Genus:
Solanum L.

Solanum betaceum Cav.

This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Tropical America. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders, as animal food and a medicine and for dessert and food.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
pepino de árbol, tamarillo, tomate, tomate de árbol, tomate de montaña, tomate de monte, tomate quiteño, tomate silvestre

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1000 - 3000 m.; Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto, arbolito

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Type
Type a plant cultivated in the Hortus Botanicus Matritensis, Madrid (Spain), raised from unknown origin.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes ± axillary or supra-axillary, nodding or pendulous, 2–13 cm long, simple or 2–3 times branched, ± densely spreading pubescent Cymes ± axillary or supra-axillary, nodding or pendulous, 2>i>–13 cm long, simple or 2>i>–3 times branched, ± densely spreading pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels 7–12 mm long, slender, thickened upwards; in fruit much elongated and thicker
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, ± pink tinged, in bud purple gradually changing to greenish-pink with a dark stripe on the back of each lobe, moderately thick, rotate-campanulate; limb 14–18 mm across; lobes 6–9 mm long, lanceolate, acute or acuminate, densely ciliolate, reflexed Corolla white, ± pink tinged, in bud purple gradually changing to greenish-pink with a dark stripe on the back of each lobe, moderately thick, rotate-campanulate; limb 14>i>–18 mm across; lobes 6>i>–9 mm long, lanceolate, acute or acuminate, densely ciliolate, reflexed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamen filaments 1–1. 5 mm long; anthers 4.5–5 mm long, oblong in outline, the connective strongly thickened, dorsally callous or gibbous along the length of the anther Stamen filaments 1>i>–1.5 mm long; anthers 4.5>i>–5 mm long, oblong in outline, the connective strongly thickened, dorsally callous or gibbous along the length of the anther.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 1–1. 5 mm long, conical, ± glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 5–7 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit yellow to red or purple, 3–5.5 (or more) cm long, ovoid or slightly ellipsoid, smooth, glabrous, somewhat acid, edible, the dissepiment moderately thick, with fleshy, sub-reniform placentas adnate to the middle Fruit yellow to red or purple, 3>i>–5.5 (or more) cm long, ovoid or slightly ellipsoid, smooth, glabrous, somewhat acid, edible, the dissepiment moderately thick, with fleshy, sub-reniform placentas adnate to the middle.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds yellowish, 4–5 × 3–4 mm, obovate or elliptic in outline or ± reniform Seeds yellowish, 4>i>–5 × 3>i>–4 mm, obovate or elliptic in outline or ± reniform.
Ecology
Quite widely naturalized in forest regions of Africa. Forest, mountain slopes, Pinus plantations, ruderal places and other areas of disturbance particularly near roadsides in damp soil; sunny or partly shady places; up to 1158 m (1750 m in Angola).
Note
R.E. Fries, loc. cit., records this species also from Zambia (Mporokoso). Common name: "Tree Tomato". Recent molecular studies find Cyphomandra, formerly comprising about 35 species, nested within Solanum and with a number of species showing transitional features, so that it now seems best included as a subgenus of Solanum, see Spooner, Anderson & Jansen in Amer. J. Bot. 80: 676–688 (1993) and Bohs in Taxon 44: 583–587 (1995).
Distribution
Originally from Peru, now widely distributed all over the world in warm but also in temperate regions, often cultivated as a food crop mainly in the Andean Region. Zimbabwe Malawi ZIM E, MAL C
Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree, up to 6(7) m high, usually covered with small white, sub-circular or linear spots, somewhat softly and shortly pubescent with simple hairs and papillose glandular hairs to ± glabrous. Shrub or small tree, up to 6(7) m high, usually covered with small white, sub-circular or linear spots, somewhat softly and shortly pubescent with simple hairs and papillose glandular hairs to ± glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves solitary or rarely geminate; petiole 1.5–11.5 cm long, initially clasping at the base; lamina somewhat fleshy or sub-coriaceous, 4>i>–36 × 1.5>i>–27 cm, cordate or ovate-lanceolate, base cordate and often unequal-sided, apex acute or obtuse, often ± acuminate, entire to slightly 3-lobed (elsewhere sometimes pinnatisect), densely ciliate, finely pubescent, paler and sometimes sub-velvety beneath, with 3–8 pairs of lateral nerves. Leaves solitary or rarely geminate; petiole 1. 5–11. 5 cm long, initially clasping at the base; lamina somewhat fleshy or sub-coriaceous, 4–36 × 1. 5–27 cm, cordate or ovate-lanceolate, base cordate and often unequal-sided, apex acute or obtuse, often ± acuminate, entire to slightly 3-lobed (elsewhere sometimes pinnatisect), densely ciliate, finely pubescent, paler and sometimes sub-velvety beneath, with 3–8 pairs of lateral nerves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers fragrant; pedicels 7>i>–12 mm long, slender, thickened upwards; in fruit much elongated and thicker. Flowers fragrant.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 3.5>i>–4.5 mm long, bowl-shaped or sub-campanulate, shortly spreading pubescent; lobes 1>i>–2 mm long, broadly ovate, somewhat acute or obtuse, in fruit enlarged and strongly thickened. Calyx 3.5–4.5 mm long, bowl-shaped or sub-campanulate, shortly spreading pubescent; lobes 1–2 mm long, broadly ovate, somewhat acute or obtuse, in fruit enlarged and strongly thickened
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 1>i>–1.5 mm long, conical, ± glabrous; style 5>i>–7 mm long.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 1000 - 3000 m.
Distribution
Cultivated in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Morphology General Habit
Shrub.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean. Elevation range: 1000–3000 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bogotá DC, Boyacá, Caldas, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindío, Risaralda, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Shrub, Small tree.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): DD.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), desert, artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Pepino de tree, Tamarillo, Tomate de monte, Tomate de tree, Tomate guiteño, Tomate silvestre

