Genus:
Solanum L.

Solanum lycopersicum L.

This species is accepted, and its native range is Peru. It is used as animal food, a poison, a medicine and invertebrate food, has environmental uses and social uses and for food.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 2500 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, trepadora

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: “Habitat in America calidiore”, Herb. Linnaeus 248.16 (LINN!, lecto. designated by Deb in Journ. Econ. Bot., 1: 41 (1980)) [see also Knapp & Jarvis in J.L.S. 104: 342, f.12 (1990) & Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 860 (2007)]
Morphology General
Annual herb, erect, procumbent, trailing or straggling up to 2 m in height, sometimes using associated vegetation for support; branches spreading or ascending, stems fleshy or herbaceous, light to dark green; all parts viscid-pubescent with eglandular and glandular hairs, denser on young vegetative and floral stems
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, usually strongly aromatic, 9–31 × 6–14 cm with rachides 4.2–14 cm long, usually interrupted imparipinnate with 2–8 pairs of leaflets which light green above, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 3–5(–7) × 1–3.8(–5) cm, bases cordate to cuneate, usually oblique, irregularly and usually deeply incised and serrate to sinuate, apices obtuse, acute or acuminate; surfaces viscid, pubescent below, sparser above, often stipulate and alternating with small entire ovate interstitial leaflets 0.8–1.2 × 0.6–0.7 cm; petioles 1.2–7 cm long, petiolules 0.4–2 cm, often with small pairs of leaflets
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences leaf-opposed to extra-axillary racemose simple or forked cymes, usually 5–12-flowered; flowers pendent, usually 5partite but often 6–10-partite in cultivars; peduncles 0.5–3.5 cm long in flower, 2–4.8 cm long in fruit; pedicels 4–15 mm long in flower, 1–1.6 cm long in fruit, articulated at or above the middle from where deflexed in flower and in fruit; axes pubescent with short appressed and long spreading glandular-headed hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate/stellate, divided almost to base, 3.5–11 mm long, densely pubescent externally; lobes narrowly triangular to lanceolate, 3–9 × 0.7–2 mm, acute, strongly reflexed in fruit when 7–14 × 1.5–2.8 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow, with greenish basal star, stellate, 1.4–2.4 cm diameter, tube 0.5–1.3 mm long; lobes narrowly triangular to lanceolate, 5–9 × 1.3–3(–4) mm, glandular-pubescent externally, glabrous internally, strongly reflexed exposing androecium after anthesis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens equal; filaments flat, fused to each other forming a ring, 0.3–0.8 mm long, pubescent to glabrescent; anthers yellow, 5.5–7 × 0.6–1.3 mm, connivent to form a bottle-shaped cone 5–8 × 1.8–3.6 mm with sterile beak, dehiscing by lateral fissures from apex of fertile section
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary usually bilocular but plurilocular with false septa in cultivated varieties, 1.3–1.6 × 1.8–2 mm, ridged, glabrous; style straight, 5.5–7.3 × 0.2–0.4 mm, hairy in lower part, usually included, occasionally exserted to 1 mm; stigma green, capitate, sometimes bilobed, 0.2–0.8 × 0.3–0.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit red, orange or yellow, globose, ovoid to pyriform berries, 1–10 cm diameter, often depressed or irregularly lobed, glabrous and smooth, pericarp thick, sweet-tasting
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds usually > 100, yellow to light brown, elliptic-ovoid, 3–3.8 × 1.7–2.4 mm, flattened, verrucate, often covered with the remnants of strands of thickening appearing as pseudo-hairs, enclosed in mucilage; sclerotic granules absent.
Ecology
Widely cultivated, and a common to occasional escape on roadsides and in waste places, frequently near habitation; often naturalised on river banks, in marshy areas, woodland, forest areas and open places; spread by birds and baboons; 750–2000 m
Note
Commonly known as the Tomato, Golden- or Love-apple, this species is one of the most important global vegetables which is cultivated in most tropical and temperate countries, but which is now only known in cultivation. Over 500 cultivars have been bred resulting in enormous variations in fruit size, shape and colour. The small-fruited L. esculentum Mill. var . cerasiforme (Dunal) Alef., for example, is commonly known as the cherry tomato. The fruits are eaten raw or cooked, with commercial tomato sauce being made from the berry flesh, while the leaves are used as a vegetable. The species probably originated in Peru or Ecuador from where, in pre-Colombian times, it could have spread north as a weed (cf. Mansfeld, 2001). The considerable morphological diversity found in Mexico suggests that it was first domesticated there, and this may have been the source of the first tomatoes to reach Europe (cf. Heiser, 1969). It is widely grown thoughout Africa; in the floral area it is cultivated for home consumption, and for sale in both local markets and the cities. Nevertheless, African herbarium specimens of this species are rare even though the tomato is considered to be the most important vegetable crop in most West African countries (Rouamba in van den Berg et al. (eds), Solanaceae V: 245–250 (2001)). An extensive list of synonyms of this species – as Lycopersicon esculentum - is given in Mansfeld (2001) together with a bibliography of relevant references and in the more recent publication by Peralta et al. (2008). This species and related taxa contain steroidal glycoalkaloids, with the major component being α-tomatine.
Distribution
Flora districts: U4 K4 T2 T3 T4 Range: Native to the Andes of S America, but now cultivated and escaped throughout the world including Cape Verde Islands, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Cameroon, Bioko, Central African Republic, Congo-Kinshasa, Sudan, Ethiopia, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimb Range: Madagascar, Comoro Islands, St Helena, Seychelles & Ascension Islands, Rodrigues and Mauritius, S, C & E Europe, the Middle East, India, China, N, C and S America but nowhere truly naturalised

