Family:
Fabaceae Lindl.
Genus:
Mimosa L.

Mimosa pudica L.

The sensitive plant is popular in cultivation around the world, and is enjoyed by many as a curiosity due to its highly touch-sensitive leaves.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1780 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, subarbusto, arbusto, liana
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description
Few can resist touching the compound leaves of the sensitive plant and watching them fold up in response.

The sensitive plant is popular in cultivation around the world, and is enjoyed by many as a curiosity due to its highly touch-sensitive leaves.

Robert Hooke (English scientist famous for his microscopy work, 1635-1703) was one of the first people to investigate the movements of Mimosa pudica, and at that time it had been suggested that plants had nerves and tissues similar to those in animals. It was later discovered that the leaves fold as a result of the internal movement of water, and the mechanics of the process are now well-documented. A stimulus, such as touch or air movement, triggers certain areas of the stem to release chemicals, which cause water to move out of cell vacuoles and leads to cell collapse.

This rapid plant movement is thought to act as a defence against herbivores, which may be deterred by the dramatic response, or if they are small, may be dislodged as the leaves collapse.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Sensitive plant is native to tropical America, and is found as a weed throughout the tropics. It also enjoys widespread popularity as a house plant.

Description

Overview: An annual or perennial that normally grows to 50-70 cm tall (but can be up to 1 m tall), and often takes the form of a straggling prickly sub-shrub. Its stems have sparse prickles, 2-2.5 mm long, or are sometimes bristly, or can also be almost hairless.

Leaves: The leaves are alternate, bipinnate (twice compound), do not have prickles and are very sensitive to touch. The rachis (axis of the compound leaf) is 1.5-5.5 cm long, and the pinnae (primary divisions of the compound leaf) are subdigitate (almost finger-like projections). There are 10-26 pairs of leaflets (the smallest segments of the leaf) per pinna, which are 6-15 x 1.2-3 mm and linear-oblong.

Flowers: The flowers are lilac or pink (the colour mainly the stamen filaments) and are held in ovoid, stalked heads of 1-1.3 x 0.6-1 cm. A cluster of 1-5 flower heads is borne in the leaf axil. The calyx is minute, about 0.2 mm long. The corolla is 2-2.3 mm long, and contains four stamens.

Fruits: The pods are 1.8 cm x 3-5 mm, densely bristly, clustered, and have prickles along their margins.

Like many other legumes, the sensitive plant benefits from an association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which live within its root nodules. These bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form which the plant can make use of, and which aids its growth.

Rupert C. Barneby (accomplished legume taxonomist, 1911-2000) recognised five varieties of M. pudica . These varieties ( M. pudica var hispida , var. pastoris , var. pudica , var. tetranda and var. unijuga ) are found up to 1,500 m above sea level, and are distinguished from each other using aspects of the flowers and plant indumentum (hairs).

What's in a name?

Mimosa pudica was described by Carl Linnaeus (Swedish botanist and father of modern taxonomy, 1707-1778), and is the type species for the genus. The generic name Mimosa is derived from the Greek mimos (meaning mimic) in reference to the fact that the leaves move in response to something moving against them. The specific epithet is taken from the Latin word pudica , meaning bashful or shrinking to contact. The type material for M. pudica is from Brazil and is sterile (does not include any flowers or fruits). It forms part of the historical George Clifford Herbarium at the Natural History Museum, London. George Clifford was an Anglo-Dutch merchant (1685-1760) who owned an estate on which Carl Linnaeus worked from 1735 to 1737.

More common names for this species

sensitive plant, touch-me-not plant, humble plant, shameful plant (English); amourette herbe, herbe sensible, sensitive, sensitive épineus, mimosa pudique (French); vergonsoza, dormidera, ten vergüenza (Spanish); pinahuixtle, quecupatli (Nahuatl, Mexico); mori vivi (Hispaniola); honte (Haiti); dormideira (Brazil, Portuguese); Chui-Mui (Urdu); Lojjaboti (Bengali); hánxiū cǎo = shyness grass (Chinese); Nidi kumba (Sri Lanka).

