Genus:
Piper L.

Piper umbellatum L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America. It is used as a medicine and for food.

[FTEA]

Piperaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or woody herb 0.9–4 m. tall, with many subsucculent stems forming a dense clump from a woody rootstock; stems scrambling, thick, glabrous, with adventitious roots.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves dark green above, greyish beneath, almost circular to oblate or reniform, 5–36(–40) cm. long, 4.6–37(–42) cm. wide, shortly acuminate to rounded at the apex, deeply cordate at the base, fairly thin, ± glandular punctate, sparsely to densely pubescent on the nerves above and beneath and also on the conspicuously reticulate venation beneath; nerves 11–13(–15), palmate; petiole 6.5–30(–33) cm. long, dilated and sheathing basally.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite; spikes white, whitish grey, greenish or cream to yellow, 2–8 arranged in false umbels on reduced leafless shoots, (3–)4–12 cm. long, 1.5–3 mm. wide, glabrous; peduncles 0.4–1.7 cm. long; peduncular bracts white, narrow, 6–8 mm. long, deciduous; floralbracts triangular to ± round, 0.5–0.8 mm. wide, subpeltate, white-fimbriate at margins.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 2.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigmas 3.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits brownish, obpyramidal, 3-angled, 0.6–0.8 mm. long, 0.4–0.6 mm. wide.
Habitat
Evergreen forest undergrowth, swamp forest, elephant grass, river banks, old rubber plantations, always in damp places; (0–)150–1800(–2100 fide K.T.S.L.) m.
Distribution
Guinea Bissau to Angola, Zaire, São Tomé, Bioko, S. Sudan, Mozambique, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Seychelles, Madagascar, Mascarene Is.pantropical K1 K3 K4 K5 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 U2 U3 U4 Z

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2200 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, arbusto
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[FZ]

Piperaceae, M.A. Diniz. Flora Zambesiaca 9:2. 1997

Morphology General Habit
A shrub up to 3(4) m high, with numerous stems arising from a woody rootstock, becoming scrambling.
Morphology Stem
Stems subsucculent, thick, slightly striate, glabrous, with adventitious roots.
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petiole up to 30 cm long, dilated and amplexicaul at the base, grooved above, terete beneath, glabrous, glandular-punctate.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf lamina (5)6–36(40) ? (4.5)6–32(42) cm, subcircular to reniform, ± shortly acuminate at the apex, deeply cordate at the base, membranous, with a mint-like fragrance, discolorous, dark green and slightly shining above, lighter green below and ± glandular-punctate, sparsely to densely pubescent on the nerves above and beneath and also on the conspicuously reticulate venation beneath, ± ciliate at the margins; nerves 11–13(15), palmate, impressed above and prominent below, reticulation conspicuous below.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences glabrous, consisting of 2–8 spikes umbellately arranged on reduced leafless axillary shoots 4–12 cm long; umbel bracts up to 8 mm long, deciduous; spikes (4)5–10(12) cm long and c. 0.3 cm in diameter, bright greenish-white, glabrous, with slender peduncles 0.4–1.7 cm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers bisexual; floral bracts 0.5 mm across triangular to ± subcircular, distinctly white fimbriate at the margins, petiolulate; stamens 2; stigmas 3.Fruit c. 0.6–0.8 ? 0.4–0.5 mm, obpyramidal, trigonous, brownish when ripe, glandular-punctate.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
anisillo, congo, cordoncillo, hoja de rayo, santamaría

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Guiana Shield. Elevation range: 0–2200 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Atlántico, Caldas, Caquetá, Cauca, Chocó, Cundinamarca, Guainía, Magdalena, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Santander, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Herb, Shrub.
Conservation
National Red List of Colombia (2021): Potential LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Contraverrugosa, Santa maría, Santa maría macho, Uña de caballo

[FWTA]

Piperaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
A shrub, 4–6 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
White narrow catkins
Ecology
In moist shady places.

[UPFC]
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.