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 100 - 2500 m.
Distribution
Cultivated in Colombia.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.

[UPFC]
Distribution
Biogeografic region: Amazonia, Andean, Caribbean, Pacific. Elevation range: 100–2500 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Naturalised in Colombia. Colombian departments: Amazonas, Antioquia, Bogotá DC, Boyacá, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Huila, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, San Andrés y Providencia, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Herb, Climbing.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, native grassland, wetlands (inland), artificial - terrestrial.
Vernacular
Tomate, Tomate común, Tomate de riñón, Tomate grande

[UPFC]
Vernacular
Bovista

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, with glandular aromatic hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves petiolate; blade at least 10–20 cm long, mostly pinnately divided into ovate-lanceolate, irregularly serrate segments
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-lobes lanceolate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla yellow, 2–2.5 cm in diam.; lobes narrowly oblong
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers 6–10 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style c. 12 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Berry red to yellow, subglobose, ovoid or pear-shaped, very variable in size
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2–4 mm long, enclosed in mucilage.
Distribution
Widely cultivated in Somalia; native to South America.
Vernacular
Nyaanya, yaanya (Somali); tomato (English).

[UPB]
Use Gene Sources
Crop wild relatives which may possess beneficial traits of value in breeding programmes (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Food
Food (Cuervo 1999).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).

[UPFC]
Use Animal Food
Used as animal food.
Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Gene Sources
Used as gene sources.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Invertebrate Food
Used as invertebrate food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
Use Social
Social uses.

[FSOM]
Use
Edible fruits

Native to:

Peru

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alaska, Andaman Is., Angola, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Bolivia, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burkina, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chagos Archipelago, Chatham Is., Christmas I., Colombia, Comoros, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Gilbert Is., Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Korea, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Mali, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mauritius, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nebraska, Nepal, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New York, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Réunion, Saskatchewan, Selvagens, Society Is., South Carolina, South European Russi, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Wake I., Wisconsin, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Tomato
Spanish
Tomate, tomate de riñón, tomate grande, tomate común.