Legumes and plant movement

Mimosa pudica is not the only member of the legume plant family (Leguminosae) to move in response to stimuli. More species of Mimosa show sensitivity to touch, known as seismonasty. Other legumes, for example some members of the genera Neptunia , Acacia , Albizia and Samanea , respond to a lesser degree by showing 'sleep movements' (nyctinasty) in their natural habitats. This involves the closing up of the leaves a few hours before dusk, and the re-opening of the leaves a few hours before dawn. It is thought that these 'sleep movements' aid water conservation as well as defence against herbivory.

Threats and conservation

The sensitive plant is widely distributed in the tropics, and is not considered to be threatened. Indeed, it is included in the Global Invasive Species Database as one of the world's worst invasive weeds, invading forestry plantations, croplands, orchards and pastures throughout the tropics, especially in South Asia, the Pacific Islands and some African countries. It can be especially problematic when crops are hand-cultivated, as it has prickles along its stems. Measures have been taken to eradicate it in some areas, for example in Queensland, Australia.

Uses

Traditional medicine

Mimosa pudica has been used widely in traditional medicine. Pulped leaves are used in India on glandular swellings and in the Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) the entire plant is pulped and rubbed onto people suffering pains in their body sides and kidneys. In Senegal, the leaves are used for lumbago and nephritis. All parts of the plant have been used to combat glandular tumours and uterine cancer. In India leaf-sap is applied for sinus disorders, and rubbed onto sores and piles.

In southeast Asia sensitive plant has been used traditionally to treat sleep disorders, and in Senegal an infusion of the leaves is believed to be calming and sleep-inducing. M. pudica has also been used for treating dysentery, urinary complaints and snake-bites. Root extracts have shown anti-bacterial action, and along with the seeds are purgative and emetic. However, high doses can be toxic. There are reports that the roots can be used as an aphrodisiac. Green parts of the plant are used as an analgesic, antispasmodic, anti-asthmatic, a mild sedative and anti-depressant. Despite its wide use in traditional medicine, M. pudica is not yet used in Western medicine, as pharmaceutical companies are still researching its reported properties and potential uses.

Other uses

Sensitive plant is used as a green manure, and cultivated as pasture in Fiji.

In India it is used as forage for cattle, and is considered to lead to high meat and milk production. Regular grazing is necessary so that thorny stems do not develop. Despite its use as forage, trials in India and Hawaii have shown it can be toxic if fed in high quantities to cattle or horses.

M. pudica is also used in some areas as ground cover to prevent soil erosion.

Sensitive plant produces mucilage (a viscous secretion) and a greenish-yellow fatty acid. The oil contains linoleic acid (51%), oleic acid (31%), palmitic and stearic acids (9% each), and traces of others; it resembles soy bean oil, potentially having similar uses.

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

Collections of  Mimosa pudica seeds are held in Kew's Millennium Seed Bank based at Wakehurst in West Sussex.

See Kew's Seed Information Database for further information on Mimosa pudica seeds

Cultivation

Sensitive plant is propagated from seed in Kew's Tropical Nursery. The seed is scarified (scratched) and soaked in water overnight. The seed germinates easily, and it is often possible to see the beginnings of root growth by the next day. The compost mix used is high in organic matter, containing 10% loam, 45% coir and 45% Silvafibre, with added fertiliser.

The sensitive plant suffers from pests including red spider mite, thrips and mealy bugs. Soap sprays are not used to control pests as they cause the leaves to blacken (this is the case with many legumes).

Mimosa seeds are widely available, inexpensive and can be sown indoors all year round. Seedlings should be kept moist and exposed to bright light, and at a temperature of about 18°C. M. pudica var. hispida , which originates from southwest Mexico, is the most popularly cultivated variety.

Where to see the sensitive plant at Kew

Sensitive plant can be seen growing in Kew's Waterlily House. It is also grown behind-the-scenes in Kew's Tropical Nursery.

Kew's Economic Botany Collection includes samples of the leaves, stems and seeds of Mimosa pudica .

