelets (dark dull red, rather than brown or dull red). Haines & Lye distinguished these two subspecies (again, without giving a key) by ‘its shorter glumes with a usually much darker colour’: glumes 2.7–3.2, rather than 3.3–4.3 mm; description of glume colour in the text overlaps for the two subspecies. Haines & Lye kept up four subspecies and varieties, based on Kükenthal taxa; Kükenthal had combined these taxa into C. rotundus. Differences between the taxa were only expressed in short sentences (rather than a key) and these have given me problems. Colour and degree of compression of the spikelet, plus glume length and glume apex configuration, were the characters used to distinguish these four taxa. Finally the taxon tuberosus was distinguished from rotundus by the original author, Rottbøll, based on a leafy (not almost leafless) culm base, a sub-simple anthela, and terete spikelets. Haines & Lye suggested that this subspecies “is very closely related to subsp. rotundus” but kept the taxa separate based on slightly longer and more acute glumes, and less terete spikelets, in tuberosus. A taxon decribed from coastal Kenya, var. taylorii, was said to differ in the tall culms (30–50 cm, quite within the range of typical rotundus); the large congested head, 3–6 cm wide of many crowded up to 3 cm long spikelets (again, well within normal range) and obtuse glumes 4–5 mm long (rather on the long side, but not excessively so). It was known only from the type.
Distribution
Range: Widespread in Africa; India Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Z

[UNAL]
Vernacular
Coquito, Corocillo

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1000 m.; Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Medium-sized perennial with a somewhat swollen (sometimes tuber-like) stem-base arising from slender to fairly robust stolons with rather remote scales
Morphology Stem
Stems 25–80 cm long and 1–4 mm thick, glabrous, triangular with many crowded leaves in the basal part
Morphology Leaves
Largest leaf-blades 15–40 cm long and 4–8 mm wide, flat or enrolled, scabrid at least on margin and major ribs; leaf-sheaths green to brown
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Spikes 1–5 x 1.5–7 cm with 4–15 erect or spreading spikelets Inflorescence a 3–15 cm long and 2–12 cm wide anthela consisting of 1(–many) sessile and 1–8 stalked spikes on 0.5–12 cm long peduncles with or without secondary spikes from the base of primary spikes; inflorescence-bracts 1–7, leafy, erect or spreading, the largest 3–20 cm long and 2–9 mm wide
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 6–70 x 1–2.5(–4) mm, linear-lanceolate, light to dark reddish brown with 8–35 flowers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes 2.7–4.3 mm long, ovate, almost uncoloured or light to dark reddish brown with or without a narrow uncoloured margin and 1–2 nerves on each side of the midrib; midrib green, glabrous or scabrid ending in or below the obtuse apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 3-branched
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet 1.5–1.8 x 0.7–1 mm, obovate, triangular, greyish, minutely papillose.
Distribution
N2, 3; C2; S1–3 pantropical, andtemperate regions.
Ecology
Near sea-level to 500 m.
Vernacular
Gocondho, quunje (Somali).
Note
This is a very variable species, particularly as regards the colour and size of the glumes. The following subspecies apparently occur in Somalia: subsp. rotundus with 3.3–4.3 mm long light to dark reddish brown glumes, subsp. tuberosus (Rottb.) Kük. with 3.7–4 mm long light brown to uncoloured glumes, and subsp. merkeri (C.B. Cl.) Kük. with 2.7–3.2 mm long dark reddish brown to almost blackish glumes. Most collections are, however, too young to be referable to any of the subspecies.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Robust perennial producing solitary stems from the end of 5–10 cm long and 1–2 mm thick stolons with 10–15 mm long prominent scales
Morphology Stem
Stem 30–60 cm long and 2–5 mm thick, triangular, glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves usually 4–5 from the basal 10–20 cm; the sheaths grey, wide and loose; blades 15–30 cm long and 7–10 mm wide, flat, scabrid on margin and midrib
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a 5–15 cm long and 4–15 cm wide lax anthela consisting of 1 sessile spike subtended by 2–10 stalked spikes or new groups of sessile and stalked spikes on up to 12 cm long peduncles; involucral bracts usually 3, leafy Spikes 1–3 x 2–4 cm with 5–10 spreading spikelets
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 6–15 x 2–3 mm, linear or linear-lanceolate, spreading
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes 3.5–4 mm long, ovate, greyish to medium reddish brown with a pale marginal border and a green midrib excurrent into a short straight or recurved mucro; lateral nerves 3–4
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 3-branched
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet c. 1 x 0.6 mm, obovate, triangular, as young brownish, as mature dark grey to almost black, minutely papillose.
Distribution
N1, 2; Sudan
Ecology
Altitude range 15–930 m.