Solanum lycopersicum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jan 1, 2006 Hooker, J.D. (?) [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134488 Yes
Jan 1, 2006 Freeman [10] K001134489 Yes
Jan 1, 2002 Darwin, C. [s.n.] K000005490 Yes
Jan 1, 2002 Coulter [1241], Mexico K000005489 Yes
Jan 1, 2002 Linden, J. [252], Mexico K000063063 Yes
Jan 1, 2002 Spruce, R. [4143], Peru K000195127 No
Jan 1, 2002 Spruce, R. [4143], Peru K000195128 No
Jun 24, 1905 Sharma, B.D. [167435], India K000005459 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Buysman, M. [190] K000005471 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Collins, D.J. [900], Thailand K000005481 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Simpson, N.D. [5441], Egypt K000195091 No
Jun 24, 1905 Lowne, B.T. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000195102 No
Jun 24, 1905 Aellen, P. [s.n.], France K000195110 No
Jun 24, 1905 Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K000195120 No
Jun 24, 1905 Tate, R. [257(232)], Nicaragua K000195121 No
Jun 24, 1905 Harris, W. [11896], Jamaica K000195124 No
Jun 24, 1905 Sinclair, J. [s.n.] K000195139 No
Jun 24, 1905 Wallich, N. [2611B], India K000005460 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Powell, D.A. [757], Christmas I. K000005469 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Vogel, E. [s.n.], Niger K000005484 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Ingoldby, C.M. [414], Turkey K000195105 No
Jun 24, 1905 Sintenis, P. [s.n.], Puerto Rico K000195122 No
Jun 24, 1905 Koorders, S.H. [22623b], Indonesia K000005477 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Collins, D.J. [1252], Thailand K000005480 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Gardner, M.F. [1789], Brazil K000195118 No
Jun 24, 1905 Hu, S.Y. [5341], China K000005454 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Aellen, P. [s.n.], France K000195111 No
Jun 24, 1905 Watt, G. [6281], India K000005486 No
Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [26049], Iraq K000195089 No
Jun 24, 1905 Hohenacker, R.F. [82], Austria K000195109 No
Jun 24, 1905 Wright, C.A. [s.n.] K000195108 No
Jun 24, 1905 Glaziou, A.F.M. [12098], Brazil K000195119 No
Jun 24, 1905 Godefroy-Lebeuf, M. [s.n.], Cambodia K000005485 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Heldreich, T. von [s.n.], Greece K000195104 No
Jun 24, 1905 Dinsmore, J.E. [3106], Jordan K000195096 No
Jun 24, 1905 Koorders, S.H. [29401b], Indonesia K000005473 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Hoyle, H.b. [s.n.], India K000005456 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.], United Kingdom K000195115 No
Jun 24, 1905 Héribaud, F. [s.n.], France K000195133 No
Jun 24, 1905 Koorders, S.H. [21293b], Indonesia K000005475 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Conklin, H.C. [I1157], Philippines K000005464 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Lowne, B.T. [s.n.], Lebanon K000195095 No
Jun 24, 1905 Jameson, D. [152] K000005453 No
Jun 24, 1905 Koorders, S.H. [27962b], Indonesia K000005476 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.] K000005448 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Powell, D.A. [757], Christmas I. K000005472 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.], United Kingdom K000195114 No
Jun 24, 1905 Berlandier, J.L. [2405-975], Mexico K000195131 No
Jun 24, 1905 St Vincent [36] K000005483 No
Jun 24, 1905 Britton, N.L. [1089], Trinidad & Tobago K000195123 No
Jun 24, 1905 Bedi, R. [674], Bhutan K000005458 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Loher, A. [4385], Philippines K000005466 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Nafday, K.U.R. [159], India K000005482 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Crisp, P. [171] K000195097 No
Jun 24, 1905 Bedi, R. [674], Bhutan K000005457 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Lévy, P. [5], Nicaragua K000195137 No
Jun 24, 1905 Galeotti, H.G. [1195], Mexico K000195134 No
Jun 24, 1905 Koorders, S.H. [37842b], Indonesia K000005474 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Merrill, E.D. [14], Philippines K000005467 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Mill, J.S. [s.n.], France K000195107 No
Jun 24, 1905 Hohenacker, R.F. [487], India K000195136 No
Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.] K000195101 No
Jun 24, 1905 Aitchison, J.E.T. [483], India K000005487 No
Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.], United Kingdom K000195113 No
Jun 24, 1905 Stapf, O. [s.n.] K000195093 No
Jun 24, 1905 Galeotti, H.G. [1195], Mexico K000195135 No
Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [160S], Portugal K000195085 No
