Ximenia americana L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1193 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Tropics & Subtropics, Queensland. It is a shrub or tree and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome. It is used as animal food, a poison and a medicine, has environmental uses and social uses and for fuel and food.

Descriptions

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/146188276/146212834

Conservation
LC - least concern
[IUCN]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
caimito de monte, ciruelo, espino de brujo, huevo de morrocoyo, limoncillo, limoncillo de playa, limoncito, limoracho
[UNAL]

Olacaceae, J. G. Garcia. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree up to 5 m. tall, glabrous, usually spiny; branches divaricate or more rarely ascendent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina 2–8 × 1–4 cm., oblong-elliptic, obtuse to retuse at the apex, coriaceous; midrib impressed above, prominent below; lateral nerves 3–6 pairs, subinconspicuous on both surfaces; petiole 3–6 mm. long, canaliculate, puberulous or pubescent above.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in pedunculate racemose or umbelliform cymes; pedicels 3–7 mm. long; buds ellipsoid or oblong-obovoid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 4 (5) -lobed, with ± slightly ciliate margins.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4 (5), 5–10 × 1–2·5 mm., glabrous outside, densely bearded within, apiculate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 8; filaments 2–4 mm. long; anthers 2–4 × 0·4–0·8 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary c. 3 × 1·5 mm.; style 1–2 mm. long, columnar, caducous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit c. 2·5 cm. in diam., drupaceous, yellow when ripe, ellipsoid or subglobose, edible.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed c. 1·5 cm. in diam.
[FZ]

Olacaceae, G. Ll. Lucas. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

Morphology General Habit
Small tree or shrub up to 7 m. high, usually armed with axillary spines; bark greyish-brown to black; young stems never tomentose.
Morphology Leaves
Petiole up to 6 mm. long, canaliculate, usually pubescent on the inner surface; leaf-blade coriaceous, glabrous, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate or elliptic, 3–8 cm. long, 1.5–4 cm. wide, apex obtuse to emarginate, base usually cuneate; midrib prominent beneath, impressed above; lateral veins 3–7 pairs, inconspicuous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a shortly pedunculate raceme or umbel.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white to greenish, fragrant; pedicels 3–7 mm. long, subequal to or shorter than the newly opened flowers; both peduncles and pedicels glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx small, with 4(–5) deltoid lobes, slightly ciliate at the margin.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4(–5), 5–10 mm. long, 1–2.5 mm. wide, densely pilose on their inner surface, apiculate, recurved when mature.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 8; filaments 2–4 mm. long; anthers 2–4 mm. long and up to 0.8 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary superior, 3–4-partite almost to its apex; style up to 3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a globose to ellipsoidal drupe, 2–2.5 cm. in diameter, glabrous, yellow (or rarely orange-red) at maturity; mesocarp pulpy.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed woody, up to 1.5 cm. long and 1.2 cm. wide.
Figures
Fig. 2/1–5.
Distribution
widespread in tropical Africa, Asia and America Hab. Wooded grassland, deciduous and coastal bushland K3 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 U1 U2 U3 U4
[FTEA]

M. Thulin. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1–4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Distribution
Widespread in tropical Africa, Asia and America.
Morphology General Habit
Small tree or shrub up to 7 m high, generally with axillary spines; bark from brown or grey to black; young branches glabrous or almost so
Morphology Leaves
Leaves: petiole up to 6 mm long, grooved and generally pubescent on upper side; blade leathery, glabrous, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate or elliptic, 3–8 x 1.5–4 cm, obtuse to emarginate at the apex, generally cuneate at the base; midrib prominent beneath, impressed above
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences shortly pedunculate raceme- or umbel-like cymes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white to greenish, fragrant; pedicels 3–7 mm long, generally without bracteoles, glabrous or almost so
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx small, with 4(–5) triangular lobes, slightly ciliate at the margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4(–5), 5–10 x 1–2.5 mm, densely pilose inside, apiculate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 8; filaments 2–4 mm long; anthers 2–4 x up to 0.8 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 2.5–4.3 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a globose or ellipsoidal drupe, up to 2–2.5 cm in diam., glabrous, yellow to red-orange when ripe; mesocarp fleshy
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed woody, up to 1.5 x1.2 cm.
[FSOM]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 100 m.; Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico.
Morphology General Habit
Arbusto, árbol
Conservation
No Evaluada
[CPLC]

Distribution
Biogeografic region: Caribbean, Pacific. Elevation range: 0–100 m a.s.l. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bolívar, Chocó, Magdalena, Sucre.
Habit
Shrub, Tree.
Conservation
IUCN Red List Assessment (2021): LC.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Caimito demonte, Espino de brujo, Huevo de morrocoyo, Irimáucoro (Cubeo), Limoncillo, Limoncito
[UPFC]

Olacaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A glabrous shrub or small tree
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
White fragrant flowers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
A yellow plum-like fruit
Ecology
Common in the savannah regions but also near the coast.
[FWTA]

Uses

Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Fuel
Used for fuels.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.
[UPFC]

Common Names

English
Blue sour plum, Blue-green sour plum, Small sour plum

Sources

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew
  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    • ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Somalia

    • Flora of Somalia
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Plants and People Africa

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    • © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0