Ecology
Open waste ground within tropical vegetation in its native range.
Conservation
Not considered to be threatened.
Hazards

Contains the alkaloid mimosine (a non-protein amino acid), which in large doses is toxic to humans and animals. The plant stem is armed with sharp prickles.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Morphology General Habit
Shrub, subshrub, liana.
Conservation
Least concern.
Ecology
Alt. 0 - 1780 m.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.
Vernacular
Biumía.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Guiana Shield, Caribbean, Orinoquia, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–1780 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Atlántico, Bolívar, Boyacá, Caldas, Casanare, Cauca, Chocó, Córdoba, Cundinamarca, Guainía, Huila, Magdalena, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindío, Risaralda, San Andrés y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Herb, Shrub, Subshrub, Liana.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC. National Red List of Colombia (2021): Potential LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), desert, artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Adormidera, Biumía, Cerrate puta, Cierra tus puertas, Ciérrate, Dormidera, Mimosa, Rastrera, Sensitiva, Tsakeke (Sikuani), Tsakenae (Sikuani)

[FWTA]

Mimosaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A straggling prickly plant
Vernacular
The “Sensitive Plant”
Ecology
Introduced and rather local.

[FZ]

Leguminosae, J.P.M. Brenan. Flora Zambesiaca 3:1. 1970

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herb, sometimes woody below, up to c. 1 m. high, often prostrate or straggling; stems ± sparsely armed with prickles c. 2·5-5 mm. long, in addition varying from densely hispid to subglabrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sensitive, unarmed; petiole 1·5-5·5 cm. long; rhachis very short, so that the 2 (rarely only 1) pairs of pinnae are subdigitate; leaflets 10-26 pairs, 6-12·5(15) x 1·2-2·75(3) mm.; venation diverging from and not nearly parallel with the midrib; margins setulose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers lilac or pink, in shortly ovoid, pedunculate heads c. 1-1·3 x 0·6-1 cm., 1-4(5) together from the axils.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx minute, c. 0·2 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 2-2·25 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods clustered, 1-1·8 x 0·3-0·5 cm. (excluding the prickles), densely setose-prickly on the margins only.

[FTEA]

Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herb, sometimes woody below, up to about 1 m. high, often prostrate or straggling.
Morphology Stem
Stems ± sparsely armed with prickles about 2.5–5 mm. long, in addition varying from densely hispid to subglabrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sensitive, unarmed; petiole 1.5–5.5 cm. long; rhachis very short, so that the 2 (rarely only 1) pairs of pinnae are subdigitate; leaflets 10–26 pairs, linear-oblong, 6–12.5(–15) mm. long, 1.2–2.75(–3) mm. wide; venation diverging from and not nearly parallel with midrib; margins setulose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers lilac or pink, in shortly ovoid pedunculate heads about 1–1.3 cm. long and 0.6–1 cm. wide, 1–4(–5) together from axils.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx minute, about 0.2 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 2–2.25 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 4.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods clustered, densely setose-prickly on margins only, 1.0–1.8 cm. long, 0.3–0.5 cm. wide (excluding the prickles).

[ILDIS]

International Legume Database and Information Service

Conservation
Not Threatened
Ecology
Africa: Lake Victoria regional mosaic; anthropic landscapes., Zambezian anthropic landscapes., Guinea-Congolian anthropic landscapes
Morphology General Habit
Annual/Perennial, Not climbing, Herb/Shrub
Vernacular
Amboafotsikely, Cierra Tus Puertas, Cierrate Puta, Cogadrogadro, Dormideira, Dormidera, Dormilona, Feuilles L'Endormi, Herbe Sensible, Honte, Malicia, Maria-feche-a-porta, Matirosana, Mori Vivi, Mouri Leve, Naupate, Nidi-kumba, Pohe H'avare, Pope Haavare,

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
adormidera, cierrateciérrate, cierrateputa, dormidera, dormidera espinosa, dormilona, guamito, mimosa, sensitiva, vergonzosa

[KSP]
Use
Grown as an ornamental, its touch-sensitive leaves create interest among adults and children alike, helping to inspire interest in plant life generally. It has many traditional medicinal uses.

[UPB]
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Social
Social uses.

