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A bewildering variety of colourful and spicy fruits make Capsicum peppers instantly recognisable to both gardeners and chefs. Originally from South and Central America, their popularity continues to grow across the world due to their ease of cultivation, frequently sharp taste and attractive appearance.

Capsicum annuum (chilli pepper)

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 5 - 1700 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb or shrub.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.

[FWTA]

Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Stout herb 2-5 ft. high, much branched, angular, glabrous stems
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers white or greenish
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits red
Note
Cultivated.

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description
This species includes a wide variety of peppers, including chilli peppers used in curries and sweet bell peppers used in salads.

A bewildering variety of colourful and spicy fruits make Capsicum peppers instantly recognisable to both gardeners and chefs. Originally from South and Central America, their popularity continues to grow across the world due to their ease of cultivation, frequently sharp taste and attractive appearance.

There are more than 200 common names in use for this species. The most common include chilli pepper, paprika (sweet varieties); bell pepper, cayenne, halapenos, chitlepin (hot varieties); and Christmas peppers (ornamental). Capsicum annuum should not be confused with 'black pepper', Piper nigrum, which belongs to a distantly related plant family (Piperaceae).

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Wild ancestors of Capsicum annuum evolved in Bolivia and southern Brazil, probably long before human habitation. Archaeological research estimates that they were first domesticated at least 6,100 years ago.

Numerous varieties were known to the Aztecs in Mexico before the Spanish arrived. Christopher Columbus brought seeds to Europe, and Capsicum annuum began to be planted extensively in Portuguese colonies in Africa, India and Asia. It is now grown around the world, both commercially and domestically.

Description

An attractive, upright shrub usually less than 1 m tall, with small, white, pendent flowers and elongated, yellow, orange or red fruits (berries). It can be distinguished from other types of domesticated peppers by flowers that are solitary rather than in groups, and filaments (thread-like stalks supporting the anther) that are not purple.

Capsicum annuum can be difficult to separate from the cultivated C. chinense (the hottest pepper) and C. frutescens (Tabasco pepper) and their morphological features can overlap. These three species share the same ancestral gene pool and are sometimes called the 'annuum-chinense-frutescens complex'.

The varieties and cultivars of Capsicum annuum are classified on the basis of their fruit shapes. There are so many different kinds (several thousand) that nobody knows exactly how many there are. More and more local variants are appearing in cultivation across the world because existing varieties cross-pollinate easily.

Uses - fruits

Capsicum fruits have been part of the human diet for at least 10,000 years. The fruits of non-pungent (sweet) varieties are eaten raw in salads or cooked as a vegetable. They are rich sources of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and vitamin A.

Pungent types, including chillies, are used as a condiment or spice for seasoning. The dried fruits are ground to a powder (paprika) and used as an ingredient in curry powder. The pungency is mainly due to the presence of chemical compounds called capsaicinoids, which deter most mammals from eating the fruit. Birds, however, will eat them without harm (and indeed help to disperse the seeds).

Uses - pepper extracts

Pepper extracts are used to flavour ginger beer, and are used in pharmaceutical products for treating conditions such as athlete's foot and arthritis. Maya Indians used pepper spray as a weapon against their enemies, and today some police forces around the world use it to control unruly individuals.

Uses - decorations

Ornamental varieties of Capsicum annuum (the fruits of which are also edible) are grown primarily for the decorative value of their fruit, often displaying fruits of four or five colours simultaneously on one plant. The popular 'Christmas peppers' were originally available at Christmas time and had green and red fruits.

How hot is a 'chilli'?

In 1912, a pharmacist named Scoville developed an index for measuring the pungency of peppers. Scoville Heat Units (SHU) are still used today and measure by how much a chilli extract has to be diluted in sugar syrup before its heat becomes undetectable to a panel of expert tasters.

Sweet (or bell) peppers rank at 0 SHU, while New Mexico green chillies are mildly pungent at 1,500 SHU. The 'hottest' of the world's chillies exceed 80,000 SHU, but even they are relatively mild compared to the hottest of them all (the 'infinity chilli'), which registers over 1,000,000 SHU. Imagine that next time you have a curry!