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: cultivated in Hortus Madrid from seed of unknown origin in 1798–9, Cavanilles s.n. (MA, lecto. designated by Bohs in Flora Neotropica, 63: 51 (1994))
Morphology General
Shrub or small tree to 7 m high, rarely herbaceous, often malodorous; younger parts hispid, with a mixture of small spreading simple eglandular- and glandularheaded hairs, older parts glabrescent and often with small whitish spots
Morphology Leaves
Leaves usually solitary and alternate, rarely opposite, simple, coriaceous, often dark green, often foetid when bruised, broadly ovate to cordate, 10.8–40 × 5.6–26 cm, bases usually cordate occasionally unequal sometimes auriculate with overlapping or clasping lobes, margins entire , apices acuminate, surfaces prominently veined and softly hispid with hairs denser on lower surfaces, midribs and veins; petioles 2.4–13 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal pendulous lax long (–60 cm) cymes, simple, forked or branched arising from stem fork or leaf axil and often appearing axillary, (5–)10–50(–100)-flowered, up to 15 cm long; flowers often fragrant, actinomorphic; peduncles 1.5–2.2 cm long in flower and 1.8–5 cm in fruit; pedicels always pendulous, 6–16 mm long in flower, ± hispid, 1.6–5.2 cm long in fruit when woody and thickened, articulate at or near the base leaving rachis scars
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx fleshy, cyathiform, 2.5–4.5 mm long, sparsely hirsute with glandular hairs externally, with five broadly triangular acute or apiculate lobes 1–2.5 × 1.9–3 mm, slightly accrescent and persistent in fruit when 1.5–4 × 2.5–5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, pink or pale purple, stellate, fleshy, 1.3–2 cm diameter, tube 1.5–3 mm long; lobes narrowly triangular, usually spreading after anthesis with apices recurved, 7–11 × 2–4 mm, acute to acuminate, lobe margins densely pilose internally, otherwise glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually equal, connivent; filaments pale pink, free for 1.5–2 mm, glabrous; anthers bright yellow or orange, 4.5–6 × 1.3–2.9 mm, dehiscing by small apical pores, with broad connective forming darker gibbose thickened band (0.7–1.2 mm) along backs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary greenish-white, 4 × 2–3 mm, glabrous, bilocular; style greenish-white, 5–6(–7) × 0.7–0.8 mm, glabrous, exserted up to 2 mm; stigma greenish-white, truncate to subcapitate, sometimes bilobed, 0.6–0.7 mm diameter
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit pendulous, sub-fleshy, orange to dark red or purple, dull, ovoid to ellipsoidal, (2.2–)5–10 × 2–5 cm, with acute or acuminate apex, pericarp thick and smooth, softly pubescent to glabrous, bilocular; fruiting calyx lobes adherent becoming reflexed basally
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds numerous, pale reddish-brown, discoid, (3–)4–4.2 × (2.5) 3–3.8 mm, rugose, shallowly reticulate-foveate with narrow winged margin; sclerotic granules sometimes present
Ecology
Introduced and naturalised (following bird dispersal) on roadsides, drier and moist forest types , often in deep shade, clearings or on wet ground; 1050–2050 m
Note
Commonly known as the tree tomato or tamarillo, the fruits are eaten raw, stewed or made into jam which has a pleasant fragrant taste, though the unripe fruits are considered slightly toxic. The fruits have a high vitamin content, with large amounts of ascorbic acid and vitamin D and they are very rich in carotene, making them good sources of pro-vitamin A. Despite the inflorescences bearing large numbers of flowers, only 1–5 fruits mature on each infructescence; these are predominantly bird-dispersed. The natural range and place of origin of S. betaceum remains conjectural (cf. Bohs, 1989). Truly wild populations are unknown though there are tentative reports of them occurring in Bolivia and NW Argentina; the plants are almost always associated with human habitation, with its possible depiction on pre-Colombian Peruvian pottery vessels suggesting that this species might have been domesticated by prehistoric inhabitants of the Andes (Bohs, 1989). This, however, has been disputed by some researchers who favour the relatively recent domestication of this species. It is now widely cultivated for both culinary and ornamental purposes in subtropical countries throughout the world including India, SE Asia, New Zealand and Australia as well as Africa.  Hunziker (Genera Solanaceae: 320 (2001)) summarized the alkaloid mixture isolated from ‘ Cyphomandra betacea’ roots, surmising that this seemed to be the first reported species of a plant with atropine-like alkaloids and edible fruits. Amines and amides have also been found in ‘ C. betacea’ (Bohs, 1989). Medicinal uses of this species include the use of warmed leaves in poultices for sore throats, fruit pulp in poultices for inflammed tonsils. The leaves have also been used as a source of dyes (cf. Bohs, 1989). This is the only species of ‘ Cyphomandra’ found in the FTEA region where it is universally known as C. betacea (Cav.) Sendtn. This genus has largely been separated from Solanum on the basis of a thickened connective separating the two anther thecae – which appears as a thickened column on the backs of the anthers. Indeed the generic name is derived from the Greek kyphos meaning a tumour or curve and andros meaning male and referring to this curved thickened anther connective. The volatile perfumes produced in the epidermal cells of this connective attract pollinating male euglossine bees (cf. Hunziker, 2001).
Distribution
Flora districts: U2 U4 T2 T3 T7 Range: Probably native to Bolivia or NW Argentina Range: Cultivated, often naturalised in Ghana, Congo, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Angola, Zimbabwe, South Africa (Natal) and Madagascar Range: Tropical and subtropical South and Central America, the West Indies, Spain, India, China, Papua New Guinea, Australia