[ILDIS]
Use
Chemical products, Domestic, Environmental, Forage, Medicine, Weed

Native to:

Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Fiji, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Rodrigues, Réunion, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Sensitive Plant, Sensitive plant
Spanish
Dormidera, adormidera, sensitiva, mimosa, cerrate puta, biumía, rastrera, vergonzosa, cierra tus puertas, ciérrate.

Mimosa pudica L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jun 3, 2014 Calatayud, G. [4324], Peru K000966972 No
Jan 31, 2008 Melo, M.R.C.S. [176], Pernambuco K000864586 Yes
Jan 1, 2006 Juárez García, G. [873], Mexico K000503996 No
Oct 1, 2005 Harvey, Y.B. [72], Cameroon K000338224 No
May 1, 2005 Etuge, M. [5259], Cameroon K000338223 No
Apr 1, 2002 Arbo, M.M. [7764], Espírito Santo K000864587 Yes
Jan 1, 2002 Arbo, M.M. [7187], Bahia K000864588 Yes
Jul 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [1851], Cameroon K000108292 No
Jul 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [10137], Cameroon K000108288 No
Jul 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [1847], Cameroon K000108293 No
Jan 1, 1997 Rivero, E. [206], Bolivia K000503998 No
Jan 1, 1997 Rodríguez M., L.C. [160], Mexico K000503997 No
Mar 1, 1995 Botteri [673b], Mexico K000503778 No
Jan 1, 1994 Martínez Salas, E.M. [13378], Mexico K000504000 No
Jan 1, 1994 Martínez Salas, E.M. [12269], Mexico K000503999 No
Jan 1, 1993 Queiroz, L.P. [3448], Bahia K000091160 Yes
Jan 1, 1992 Martínez Salas, E.M. [12328], Mexico K000478775 No
Jan 29, 1985 Rivero, E. [206], Bolivia K000503998 Yes
Jan 1, 1985 Delgado S, A. [1455], Mexico K000478774 No
Feb 1, 1983 Hage, J.L. [621], Bahia K000091035 Yes
Feb 1, 1983 Hage, J.L. [1167], Bahia K000091036 Yes
Feb 1, 1983 Pirani, J.R. [CFCR1614], Bahia K000091034 Yes
Dec 15, 1978 Ule, E. [8129], Roraima K000864589 Yes
Jun 1, 1972 Maas, P.J.M. [234], Amazonas K000864583 Yes
Sep 28, 1969 Calatayud, G.; et al. [4324], Peru K000966972 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5292] K001120409 Yes
Sousa, M. [11693], Mexico K000478787 No
Martínez Calderon, G. [1930], Mexico K000478778 No
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 5292] K001120411 Yes
Sousa, M. [4977], Mexico K000478777 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5292] K001120405 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5292] K001120406 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5292] K001120407 Yes
Cordeiro, M.R. [2488], Pará K000864585 Yes
Pedra do Cavalo, G. [195], Bahia K000091037 Yes
Bisby, F.A. [1229], Amazonas K000864584 Yes
Junghuhn, F. [719], Jawa K000791072 holotype Yes
Bourgeau, E. [1759], Mexico K000478779 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5292], India K001120408 Yes
Hostmann [627], Suriname K000864581 Yes
Langlassé, E. [362], Mexico K000478776 No
Gardner, G. [889], Bahia K000864582 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 5292] K001120410 Yes
n/a K000866184 Yes
Venezuela K001473889 Yes
Venezuela K001473890 Yes
Venezuela K001473891 Yes
Venezuela K001473892 Yes
Venezuela K001473893 Yes
Venezuela K001473894 Yes
n/a K001473895 Yes
n/a K001473896 Yes
n/a K001473897 Yes
n/a K001473898 Yes
W. Trop. Amer.; Panama K001473900 Yes
W. Trop. Amer.; Panama K001473901 Yes
W. Trop. Amer.; Panama K001473902 Yes
W. Trop. Amer.; Panama K001473903 Yes
W. Trop. Amer.; Panama K001473904 Yes
W. Trop. Amer.; Panama K001473905 Yes
W. Trop. Amer.; Panama K001473906 Yes
W. Trop. Amer.; Panama K001473907 Yes
W. Trop. Amer.; Panama K001473908 Yes
Peru K001473909 Yes
Bolivia K001473910 Yes
Bolivia K001473911 Yes
Bolivia K001473912 Yes
Venezula/ Ecuador K001473913 Yes
Venezula/ Ecuador K001473914 Yes
Venezula/ Ecuador K001473916 Yes
Venezula/ Ecuador K001473917 Yes
Colombia. Venezuela K001473918 Yes
Colombia. Venezuela K001473919 Yes
Colombia. Venezuela K001473920 Yes
n/a K001473921 Yes
n/a K001473922 Yes
n/a K001473923 Yes
n/a K001473924 Yes
W.Trop: Colombia K001473925 Yes
W.Trop: Colombia K001473926 Yes
W.Trop: Colombia K001473927 Yes
W.Trop: Colombia K001473928 Yes
W.Trop: Colombia K001473929 Yes
W.Trop: Colombia K001473930 Yes
Columbia K001473931 Yes
Peru K001473932 Yes
n/a K001473899 No
Venezula/ Ecuador K001473915 No