Native to:

Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Angola, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Comoros, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Malawi, Malaya, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nigeria, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Piper umbellatum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Mar 1, 2011 Lim [SAN 143325], Sabah K000577251 No
Mar 1, 2011 Postar et al. [SAN 143749], Sabah K000577252 No
Mar 1, 2011 Diwol [SAN 141822], Sabah K000577254 No
Mar 1, 2011 Kamarudin [FRI 42328], Malaysia K000577256 Yes
Mar 1, 2011 Imin, K. et al. [FRI 50978], Malaysia K000577258 Yes
Mar 1, 2011 Wiriadinata [HW 13305], Sulawesi K000577259 No
Mar 1, 2011 Lozano, P. et al. [931], Ecuador K000577261 No
Mar 1, 2011 Madulid at al. [PPI 27464], Philippines K000577262 No
Mar 1, 2011 Julia, S. [146253], Sabah K000512650 No
Mar 1, 2011 Eanghourt, K. [235], Cambodia K000512679 No
Mar 1, 2011 Piskaut, P. [20160], Papua New Guinea K000512751 No
Mar 1, 2011 Mogea [6349], Irian Jaya K000577263 No
Mar 1, 2011 Chantaranothai, P. et al. [1381], Thailand K000512769 No
Mar 1, 2011 Girmansyah, D. [837], Indonesia K000577257 No
Mar 1, 2011 Takeuchi, W. et al. [16881], Papua New Guinea K000577253 No
Mar 1, 2011 Kessler, P.J.A et al. [PK 3079], Indonesia K000577255 No
Mar 1, 2011 Saw, L.G. [146072], Sabah K000512647 No
Aug 28, 2008 George et al. [122692], Sabah K000575225 No
Aug 27, 2008 Stancik [4883], Papua New Guinea K000575181 No
Mar 1, 2006 Etuge, M. [5251], Cameroon K000339018 No
Mar 1, 2006 Harvey, Y.B. [93], Cameroon K000339019 No
Dec 1, 2003 Ghogue, J.-P. [1005], Cameroon K000746147 No
Jan 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [2840], Cameroon K000180234 No
Jan 1, 2003 Lane, P. [288], Cameroon K000180238 No
Jan 1, 2003 Cable, S. [2640], Cameroon K000180210 No
Jan 1, 2003 Ryan, P. [246], Cameroon K000180233 No
Jan 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [1670], Cameroon K000180235 No
Jan 1, 1994 von Rege, I. [61], Cameroon K000381415 No
Jan 1, 1994 Lighava, M. [8], Cameroon K000381460 No
Jan 1, 1994 Thomas, D.W. [9916], Cameroon K000381416 No
Jan 1, 1994 Hurst, J. [9], Cameroon K000381411 No
Jan 1, 1994 Watts, J. [885], Cameroon K000381461 No
Jan 1, 1987 Nemba, J. [222], Cameroon K000180078 No
Jan 1, 1987 Etuge, M. [249], Cameroon K000180079 No
Jan 1, 1965 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [6937], Cameroon K000180075 No
Vogel, T. [53], Sierra Leone K000350308 Yes
Vogel, T. [53], Sierra Leone K000350309 Yes
Zumaram, J. [427], Peru K000325259 No
Tiyoy, L.M. [1505], Uganda K000449611 No
Mann, G. [1272], Cameroon K000180085 No
Chuml, H. [83], Cameroon K000180082 No
Etuge, M. [1297], Cameroon K000180192 No
Cheek, M. [9024], Cameroon K000180236 No
Wheatley, J.I. [429], Cameroon K000180237 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Peninsular Malaysia K000842474 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], Peninsular Malaysia K000842475 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], Peninsular Malaysia K000842477 Yes
Balding, S. [76], Cameroon K000381418 No
Galeotti, H.G., Mexico K000323671 Yes
Migeod, F. [33], Cameroon K000180084 No
Dunlap [12], Cameroon K000180083 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Peninsular Malaysia K000842472 Yes
Dundas J. [15334], Cameroon K000180081 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Peninsular Malaysia K000842476 Yes
Christenhusz, M.J.M., Kamau, P., Mbale, M. [6663], Kenya K000696634 No
Katende [651], Uganda K000449610 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Peninsular Malaysia K000842478 Yes
s.coll. [s.n.], Peninsular Malaysia K000842470 Yes
Mann, G. [1272], Cameroon K000180086 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Peninsular Malaysia K000842473 Yes
Thompson, S.A. [1339], Cameroon K000180080 No
s.coll. [s.n.], Peninsular Malaysia K000842471 Yes
Bojen [s.n.], Mauritius Piper subpeltatum K000350414 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6638] Piper subpeltatum K001124360 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6638], India Piper subpeltatum K001124362 Yes
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6638], Malaysia Piper subpeltatum K001124358 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6638] Piper subpeltatum K001124361 Yes
Telfair, C. [Cat. no. 6638], Mauritius Piper subpeltatum K001124359 Yes
Sep 1, 2006 Assis, M.C. et al. [579], Brazil Pothomorphe umbellata K000325272 No
Mathews [3230], Peru Peperomia umbellata K000324719 Unknown type material Yes