[UPFC]
Vernacular
Tomate silvestre

[UPB]
Use Animal Food
Eaten by birds and insects (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Food
Infructescences - The fruit is used to make juices (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Use Food Fruits Dessert Fruits
Infructescences - Edible fruit, used for desserts (Romero Castañeda 1961).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016).

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.

Native to:

Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Angola, Assam, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Ghana, Great Britain, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Honduras, India, Italy, Jamaica, Jawa, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Marianas, Mauritius, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Myanmar, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Niue, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Vietnam, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Tamarillo, Tree tomato
Spanish
Pepino de árbol, tomae, tomate de árbol.

Solanum betaceum Cav. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
May 1, 2004 Jacobs, M. [4440] K000096574 Yes
May 1, 2004 Glaziou [7789], Brazil K001058085 Yes
May 1, 2004 Frodin, D.G. [657] K000096575 Yes
May 1, 2004 Clute, W.N. [220], Jamaica K000096569 Yes
May 1, 2004 Johnson, L. [8350], Australia K000096577 Yes
May 1, 2004 Gay, H. [20945], New Caledonia K000096578 Yes
May 1, 2004 Afriastini, J.J. [772] K000096573 Yes
May 1, 2004 Tweedie [s.n.] K001058084 Yes
May 1, 2004 Hernández, A.C. [49], Mexico K000096542 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000195203 Unknown type material Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001168404 Yes
Raynal, T. [20565], Rwanda K001155899 Yes
Loveridge, M.V. [243], Uganda K001157071 Yes
Strey, R.G. [10907], South Africa K001159003 Yes
Goudot [101] K001163045 Yes
Lehmann, F.C. [7818], Ecuador K001163049 Yes
Solomon, J.C. [11227], Bolivia K001163057 Yes
Solomon, J.C. [14408], Bolivia K001163060 Yes
Eggeling, W.J. [3094], Uganda K001157065 Yes
Steyermark, J.A. [95189] K001163048 Yes
Wendelberger [34], Uganda K001157070 Yes
s.coll [7272], Indonesia K001168397 Yes
Dawkins, H.C. [D721], Uganda K001157067 Yes
Eggers, H. [15069], Ecuador K001163050 Yes
Streimann, H. [8710], Papua New Guinea K001153715 Yes
Stauffer, H.U. [537], Congo K001155897 Yes
Wild, H. [2034], Zimbabwe K001158458 Yes
Martin, R. [1727], Peru K001163052 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001168409 Yes
Wilde, W.J.J.O. de [10241] K001168400 Yes
Eggeling, W.J. [s.n.], Uganda K001157066 Yes
Solomon, J.C. [11050], Bolivia K001163059 Yes
Venugopal, N. [22422] K001168395 Yes
s.coll [94289] K001157060 Yes
Bang, A.M. [2337], Bolivia K001163055 Yes
Wild, H. [2034], Zimbabwe K001158457 Yes
Chase, M.W. [12267K], Guatemala K001168402 Yes
Loveridge, M.V. [207], Uganda K001157074 Yes
Cabrera, A.L. [27868], Argentina K001167945 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001163046 Yes
Morton, J.K. [K852], Cameroon K001155898 Yes
Drummond, R.B. [2408], Tanzania K001157063 Yes
Eyerdam, W.J. [25355], Bolivia K001163054 Yes
Sigara [297], Tanzania K001157062 Yes
Holton, I.F. [s.n.], Colombia K001163043 Yes
Vink, W. [16343], Papua New Guinea K001168398 Yes
Loveridge, M.V. [243], Uganda K001157069 Yes
s.coll [4418], India K001168399 Yes
Sigara [297], Kenya K001157059 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001168406 Yes
