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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.
Ocimum americanum

[KBu]

Suddee, S., A. J. Paton, & Parnell, J. (2005). Taxonomic Revision of Tribe Ocimeae Dumort. (Lamiaceae) in Continental South East Asia III. Ociminae. Kew Bulletin, 60(1), 3-75. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4110885

Distribution
Madagascar, Tropical Africa, Arabia, Himalaya, India, Sri Lanka, China, Burma, Thailand, Indochina, throughout Malesia and Indonesia, often cultivated.
Ecology
Open waste areas, along beaches, often cultivated; from sea level to 450 m.
Morphology General Habit
Aromatic, annual or short lived perennial herbs, 10 - 40 cm tall
Morphology Leaves
Leaves lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 5 - 25 x 5 - 15 mm, apex acute, base cuneate, margin entire or sparsely serrate, glandular-punctate, glabrous or slightly pubescent above, pubescent with longer hairs on midrib and lateral veins beneath; petiole 2 - 15 mm long, slender, pubescent with short antrose and long patent hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens with posterior having a glabrous tranverse process near base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate, 1.5 - 2 mm long at anthesis, 2 - 3 mm long in fruit; posterior lip rounded, decurrent on tube, sometimes apiculate at apex; anterior lip with 2 median lanceolate, acuminate teeth, slightly longer than posterior, lateral teeth broad deltoid, acute, almost equal to posterior; throat open; tube with or without sessile glands outside, with a ring of dense villous hairs at throat and glabrous base inside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or light purple, 4 - 5 mm long; lobes entire, villous on back, with or without sessile glands; posterior lip with 2 median oblong lobes and 2 lateral obovate-oblong lobes; anterior lip boat shaped, oblong or ovate-oblong in outline; tube straight, glabrous on both sides
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlets black, narrowly oblong, 0.8 - 1 mm long, minutely tuberculate, producing mucilage when wet.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence lax, verticils up to 10 mm apart, axis densely pubescent with retrose hairs; bracts ovate, 3 - 4 mm long, apex acute or acuminate, base attenuate, margin pilose, glandular-punctate; pedicels recurved, 1- 2 mm long, shorter than fruiting calyx, finely patent-pubescent
Morphology Stem
Stems sometimes ascending, round- quadrangular, with short adpressed or retrose hairs
Note
Most authors using the name Ocimum americanum have applied it to both O. americanum and O. africanum as circumscribed here.
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting January - December.
Type
America, Linnean Herbarium 749.9. [lectotype LINN (microfiche!)]. Epitype: Kerala, 10 Nov, 1972, Pushpangadan & Sobti 1 (epitype K!; isoepitype: Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu).
Vernacular
Thai: Mang Lahk Nah (Jawm Tong, Chiang Mai); Maeng Ka Saeng (Prachuap Khiri Khan). Vietnamese: E Hoang.

[FTEA]

Lamiaceae (Labiatae), A.J. Paton, G. Bramley, O. Ryding, R.M. Polhill, Y.B. Harvey, M. Iwarsson, F. Willis, P.B. Phillipson, K. Balkwill, C.W. Lukhoba, D.F. Otieno, & R.M. Harley. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

Type
Lectotype, see Paton, loc. cit. (1992): America, Linnean Herbarium 749.9 (LINN!, lecto.)
Morphology General Habit
Aromatic annual or short-lived perennial herb, 10–50(–80) cm tall
Morphology Stem
Stems roundedquadrangular or quadrangular, erect or ascending, sometimes with erect flowering shoots coming from a decumbent stem, woody at base, sometimes with epidermis peeling in strips, branched above; indumentum of short, appressed or retrorse hairs, becoming denser on the inflorescence axis, with or without sessile glands
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sometimes folded along midrib on drying, with or without axillary fascicles of younger leaves; blade narrowly ovate or elliptic, 0.5–2.5 × 0.5–1.5 cm, entire to shallowly serrate, apex acute, base cuneate, glabrous to slightly pubescent above, pubescent with longer hairs on midrib and veins beneath, glandular-punctate; petiole 2–15 mm long, with appressed hairs and usually with longer patent hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence lax, verticils ± 10 mm apart; axis densely pubescent with retrorse hairs; bracts often erect above forming a small coma around apex, deciduous or not, ovate, 3–4 mm long, entire, pilose; pedicels 1–2 mm long, ± erect, slightly flattened, curved
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx ± downward-pointing, 1.5–2 mm long at anthesis, indumentum of long patent hairs and sessile glands, interior of tube with a dense ring of hairs at throat; posterior lip rounded at tip, decurrent, median teeth of anterior lip lanceolate, acuminate, teeth of lateral lobes deltate, cuspidate; fruiting calyx 2–4 mm long, throat open; posterior lip accrescent, wider at tip, decurrent; lateral and median teeth of anterior lip ± convergent or not
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or pale mauve, 4–5 mm long; tube straight, funnel-shaped
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens exceeding corolla by 1–2 mm, posterior pair with fleshy, flattened, glabrous outgrowth near base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlets black, ovoid, longer than broad, 0.8–1 mm long, minutely tuberculate, mucilaginous when wet.
Ecology
Cultivated and disturbed ground, grassland, grassland prone to flooding; sea-level to 1800 m
Conservation
Least concern
Note
Morton in J.L.S. 58: 231 (1962) suggests that the type specimen of this species is an immature form of O. basilicum. However, this specimen has an indumentum and small flowers typical of this taxon. O. basilicum never has a short, appressed indumentum with long hairs on the stem nodes and leaf veins. Therefore the correct name for this taxon is O. americanum. O. americanum is close to O. forskolei but can be separated from the latter by the less woody habit, smaller corolla and fruiting calyx, more shortly exserted stamens, and often a less densely hairy calyx. However, mature fruiting specimens can be confused with O. forskolei. O. americanum can also be confused with O. basilicum and O. africanum from which it differs by having a smaller fruiting calyx. Morton in J.L.S. 58: 231 (1962) reports different chromosome numbers in O. americanum [ canum] and O. basilicum and suggests that the two taxa are genetically isolated. They do, however, hybridise, see O. africanum below.
Distribution
Range: Widespread in tropical and South Africa, also from China and India to Brasil and in Australia Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K1 K3 K4 K (5 fide U.K.W.F.), K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Z P

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1400 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, subarbusto
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FWTA]

Labiatae, J. K. Morton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Diagnostic
Similar to O. basilicum but smaller in all its parts and having a more pungent odour
Note
Perhaps not native
Cytology
Diploid.

