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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.
Ximenia americana L.

[UNAL]
Vernacular
Caimito demonte, Espino de brujo, Huevo de morrocoyo, Irima?ucoro (Cubeo), Limoncillo, Limoncito

[FZ]

Olacaceae, J. G. Garcia. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree up to 5 m. tall, glabrous, usually spiny; branches divaricate or more rarely ascendent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina 2–8 × 1–4 cm., oblong-elliptic, obtuse to retuse at the apex, coriaceous; midrib impressed above, prominent below; lateral nerves 3–6 pairs, subinconspicuous on both surfaces; petiole 3–6 mm. long, canaliculate, puberulous or pubescent above.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in pedunculate racemose or umbelliform cymes; pedicels 3–7 mm. long; buds ellipsoid or oblong-obovoid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 4 (5) -lobed, with ± slightly ciliate margins.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4 (5), 5–10 × 1–2·5 mm., glabrous outside, densely bearded within, apiculate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 8; filaments 2–4 mm. long; anthers 2–4 × 0·4–0·8 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary c. 3 × 1·5 mm.; style 1–2 mm. long, columnar, caducous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit c. 2·5 cm. in diam., drupaceous, yellow when ripe, ellipsoid or subglobose, edible.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed c. 1·5 cm. in diam.

[FTEA]

Olacaceae, G. Ll. Lucas. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

Morphology General Habit
Small tree or shrub up to 7 m. high, usually armed with axillary spines; bark greyish-brown to black; young stems never tomentose.
Morphology Leaves
Petiole up to 6 mm. long, canaliculate, usually pubescent on the inner surface; leaf-blade coriaceous, glabrous, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate or elliptic, 3–8 cm. long, 1.5–4 cm. wide, apex obtuse to emarginate, base usually cuneate; midrib prominent beneath, impressed above; lateral veins 3–7 pairs, inconspicuous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a shortly pedunculate raceme or umbel.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white to greenish, fragrant; pedicels 3–7 mm. long, subequal to or shorter than the newly opened flowers; both peduncles and pedicels glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx small, with 4(–5) deltoid lobes, slightly ciliate at the margin.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4(–5), 5–10 mm. long, 1–2.5 mm. wide, densely pilose on their inner surface, apiculate, recurved when mature.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 8; filaments 2–4 mm. long; anthers 2–4 mm. long and up to 0.8 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary superior, 3–4-partite almost to its apex; style up to 3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a globose to ellipsoidal drupe, 2–2.5 cm. in diameter, glabrous, yellow (or rarely orange-red) at maturity; mesocarp pulpy.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed woody, up to 1.5 cm. long and 1.2 cm. wide.
Figures
Fig. 2/1–5.
Distribution
widespread in tropical Africa, Asia and America Hab. Wooded grassland, deciduous and coastal bushland K3 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 U1 U2 U3 U4

[FSOM]

M. Thulin. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1–4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Distribution
Widespread in tropical Africa, Asia and America.
Morphology General Habit
Small tree or shrub up to 7 m high, generally with axillary spines; bark from brown or grey to black; young branches glabrous or almost so
Morphology Leaves
Leaves: petiole up to 6 mm long, grooved and generally pubescent on upper side; blade leathery, glabrous, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate or elliptic, 3–8 x 1.5–4 cm, obtuse to emarginate at the apex, generally cuneate at the base; midrib prominent beneath, impressed above
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences shortly pedunculate raceme- or umbel-like cymes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white to greenish, fragrant; pedicels 3–7 mm long, generally without bracteoles, glabrous or almost so
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx small, with 4(–5) triangular lobes, slightly ciliate at the margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4(–5), 5–10 x 1–2.5 mm, densely pilose inside, apiculate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 8; filaments 2–4 mm long; anthers 2–4 x up to 0.8 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 2.5–4.3 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a globose or ellipsoidal drupe, up to 2–2.5 cm in diam., glabrous, yellow to red-orange when ripe; mesocarp fleshy
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed woody, up to 1.5 x1.2 cm.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 100 m.; Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto, árbol
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FWTA]

Olacaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A glabrous shrub or small tree
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
White fragrant flowers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
A yellow plum-like fruit
Ecology
Common in the savannah regions but also near the coast.