Millennium Seed Bank - Saving seeds

The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

There are two collections of Capsicum annuum seeds stored in Kew's Millennium Seed Bank based at Wakehurst in West Sussex.

This species at Kew

Specimens of the fruits and seeds of Capsicum annuum are held in Kew's Economic Botany Collection in the Sir Joseph Banks Building and are available to researchers by appointment.

Distribution
Bolivia, Brazil
Ecology
Tropical deciduous forest. Widely cultivated.
Conservation
Widespread; Least Concern (LC) according to IUCN Red List criteria.
Hazards

Juice (of the fruit) can cause dermatitis; avoid contact with eyes.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 5 - 1700 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, subarbusto, arbusto
Conservation
Preocupación Menor

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Herb or shrub, up to c. 1 m tall, almost glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate; blades ovate to lanceolate, cuneate at the base, acute at the apex, with entire margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary or in few-flowered clusters
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 2–3 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, c. 1 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Berry mostly red but may be orange, yellow, green or black, very variable in shape and size.
Distribution
Cultivated in N1, S2, S3 and surely also elsewhere
Vernacular
Filfil-guduud (Somali).
Note
Numerous cultivars of “peppers” exist, with everything from sweet to extremely pungent fruits. Native to Mexico and South America, but now widely cultivated and naturalised.

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: Herb. Clifford: 59, Capsicum 1 (BM!, lecto.) designated by D’Arcy in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 591 (1974). [See Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 382 (2007) for a discussion of the controversy surrounding the selection of this sheet as the lectotype]
Morphology General Habit
Shrubby herb or small shrub, to 1.5 m, often short-lived.
Morphology Stem
Stems ridged, angular, woody, erect, much-branched, pilose when young, glabrescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves membranaceous, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 2.2–8(–12) × 1–4(–8.5) cm, bases cuneate and decurrent, margins entire, apices acuminate, surfaces sparsely pilose, denser on margins, veins and midribs, with pilose domatia on lower surfaces, hairs as stems; petioles 1–3.5(–5.5) cm, pilose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences usually 1-flowered in branch or leaf axil, rarely 2-flowered; flowers white to greenish- or bluish-white; pedicels erect or recurved and slender thickening apically in flower, 7–20 mm long, recurved in fruit when thickened beneath calyx and often woody, 1.2–3.5 cm long, glabrescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx shallowly cupulate to campanulate, 2–3.2 × (1.6)2–5.5 mm apically, with 5 narrowly triangular lobes 0.5–1.3 × 0.3–0.6 mm, persistent but only slightly enlarged in fruit, sparsely pilose with spreading hairs to glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla stellate, 5–9 × ± 11 mm diameter with short tube ± 1.2 mm long; lobes ovate to triangular, 2.8–5 × 2–4 mm, spreading or reflexed after anthesis, shortly puberulous on margins and lobe apices otherwise glabrescent externally, glabrous internally
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens with filaments 1–2 mm long, glabrous; anthers blue to purple, oblong, 1.5–2(–2.5) × 0.6–1(–1.4) mm, basifixed, exserted
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary brown, ovoid, 1.5–2 × 1.1–1.6 mm, glabrous; disc 1.5 mm broad and 0.5 mm high; style filiform, 3–5.5 mm long, glabrous, exserted ± 1 mm, straight or geniculate; stigma 0.2–0.5 mm diameter
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit usually pendulous, green, yellow, orange, red or blackish, globose, ovoid to narrowly conical or elongated berries, (1.1–)2.4–5.2(–15) × (1.2–)1.5–2.2(–4.5) cm, smooth, often apically acute and sometimes depressed, subtended by broadly cupulate calyx 2–4 × 7–15 mm, which often semi-reflexed away from berry base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds yellow to yellowish-orange, orbicular to discoidal, 3.2–5.5 × 3.2–4.2 mm, with thickened margin, foveolate/reticulate
Figures
Fig 12/7 & 8, p 60

[UNAL]
Vernacular
Ají, Ají pimienta, Ají-pique, Bia (Cubeo), Chiplín, Kutupí, Pimiento

[UPB]
Use Gene Sources
Crop wild relatives which may possess beneficial traits of value in breeding programmes (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Food
Food (Cuervo 1999).
Use Food Food Additives
Used as a condiment (Pérez Arbeláez 1996).
Use Materials Gums Resins
Used in gums, resins and oleoresins (Rugeles Chacón et al. 2012).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).