First published in Sp. Pl.: 518 (1753)

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  • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Prakash, L. & Balasubramanian, P. (2018). Invasive alien flora of Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Southern Eastern Ghats, India Indian Forester 144: 857-862.
  • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
  • Sachet, M.-H. (1969). List of vascular flora of Rangiroa Atoll Research Bulletin 125: 33-44.
  • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Standley, P.C. & Steyermark, J.A. (1946). Flora of Guatemala Fieldiana Botany New Series 24(5): 1-502. Field Museum of Natural History.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • da Silva e Silva, W.L., Cajueiro Gurgel, E.S., Moreira dos Santos, J.U. & Falcão da Silva, M. (2013). Inventário e distribuição geográfica de Leguminosae no arquipélago de Marajó, PA, Brazil Hoehnea 40: 627-647.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Kew Species Profiles

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Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

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  • Bhellum, B.L. (2012). Flora exotica of Jammu and Kashmir (List- I) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 36: 33-45.
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  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
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  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
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  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
  • Hallé, N. (1980). Les Orchidees de Tubuai (archipel des Australes, Sud Polynesie), suivies d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des iles Australes Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique 2(3): 69-130.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
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  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lorence, D.H. & Wagnwe, W.L. (2020). Flora of the Marquesas Islands 2: 413-1135. National Tropical Botanic Garden, Smithsonian, DRPF.
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  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
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  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
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  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
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  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
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Flora of Tropical East Africa

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Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
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  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
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  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2015). Listado de especies de Productos No Maderables del caribe colombiano. 366 registros, aportados por: Garcia, H. (Contacto del Recurso), López Camacho, R. (Creador del recurso), Espitia Palencia, L. (Proveedor del metadatos). Versión 2.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_bst-caribe_plantae_2015
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (2019). Lista de especies vedadas por la resolución 213 de 1977. 8256 especies. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=le_plantaspriorizadas_2019
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. (2013). Servicios ecosistémicos de especies de fauna y flora presentes en la Orinoquía colombiana. 128 registros, aportados por: Salgado, B. (Contacto del recurso), Gutiérrez, J. (Creador del recurso), Bernal, M. (Proveedor de metadatos). Versión 8.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=orinoquia_faunaflora_is_2014
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  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • PROTA (2021). Plants Resources of Tropical Africa. https://prota4u.org/database/
  • Plants for malaria, plants for fever: Medicinal species in Latin America, a bibliographic survey: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

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  • Polhill, R, M. (1990). Legumineuses. In: Flore des Mascareignes, Vol 80. J. Bosser et a
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  • Robertson, S. A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles. Kew
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  • Verdcourt, B. (1979). A Manual of New Guinea Legumes. Office of Forests, Lae, PNG
  • Welsh, S. L. (1998). Flora Societensis
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  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
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    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora Zambesiaca
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  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
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  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
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  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • International Legume Database and Information Service

    International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
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  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Living Collection Database

    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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  • Kew Science Photographs

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  • Kew Species Profiles

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  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    ColPlantA database
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  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

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  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
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