[FWTA]

Cyperaceae, Miss S. S. Hooper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Diagnostic
Similar to C. rotundus Linn. but with somewhat laxer spikes of more numerous acute spikelets of longer, lanceolate, acute glumes
Ecology
Damp grassy and waste places.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Type
N3, “Dudo” in “Shol” plain, Merla, Azzaroli & Fois s.n. (FT holo.)
Morphology General Habit
Robust perennial; stems 30–40 cm long and 1.5–3 mm thick
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades to 40 cm long and 4-8 mm wide, flat
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a lax anthela to c. 10 cm long and wide, consisting of many sessile as well as stalked spikes or clusters of spikes Spikes c. 2 x 3–4 cm, consisting of 4–10 spikelets mostly spreading at right angles; rhachis 1–5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 15–22 x 3–4 mm, linear, 20–25-flowered; rhachilla prominently zigzag with rather widely spaced flowers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes 3–3.5 mm long, ovate, reddish brown without pallid margin, with 3–5 slender nerves on each side of the green midrib which is excurrent into a c. 0.2–0.3 mm long mucro
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 3-branched
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlet 1.8 x 0.7–0.8 mm, obovate, prominently triangular, greyish, minutely papillose.
Distribution
N3 not known elsewhere.
Ecology
Altitude range 350–400 m.

[FTEA]
Use
Root nodules roasted and eaten ( Harwood 60), or used as beads by Turkana ( Mwangangi 1446); roots chewed raw for coughs and colds ( Meyerhoff 74)

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, Corse, Cyprus, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, Hawaii, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Marianas, Marshall Is., Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Portugal, Queensland, Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South China Sea, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Wake I., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, California, Cayman Is., Central American Pac, Chile Central, Christmas I., Colombia, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Great Britain, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Kentucky, Kermadec Is., Leeward Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Maldives, Marquesas, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Nauru, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Panamá, Peru, Phoenix Is., Puerto Rico, Samoa, Society Is., South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is.