[KSP]
Use
Food, flavouring, ornamental.

[FSOM]
Use
Cultivated as a vegetable and condiment

Native to:

Guatemala, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest

Introduced into:

Alabama, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Austria, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Korea, Laos, Leeward Is., Line Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Maldives, Mali, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Morocco, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, New York, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Réunion, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Suriname, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wake I., West Himalaya, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Chilli pepper
Spanish
Pimiento, chiplín, pimentón, ají-pique, ají, kutupí, ají pimienta.

Capsicum annuum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Aug 23, 2006 Chantaranothai, P et al. [1327], Thailand K000224146
Jun 1, 2006 Etuge, M. [5143], Cameroon K000339796
Jan 1, 2005 Ekman, E.L. [2116], Haiti K000809082
Jan 1, 2005 Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. [1811], Guyana K000809084
Oct 1, 2004 Bardot-Vaucoulon, M. et al. [1257], Madagascar K000449277
Jun 8, 2004 Jones [151], Sabah K000224831
Oct 1, 2003 Pollard, B.J. [922], Cameroon K000212618
Feb 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1532], Cameroon K000109660
Feb 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1572], Cameroon K000109659
Feb 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1612], Cameroon K000109658
Nov 1, 2001 Lugas, L. [2744], Indonesia K000592614
Jan 1, 1994 Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. [3465], Guyana K000809085
Jan 1, 1988 Zarucchi, J.L. [5478], Colombia K000809091
Jul 2, 1985 Hutchison, P.C. [3541], Peru K000809095
Sep 1, 1940 Stork, H.E. [9462], Peru K000809094
Sep 1, 1940 Stork, H.E. [9463], Peru K000809093
16650.000
Chazaro B., M. [540], Mexico K000063162
Palmer, E. [137-140], Mexico K000063160
Vázquez T., M. [611], Mexico K000063163
Schunke, J. [6554], Peru K000809092
Habib, A.F. [2064], India K000592613
Palmer, E. [135], Mexico K000063161
Jurgensen, C. [861], Mexico Capsicum chlorocladum K000063175
May 1, 2008 Wright C. [384], Cuba Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum K000662195
s.coll. [s.n.], Japan Capsicum cordiforme K000759469
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2643], India Capsicum grossum K001116729
Arsène, G., Mexico Capsicum grossum K000063187
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2643] Capsicum grossum K001116730
Arsène, G. [142], Mexico Capsicum longum K000063188
Bohnhof, M.H. [301], China Capsicum longum K000592617
Capsicum minimum 17702.000
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2641] Capsicum minimum K001116725
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2641] Capsicum minimum K001116724

First published in Sp. Pl.: 188 (1753)

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Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Species Profiles

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  • DeWitt, D. & Bosland, P.W. (1996). Peppers of the World: an Identification Guide. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley.
  • Janick, J. & Paull, R. E. (eds) (2008). The Encyclopedia of Fruit & Nuts. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxfordshire.
  • Vaughan, J. G. & Geissler, C. A. (1999). The New Oxford Book of Food Plants. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chev. Bot. 466.
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 251
  • Sp. Pl. 188 (1753)