Native to:

Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Line Is., Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marshall Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Northern Provinces, Panamá, Paraguay, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Chagos Archipelago

English
Blue sour plum, Blue-green sour plum, Small sour plum

Ximenia americana L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Apr 18, 2006 Wood [11447], Bolivia K000325165
Apr 18, 2006 Wood [11481], Bolivia K000325164
Jun 6, 1963 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [4371], Burkina Faso K000386448
Jan 1, 1962 Story, R. [5061], Botswana K000489182
Jan 1, 1961 Lugard, E.J. [3], Botswana K000489184
Dalziel, J.M. [8262], Ghana 16035.000
Ash [300A], Ethiopia 35024.000
Ash [918], Ethiopia 47938.000
Ash [325], Ethiopia 6049.384
Meikle, R.D. [1056], Nigeria 8949.000
Heudelot, D. [s.n.], Senegal K000386450
Chevalier, A. [342], Mali K000386452
Chevalier, A. [214], Mali K000386451
Mann, G. [764], Cameroon K000093888
Mueller, F.J.H.von [s.n.], Queensland K000657947
Harbor, C.C. [6629], Botswana K000489183
Davey, J.T. [41], Mali K000386454
Sihvonen, J. [4], Burkina Faso K000386449
Pope, G.V. [336], Botswana K000489181
Forster, J.G.A. [s.n.], New Caledonia Ximenia elliptica K000657946

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1193 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Aubréville, A. & Leroy, J.-F. (eds.) (1980). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 9: 1-191. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta Englera 29-2: 1-300.
  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Chayamarit, K. & Balslev, H. (2018). Flora of Thailand 14(1): 1-184. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1996). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 10: 1-426. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1963). Flora Zambesiaca 2(1): 1-351. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Gardner, R. (2021). The native vascular plants of Niue, SW Pacific Journal, Auckland Botanical Society 76: 82-87.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lucas, G.L. (1968). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Olacaceae: 1-15.
  • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
  • Meyer, J.-Y. (2017). Guide des plantes de Wallis et Futuna: 1-486. Au vent des iles, editions, Tahiti.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Smith, A.C. (1985). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 3: 1-758. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Suzuki, M., Taufatofua, P. & Koyama, T. (2007). New records of plants from Tonga Makinoa, n.s., 6: 25-62.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. & De Wilde, W.J.J.O. (eds.) (1984-1989). Flora Malesiana 10: 1-748. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2003). Flora of China 5: 1-505. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Aubrév. Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 354, t. 73, 4–6.
  • Louis & Léonard in Fl. Congo Belge 1: 256
  • Sleumer in E. & P. Pflanzenfam. 16B: 23, fig. 11 (1935)
  • —F.T.A. 1: 346

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2012). Nova Silva Cusatlantica. Árboles natinos e introducidos de El Salvador. Parte 2: Angiospermae - Familias M a P y Pteridophyta Englera 29-2: 1-300.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Chayamarit, K. & Balslev, H. (2018). Flora of Thailand 14(1): 1-184. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1963). Flora Zambesiaca 2(1): 1-351. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Gardner, R. (2021). The native vascular plants of Niue, SW Pacific Journal, Auckland Botanical Society 76: 82-87.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lucas, G.L. (1968). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Olacaceae: 1-15.
  • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
  • Meyer, J.-Y. (2017). Guide des plantes de Wallis et Futuna: 1-486. Au vent des iles, editions, Tahiti.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Smith, A.C. (1985). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 3: 1-758. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Suzuki, M., Taufatofua, P. & Koyama, T. (2007). New records of plants from Tonga Makinoa, n.s., 6: 25-62.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by P. Cuccuini [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 245, fig. 68 (1961).
  • Engl., Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(1): 82, fig. 46 (1915).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 290, fig. 104 (1952).
  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 42 (1962).
  • Garcia in Flora Zambesiaca 2: 329, t. 65/B (1963).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 387 (1949).
  • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 646, fig. 181 (1958).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 1193 (1753).
  • Louis & J. Léon, in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 1: 256 (1948).
  • Oliv., Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 346 (1868).
  • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 283, fig. 62 (1952).

Universidad Nacional de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., S.R. Gradstein & M. Celis (eds.). 2019. Nombres comunes de las plantas de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/es/

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Plants and People Africa
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