First published in Sp. Pl.: 30 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Callejas Posada, R. (2020). Flora Mesoamericana 2(2): 1-590. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Melo, A. & Alves, M. (2021). Piper (Piperaceae) in eastern Northeast Brazil Phytotaxa 505: 1-38.
  • Monro, A.K., González, F., Santamaría, D., Chacón, O., Rodríguez, A., Solano, D. Zamora, N. & Correa, M. (2011). A first checklist to the vascular plants of La Amistad International Park (PILA), Costa Rica-Panama Phytotaxa 322: 1-283.
  • Monteiro, D. & Guimarães, E.F. (2009). Flora do parque nacional do Itataia - Brasil: Manekia e Piper (Piperaceae) Rodriguésia 60: 999-1024.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Pope, G.V. (ed.) (1997). Flora Zambesiaca 9(2): 1-64. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2017). Flore du Gabon 50: 1-77. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Suwanphakdee, C. & al. (2020). A synopsis of Thai Piper (Piperaceae) Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany) 48: 145-183.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1996). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Piperaceae: 1-24.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wilson, A.J.G. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Australia 2: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of China 4: 1-453. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chev. Fl. Viv. 1: 137.
  • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 144

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Guého, J. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1998). Flore des Mascareignes 149-152: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Monro, A.K., González, F., Santamaría, D., Chacón, O., Rodríguez, A., Solano, D. Zamora, N. & Correa, M. (2011). A first checklist to the vascular plants of La Amistad International Park (PILA), Costa Rica-Panama Phytotaxa 322: 1-283.
  • Monteiro, D. & Guimarães, E.F. (2009). Flora do parque nacional do Itataia - Brasil: Manekia e Piper (Piperaceae) Rodriguésia 60: 999-1024.
  • Pope, G.V. (ed.) (1997). Flora Zambesiaca 9(2): 1-64. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1996). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Piperaceae: 1-24.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wilson, A.J.G. (ed.) (2007). Flora of Australia 2: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of China 4: 1-453. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Agnew, A.D.Q. & Agnew, S., Upland Kenya Wild Flowers, ed. 2: 48, t. 4 (1994).
  • Baker & C.H. Wright in Flora of Tropical Africa 6 (1): 144 (1909).
  • Balle in Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l'État a Bruxelles 16: 369 (1942)
  • Balle in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 1: 16 (1948).
  • Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianas p. 66 (1994).
  • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr., reprint: 22 (1992).
  • C. DC. in DC., Prodr. 16(1): 332 (1869).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1: 23, fig. 19 (1950).
  • Haerdi in Acta Trop., Suppl. 8: 158 (1964).
  • Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 1: 911 (1900).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 451 (1949).
  • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 84, fig. 25 (1954).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 30 (1753).
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  • S.A. Robertson, Fl. Pl. Seych.: 195 (1989).
  • Troupin in Fl. Rwanda 1: 284 (1978).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Burkill HM. (1995). The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols. 1-3. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vols 1-3.
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  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

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