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Crop wild relative Inventory https://www.cwrdiversity.org/checklist/ in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Cuervo, S. (1999). Origen de las tecnologías agrícolas en el altiplano boyacense. Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia. Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Administrativas. Tunja. Colombia
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Pérez-Arbeláez, E. (1996). Plantas útiles de Colombia: edición aumentada, 4a edición. Fondo FEN Colombia.
  • Rugeles Chacón, L. E., Ortiz, J., Díaz, G., Bladimir, L., & Huertas, D. A. (2012). La cadena de valor de los ingredientes naturales del Biocomercio para las industrias farmacéutica, alimentaria y cosmética-FAC. Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 412 (1852).
  • Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 591 (1974).
  • Bothalia 14: 845 (1983). Described from South America.
  • Chron. Bot. 17: 108 (1957).
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 251 (1906).
  • J. Williamson, Useful Pl. Nyasaland, ed. 2: 30 (1956).
  • Marloth, Fl. S. Africa 3, 1: 117 (1932).
  • Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dicotyl. 2: 525, fig. 84/A (1969).
  • Sp. Pl.: 188 (1753).
  • Taxon 18: 278, 283 (1969).
  • Watt & Breyer-Brandwijk, Med. & Pois. Pl. S. & E. Africa, ed. 2: 942, fig. 234 (1962).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. in Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R. C. (1965). Flora of Java 2: 1-641. N.V.P. Noordhoff, Groningen, The Netherlands.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • D'Arcy, W.G. & Rakotozafy, A. (1994). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 176: 1-146. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 1-825. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Delipavlov, D. & Cheshmedzhiev, I. (eds.) (2011). Opredelitel na rasteniiata v Bulgariia: 1-590. Akad. Isd. Agrar. Univers. Plovdiv.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Renvoize, S.A. (1980). The Flora of Aldabra and neighbouring islands: 1-358. Crown, London.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Gaur, R.D. (1999). Flora of the district of Garhwal north west Himalaya: 1-811. Transmedia, Srinagar, India.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Hohla, M. (2011). Zwei Funde der Kleine Seerose (Nymphaea candida) sowie weitere Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flora von Oberösterreich Stapfia 95: 141-161.
  • Hul, S. & Dy Phon, P. (2014). Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-Nam 35: 1-93. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Khan, M.S. & Mia, C. (2002). Flora of Bangladesh 53: 1-48. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Merrill, E.D. (1923). An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants 3: 1-628. Bureau of Science, Manila.
  • Nasir, Y.J. (1985). Flora of Pakistan 168: 1-61. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Peekel, P.G. (1984). Flora of the Bismarck archipelago for naturalists: 1-638. Office of Forests, Lae, Papua New Guinea.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
  • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
  • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • St. John, H. (1988). Census of the Flora of the Gambier islands, Polynesia Pacific Plant Studies 43: 1-34.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vascular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • 9th Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard.: 65 (1898)
  • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 412 (1852)
  • DeWitt & Bosland, Peppers of the World: 95 (1996)
  • E.P.A. 2: 859 (1963)
  • F.P.U.: 130 (1962)
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 251 (1906)
  • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2: 328 (1963)
  • F.Z. 8(4): 59 (2005)
  • Fingerhuth, Monogr. gen. capsici: 12 (1832)
  • Fl. Cabo Verde 71: 29 (2002)
  • Fl. Egypt 6: 73 (1998)
  • Fl. Eth. 5: 148 (2006).
  • Fl. Madagascar, Solanaceae: 15 (1994)
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 205 (2006)
  • Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 3: 751 (1898)
  • Mill., Gard. Dict. Ed. 8, No.1 (1768)
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 188 (1753)
  • U.O.P.Z.: 170 (1949), as annum

Universidad Nacional de Colombia

  • García Castro, N. J. (2011). Plantas nativas empleadas en alimentación en Colombia. Instituo de Investigaciones Biológicas Alexander von Humboldt. http://repository.humboldt.org.co/handle/20.500.11761/31275
  • Garrido, A.M., Cámara-Leret, R., Madriñán, S. (2014). Nombres y usos de las plantas identificadas por los indígenas cubeo de Colombia (Tesis de pregrado). Universidad de Los Andes, Bogotá.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
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Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
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Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Species Profiles
Kew Species Profiles
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Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
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Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
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