[KBu]
Use
Leaves are used as insect repellant by local people in Thailand (Na Songkhla 563: BCU, K).

[FWTA]
Use
Commonly cultivated for medicinal purposes

Native to:

Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Philippines, Queensland, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Argentina Northeast, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Honduras, Marianas, Mexico Southeast, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles

Ocimum americanum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Mar 1, 2015 Balderrama [533], Bolivia K000938599
Mar 1, 2015 Rivero [19], Bolivia K000938600
Mar 1, 2015 Guareco [353], Bolivia K000938601
May 10, 2012 Maraia [AM022], Madagascar K000938307
Jan 1, 2011 Andel [5579], Suriname K000735096
Jan 1, 2011 Staviski [261], Brazil K000735146
Jan 1, 2007 Suguino [s.n.], Brazil K000479657
Jan 1, 2007 Barboas [s.n.], Brazil K000479658
Jan 1, 2007 Coelho [s.n.], Brazil K000479659
Jan 1, 2007 Mikami [s.n.], Brazil K000479660
Jan 1, 2007 Pompermayer [s.n.], Brazil K000479661
Jan 1, 2007 Recart [s.n.], Brazil K000479662
May 1, 1985 Powell, D.A. [551], Australia K000897314
Milne-Redhead, E. [7772], Tanzania 27369.000
Bourobou Bourobou, H.P. [667], Gabon K000479668
Zollinger, H. [111], Indonesia K000897313
Afriastini, J.J. [774], Indonesia K000897312
Elmer, A.D.E. [8067], Philippines K000897242
Bogdan, A. [AB1643], Kenya K000434846
Harley, R.M. [16216], Brazil Ocimum canum 35772.028
Kenya Ocimum canum 41480.000
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 2714] Ocimum canum K001116899
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2714] Ocimum canum K001116904
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 2714] Ocimum canum K001116903
s.coll. [1], India Ocimum canum K000911683 epitype
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2714] Ocimum canum K001116901
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 2714], Myanmar Ocimum canum K001116900
De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 2714] Ocimum canum K001116902

First published in Cent. Pl. I: 15 (1755)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Berhaut, J. (1975). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 4: 1-625. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Calane da Silva, M., Izdine, S. & Amuse, A.B. (2004). A Preliminary Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Mozambique: 1-184. SABONET, Pretoria.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Khanam, M. & Hassan, M.A. (2008). Lamiaceae Flora of Bangladesh 58: 1-161. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Manikandan, R., Chandrasekar, K. & Srivastava, S.K. (2012). Life form analysis of the family Lamiaceae in Jammu & Kashmir, India Phytotaxonomy 12: 7-19.
  • Morales, R. (2011). Les Labiadas (Lamiaceae) de Guinea Ecuatorial Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 68: 199-223.
  • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R., Harvey, Y., Iwarsson, M., Willis, F., Phillipson, P., Balkwill, K., Lukhoba, C., Otiend, D & Harley (2009). Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-430.
  • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R.M., Harvey, Y.B., Iwarsson, M., Otieno, D., Balkwill, K., Phillipson, P.B., Harley, R.M. & Willis, F. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(8): 1-346. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Suddee, S., Paton, A.J. & Parnell, J.A.N. (2005). Taxonomic Revision of the tribe Ocimeae Dumort (Lamiaceae) in continental South East Asia III. Ociminae Kew Bulletin 60: 3-75.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2020). file:///C:/Users/rg02kg/Downloads/7790-19423-1-PB.pdf epublication.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Berhaut, J. (1975). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 4: 1-625. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Khanam, M. & Hassan, M.A. (2008). Lamiaceae Flora of Bangladesh 58: 1-161. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Manikandan, R., Chandrasekar, K. & Srivastava, S.K. (2012). Life form analysis of the family Lamiaceae in Jammu & Kashmir, India Phytotaxonomy 12: 7-19.
  • Morales, R. (2011). Les Labiadas (Lamiaceae) de Guinea Ecuatorial Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 68: 199-223.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Suddee, S., Paton, A.J. & Parnell, J.A.N. (2005). Taxonomic Revision of the tribe Ocimeae Dumort (Lamiaceae) in continental South East Asia III. Ociminae Kew Bulletin 60: 3-75.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Cent. Pl. 1: 15 (1755)
  • F.W.T.A. 2: 285 (1931)
  • Fl. Cap. 5(1): 235 (1910)
  • Fl. Eth. 5: 571 (2006)
  • Fl. Rwanda 3: 326 (1985)
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 337 (2006).
  • Holm & Hiltunen, Ocimum: 25 (1999), pro parte
  • Holm & Hiltunen, Ocimum: 25 (1999), pro parte
  • K.B. 47: 424 (1992), pro parte, excl. var. pilosum
  • K.B. 47: 424 (1992), pro parte, excl. var. pilosum
  • K.B. 60: 28 (2005)
  • Ryding in Fl. Somalia 3: 337 (2006).
  • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 296 (1994)

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
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