English
Nutgrass, Nutsedge, Purple nutsedge

Cyperus rotundus L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Oct 1, 2003 Silva, S.I. [s.n.], Pernambuco K000188914
Dec 1, 1986 Noblick, L.R. [2991], Bahia K000188721
Jan 1, 1979 Mori, S.A. [9248], Bahia K000188723
Jul 1, 1970 Chevalier, A. [24691], Burkina Faso K000391862
Jul 1, 1970 Scholz [319], Burkina Faso K000391859
Mar 1, 1965 Cipas [445], Mali K000391867
Jun 3, 1930 Chevalier, A. [1148], Mali K000391861
Feb 7, 1930 s.coll. [1830], India K000592508 Unknown type material
Aug 1, 1892 Salzmann, P. [s.n.], Bahia K000188720
Aug 1, 1892 Salzmann, P. [s.n.], Bahia K000188719
Mar 1, 1892 Glocker [216], Bahia K000188718
Mar 1, 1892 Martius, C.F.P.von [860], Brazil K000189925 isotype
Mar 1, 1892 s.coll. [523], Rio de Janeiro K000602477
Nayomdham, C. [1500], Thailand K000467004
Chantaranothai, P. [1596], Thailand K000467003
Shimizu, T. [T7560], Thailand K000467010
Kerr, A.F.G. [3765], Thailand K000467009
Hoed, G.den [150], Thailand K000467008
Howard, A.J. [25], Thailand K000467007
Chantaranothai, P. [884], Thailand K000467011
Put [24], Thailand K000467013
Kerr, A.F.G. [3773], Thailand K000467014
Kerr, A.F.G. [3798], Thailand K000467015
Annandale, N [1816], Thailand K000467016
Kerr, A.F.G. [1540B], Thailand K000467017
Kerr, A.F.G. [2628], Thailand K000467018
Hosseus, C.C. [133a], Thailand K000467019
Chantaranothai, P. [90/14], Thailand K000467020
Bidgood, S. [5087], Tanzania K000190315
Bidgood, S. [5197], Tanzania K000190425
Pickersgill, B. [RU72228], Ceará K000188716
Pickersgill, B. [RU72130], Bahia K000188717
Davey, J.T. [37], Mali K000391865
Hepper, F.N. [3728], Mali K000391868
Larsen, K. [2207], Thailand K000467002
Larsen, K. [2207], Thailand K000467001
Smith, H.M. [315], Thailand K000467006
Scholz [322], Burkina Faso K000391858
Kerr, A.F.G. [10713], Thailand K000467012
Cipas [21], Mali K000391860
Davey, J.T. [249], Mali K000391866
Davey, J.T. [263], Mali K000391864
Waterlot [1152], Mali K000391863
Smith, H.M. [316], Thailand K000467005
Hage, J.L. [1572], Bahia K000188722
Bent, J.Th. [s.n.], Sudan Cyperus rotundus subsp. retzii K000321356 Unknown type material
Hughes (?) [s.n.], Australia Cyperus rotundus subsp. retzii K000309466
Wurt [s.n.], Australia Cyperus rotundus subsp. retzii K000309465
Bent, J.Th. [s.n.], Sudan Cyperus rotundus subsp. retzii K000321355 Unknown type material
Stuart, M. [s.n.], Australia Cyperus rotundus subsp. retzii K000309467 Unknown type material
Jun 20, 1977 Wuth [s.n.], Australia Cyperus bifax K000309464 Unknown type material
Sep 1, 1975 Schronen, J. [103], Burkina Faso Cyperus tuberosus K000391869
Sep 1, 1989 Dietrich, A. [712], Queensland Cyperus rotundus var. amaliae K000309470 syntype
s.coll. [1829], India Cyperus procerulus K000592510 holotype
Bidwill, J.C. [137], Australia Cyperus disruptus K000309469
Bidwill, J.C. [137], Australia Cyperus disruptus K000309468

First published in Sp. Pl.: 45 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Browning, J. & al. (2020). Flora Zambesiaca 14: 1-455. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Cabezas, F., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2004). Checklist of the Cyperaceae of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko, Río Muni) Belgian Journal of Botany 137: 3-26.
  • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2008). Flora Iberica 18: 1-420. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
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  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Stoddard, D.R. (1994). Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific Atoll Research Bulletin 393: 1-60.
  • Govaerts, R. & Simpson, D.A. (2007). World Checklist of Cyperaceae. Sedges: 1-765. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
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  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
  • Lye, K.A. & Thery, P. (2012). Flore du Gabon 44: 1-230. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Marais, W. & Araujo, A.C. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 202: 1-99. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
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  • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vascular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
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Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 387 (1967).
  • Cherm. in Arch. Bot. Caen 7, Mém. 4: 15 (1936)
  • F.T.A. 8: 364
  • Kük. in Engl., Pflanzenr. Cyper. 107, t. 13 (including subsp. retzii (Nees) Kük.) (1936)
  • Sp. Pl. 45 (1753)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Cabezas, F., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2004). Checklist of the Cyperaceae of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko, Río Muni) Belgian Journal of Botany 137: 3-26.
  • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
  • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Espejo Serna, A. & López-Ferrari, A.R. (1997). Las Monocotiledóneas Mexicanas una Sinopsis Florística 5: 1-98. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de México, México D.F.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Stoddard, D.R. (1994). Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific Atoll Research Bulletin 393: 1-60.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Hallé, N. (1980). Les Orchidees de Tubuai (archipel des Australes, Sud Polynesie), suivies d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des iles Australes Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique 2(3): 69-130.
  • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
  • Lorence, D.H. & Wagner, W.L. (2019). Flora of the Marquesas Islands 1: 1-411. National Tropical Botanic Garden, Smithsonian, DRPF.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
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  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
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Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by K. A. Lye [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • E.P. 4, 20 (101): 107 (1936)
  • F.T.A. 8: 364 (1902)
  • Fl. Eth. 6: 449 (1997).
  • Fl. Somalia 4: 121 (1995)
  • Haines & Lye, Sedges & Rushes E. Afr.: 186, figs. 362, 363 (1983)
  • Sp. Pl.: 45 (1753)
  • U.O.P.Z.: 224 (1949)

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