Gillett, J.B. [17583], Tanzania K001157064 Yes
Loveridge, M.V. [207], Uganda K001157072 Yes
Herb Gay, J. [s.n.] K001168410 Yes
Bruijn, J. de [1439], Venezuela K001163047 Yes
Loveridge, M.V. [207], Uganda K001157073 Yes
Tweedie [s.n.] K001168408 Yes
Strey, R.G. [10907], South Africa K001159002 Yes
s.coll [H2445/61], United Kingdom K001168411 Yes
Nee, M. [38493], Bolivia K001163058 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001168403 Yes
Lehmann, F.C. [6433], Ecuador K001163042 Yes
s.coll [H2445/61], United Kingdom K001168412 Yes
Kalbreyer, W. [1019], Colombia K001163044 Yes
Solomon, J.C. [14408], Bolivia K000441080 Yes
Klug, G. [4192], Peru K001163053 Yes
Sperling, C.R. [5406], Bolivia K001163056 Yes
Silva, M. de [3421], Angola K001029817 Yes
McLean [s.n.], Peru K001168401 Yes
Gamble, J.S. [16860], India K001168396 Yes
Wild, H. [2034], Zimbabwe K001158456 Yes
Gay, H. [20945], New Caledonia K001155369 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K001168407 Yes
Loveridge, M.V. [243], Uganda K001157068 Yes
Beaman, J.H. [9453], Malaysia K001153395 Yes
Friis, I. [2187], Ethiopia K001156081 Yes
Little Jr., E.L. [6173], Ecuador K001163051 Yes
Drummond, R.B. [2408], Kenya K001157061 Yes
Oct 1, 2003 Pollard, B.J. [924], Cameroon Cyphomandra betacea K000212619 No
Oct 1, 2003 Ghogue, J.-P. [1041], Cameroon Cyphomandra betacea K000212622 Yes
Oct 1, 2003 Onana, J.-M. [1803], Cameroon Cyphomandra betacea K000212620 Yes
Oct 1, 2003 Biye, E. [79], Cameroon Cyphomandra betacea K000212621 Yes
Feb 1, 2002 Biye, E. [34], Cameroon Cyphomandra betacea K000109664 No
Feb 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [3603], Cameroon Cyphomandra betacea K000339144 Yes
Dawkins, H.C. [721], Uganda Cyphomandra betacea 2535.000 No
Cyphomandra betacea 7102.000 No

First published in Anales Hist. Nat. 1: 44 (1799)

Accepted by

  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Florez-Cárdenas, G., Núñez-Izquierdo, O. L., Núñez-Izquierdo, M. M., Ramírez-Mesa, M., & Zusunaga-Quintana, J. A. (2010). 100 Plantas útiles del páramo del Rabanal: Guía para comunidades rurales. Bogotá: Instituto Alexander von Humboldt - CAR - Corpoboyac
  • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.or
  • Romero Castañeda, R. (1961). Plantas útiles de Colombia. Volumen I. San Juan Eudes, Bogotá.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Ann. Hist. Nat. 1: 44 (1799).
  • Taxon 44: 584 (1995). TAB. 14.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Mao, A.A., Odyuo, N., Verma, D. & Singh, P. (2017). Checklist of Flora of Nagaland: 1-196. Botanical Survey of India.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Anal. Hist. Nat. 1: 44 (1799)
  • Dunal, Hist. Solanum: 169 (1813)
  • F.Z. 8(4): 75 (2005).
  • Gen. Hist. Dichl. Pl. 4: 108 (1837)
  • Hort. Kew, ed. 2(1): 400 (1810)
  • Icon. 6: 15, t. 524 (1800)
  • Rev. Hort.: 150 (1880)
  • Solanaceae IV: 293 (1999)
  • Synopsis: 7 (1816)
  • Taxon 44: 584 (1995)

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
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  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
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  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
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  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Living Collection Database

    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/