Hydnora abyssinica A.Br.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to S. Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

[FTEA]

Hydnoraceae, Henk Beentje & Quentin Luke. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2002

Morphology General Habit
Subterranean root parasite. Plant body (‘branch’) rhizome-like, simple or with widely spreading horizontal branches, fleshy, irregularly shaped, to 1 m long, to 10 cm wide, somewhat flattened, brown outside, brick-red or reddish pink to white inside, with sticky, astringent exudate when fresh, side branches cylindrical or nearly so,1.7–4 cm in diameter, densely covered with small warts and with flower buds on the upper surface.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers emerging directly from the main and side branches, remaining partially below ground and partially emerging, solitary or in groups, but only one per branch emergence point (?), with very foetid smell; pedicel absent or up to 2.5 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth fleshy-coriaceous, (8?–)11–25(–33) cm long; tube 4-sided to terete, reddish brown and smooth outside, pinkish to ivory white inside, 4.8–14(–19) cm long (depending on depth of rhizome), 3–5.5 cm in diameter; lobes (2?–3–)4(–6), emergent from ground, either (?in dry weather or in early stage) erect and connivent by the thickened tips with only side vents open, or (?in moist weather or at a later stage) spread and flat on ground, lanceolate to spatulate, thickly fleshy, 4–9(–14) cm long, 1.7–3.8 cm wide, broadly channelled on the inside, lower 1/3 to 2/3 of margins bright red, turning pink or cream/yellow, to 10–13 mm wide, densely setose with broad-based tapering white setae 1–7 mm long, lobe tips (‘cucullus’) thickened, triangular in cross-section, apricot or cream to white, 2.6–5 cm long and 1.6–2 cm wide, grooved outside, the two inside facets glabrous and cushion-like.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens as many as the lobes, with 2 large anthers, 2.5–3.4 cm long, 2–2.5 cm wide, anthers inserted 5–8(–10.5) cm above the base of tube (approximately mid-way), continuously joined at their bases in a series of inverted V-shapes forming a wavy cream, yellow or orange ring with the top (30–)43–102 mm above the flower base, this transversely striate and divided into numerous horizontal pollen sacs; pollen sticky, adhering to the anthers.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary unilocular, subglobose, 22–28(–45) mm in diameter with numerous infolded patent placentas; stigma sessile, cushion-shaped, pink, 3–4(–5)-lobed, each lobe finely ribbed and covered with clear or brown syrupy liquid when fresh.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit entirely subterranean, fleshy, globose, 10–15 cm in diameter, many-seeded, often splitting irregularly at maturity; outer periderm scaly; inner pericarp mealy, white; seeds brown, oblong to globose, 1–1.8 mm long.
Figures
Fig. 1 & 2. (p. 2 & 4).
Habitat
In dry woodland, wooded grassland or bushland, on roots of Acacia (various species), Albizia, Adansonia, Delonix, Kigelia, Piliostigma; 90–2100 m
Distribution
K1 K2 K3 K4 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 U1 U2 U4

[FZ]

Hydnoraceae, Lytton J. Musselman. Flora Zambesiaca 9:2. 1997

Morphology General Habit
A subterranean root parasite.
Morphology General
The plant-body rhizome-like, verrucose, up to c. 10 cm wide, ± irregular in shape and somewhat flattened, simple or with widely spreading horizontal branches, firmly-fleshy, brick-red inside, containing mucilage ducts, with sticky exudate when fresh, rich in tannins.
Morphology Branches
Branches ± terete and densely covered with small conical warts.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers emerging directly from the “rhizome” and branches, remaining partially below ground, solitary or several remotely scattered.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth fleshy-coriaceous, 5–25 cm long, tube 3–4 cm in diameter, brown and roughly corky outside, pinkish inside. Perianth lobes usually 4, appearing above ground, fully patent in wet weather and lying on the soil surface, otherwise connivent or even connate at the tip, 6–8 cm long, lanceolate, thickly fleshy, broadly channelled and glandular on the inside; the lobe tips (cucullus) ± thickened, triangular in cross-section or grooved outside, the adjacent cucullus faces glabrous and cushion-like; the margins below the lobe-tips broad and beset with subulate setae.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers continuously joined at their bases in a series of large inverted “V”s forming a wavy ring, the anther structure transversally striate and divided into very numerous horizontal pollen sacs; pollen sticky, adhering to the anthers.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary unilocular, with numerous infolded, pendant placentas.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma sessile, cushion-shaped, 3–4(5)-lobed; each lobe finely ribbed and covered with a brown liquid in living material.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Outer layer of fruit a scaly periderm; inner pericarp mealy, white, very sweet to taste. Fruit entirely subterranean, fleshy, 10–15 cm in diameter, globose, many-seeded, often splitting irregularly at maturity.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds brown, 1–1.77 mm, oblong to globose.
Seedling
Seedlings unknown.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Roots pink to flesh-red when fresh, with sticky exudate, extremely bitter and astringent, covered (except for the tip) with irregularly distributed, less than 0.5 cm long warty outgrowths from which haustoria are produced
Morphology General Buds
Buds scattered along the roots, usually in clusters of 2–4
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers bisexual, (3–)4(–5)-merous, 5–25 cm long, the length depending on the depth of the root, with a foetid smell
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth-lobes 6–8 cm long, patent and resting on the soil, or lobes not reflexed and flower opening by a separation of the lobes, with a well developed cucullus
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers 2.5–3 x 2–2.5 cm; pollen very sticky
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit globose, 10–15 cm in diam., entirely subterranean, often splitting irregularly after maturation, outer layer scaly, inner layer mealy, white, very sweet, like the placentas
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds brown, very hard, oblong to globose, 1–1.8 mm long.
Distribution
N1, 2; C1, 2; S1, 2 widespread in tropical Africa
Ecology
Altitude range 100–1170 m.
Vernacular
Like (Somali)

[FSOM]
Use
The roots are used against diarrhoea and as a source of tannin. The fruits are edible

Native to:

Botswana, Central African Repu, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Kenya, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Oman, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Jackal fruit

Hydnora abyssinica A.Br. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jameson, J.D. [134], Uganda 18760.000 No
Welwitsch [s.n.], Angola K000435229 Yes
Wissel, B. von [s.n.], Swaziland K000354833 Yes
Guy, J. [159891], Zimbabwe K000354835 No
Welwitsch [s.n.], South Africa K000354834 No
Biegel, H. [1929], Zimbabwe K000354836 No
Bayer, W.F. [s.n.], South Africa K000354832 No
Burger, W. [2695], Ethiopia Hydnora johannis 29047.108 No
Ebba, T. [734], Ethiopia Hydnora johannis 32148.000 No
Collenette, I.S. [5119], Saudi Arabia Hydnora johannis 49380.000 No

First published in G.Schweinfurth & auct. suc. (eds.), Beitr. Fl. Aethiop.: 217 (1867)

Accepted by

  • Beentje, H. & Luke, Q. (2002). Hydnoraceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-8.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Beentje, H. & Luke, Q. (2002). Hydnoraceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-8.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. Braun in Schweinf., Beitr. Fl. Aethiop.: 217 (1867).
  • Baker & C.H. Wright in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 133 (1913).
  • Blundell, Wild Flow. E. Afr.: photo 541 (1987).
  • Engl. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 169 (1895).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1: 22 (1950).
  • Musselman in Flora Zambesiaca 9(2): 18, t. 7 (1997).

  • Flora Zambesiaca

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  • Flora of Somalia

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    Flora of Tropical East Africa
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