Jun 24, 1905 Bukasov, S. [392], Mexico K000005462 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Bourgeau, E. [1447a], Spain K000005451 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Taylor, P.M. [P357], Indonesia K000005478 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Rottler, J.P. [s.n.], India K000005455 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Pickersgill, B. [RO72-365], Brazil K000195117 No
Jun 24, 1905 Lakshnakara, M.C. [1362], Thailand K000005479 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Lowe, R.T. [s.n.], Portugal K000005450 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Last, G.V.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000195103 No
Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.] K000195140 No
Jun 24, 1905 Maximowicz, C.J. [s.n.], Japan K000005447 No
Jun 24, 1905 Burchell, W.J. [69942] K000195116 No
Jun 24, 1905 Lange, P.J. De [NF149], Australia K000195112 No
Jun 24, 1905 Héribaud, F. [s.n.], France K000195138 No
Jun 24, 1905 Shabeta, J.R. [191] K000195092 No
Jun 24, 1905 Cuadra, A. [A1144], Malaysia K000005470 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Haussknecht, H.C. [s.n.], Syria K000195094 No
Jun 24, 1905 Anonymous [s.n.], Russian Federation K000005461 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Heyde, E.T. [6360], Guatemala K000195132 No
Jun 24, 1905 Oldham, R. [343], Taiwan K000005449 Yes
Jun 24, 1905 Conklin, H.C. [I1108], Philippines K000005465 Yes
Strachey, R. [8], India K000005452 Yes
s.coll [3380], Egypt K000005371 Yes
Marshall, J. [101], United Kingdom K000005383 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K000005385 Yes
Chung, H.-.H. [2431], China K000005445 Yes
Herb. v. Royen [s.n.] K001169240 Yes
Brummitt, R.K. [12408], Malawi K001158636 Yes
Starke [s.n.] K000005373 No
Egger, B. [496] K000005393 Yes
Herb Goodenough [15] K000005374 Yes
Meller, C.J. [s.n.] K001158635 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2611] K001116571 Yes
Herb. v. Royen [s.n.] K001169239 Yes
Sintenis, P.E.E. [2443], Puerto Rico K000005365 Yes
Simpson, N.D. [2147], Egypt K001152169 Yes
Newbould, J.G.B. [4411], Tanzania K001157735 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2611] K001116569 Yes
Mesfin, T. [1753], Ethiopia K001156396 Yes
Dowson, W.J. [465], Kenya K001157739 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2611] K001116572 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2611] K001116567 Yes
Rodin, R.J. [2682], South Africa K001159333 Yes
Combs, R. [225], Cuba K000005367 Yes
s.coll [K220] K000005400 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K000005378 Yes
Price, W.R. [460], Taiwan K000005446 Yes
Perumal, P. [21566], India K000005387 Yes
Welwitsch [6046], Angola K001029818 Yes
Mandon, G. [391], Bolivia K000005399 Yes
Huxley, P. [164], Tanzania K001157734 Yes
Nee, M. [34447], Brazil K000005390 Yes
Baron, R. [2294], Madagascar K001158936 Yes
Mwangangi, O.M. [1710], Kenya K001157738 Yes
Greenway, P.J. [11334], Tanzania K001157733 Yes
Licent, E. [892], China K000005444 Yes
Guzman C, U. [3041], Mexico K001160487 Yes
Baron, R. [4142], Madagascar K001158937 Yes
s.coll [5118], Egypt K000005386 Yes
Grimshaw, J.M. [94674], Tanzania K001157736 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2611] K001116568 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2611], India K001116570 Yes
Trapnell, C.G. [1458], Zambia K001158637 Yes
Edwards, S. [3810], Ethiopia K001156397 Yes
Prior, A. [s.n.] K000005391 Yes
Epenhuijsen, C.W. van [16], Nigeria K000005389 Yes
Herb Forster [s.n.] K000005368 Yes
Greenway, P.J. [13437], Tanzania K001157732 Yes
Maitland, T.D. [702], Uganda K001157740 Yes
Ward, C.J. [6210], South Africa K001159332 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K000005375 Yes
Ekman, E.L. [H 11373], Dominican Republic K000005366 Yes
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K000005384 Yes
Hu, S.Y. [9025], Hong Kong K000005388 Yes
Curtis, J. [s.n.], France K000005379 Yes
Kisena [53], Tanzania K001157737 Yes
Nee, M. [16065], USA K000005392 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] K000005376 Yes
s.coll [s.n.] Solanum pseudolycopersicum K001169843 Yes
Lycopersicon esculentum 17703.000 No
Hinton, G.B. [5813], Mexico Lycopersicon esculentum K000063061 Yes
Cope, T.A. [RBG 198], Great Britain Lycopersicon esculentum K000914297 Yes
Mexia, Y. [8941], Mexico Lycopersicon esculentum K000063065 No
Velázquez L., C. [173], Mexico Lycopersicon esculentum K000063066 No
Gaumer, G.F. [2272], Mexico Lycopersicon esculentum K000063064 No
Calzada, J.I. [1852], Mexico Lycopersicon esculentum K000063067 No

First published in Sp. Pl.: 185 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Cameron, E.K. (2021). Updated vascular flora and vegitation of the Noises islands, Hauraki Gulf. Journal, Auckland Botanical Society 76: 51-81.
  • Chou, S., Chhnang, P. & Kim, Y. (2016). A Checklist for the Seed Plants of Cambodia: 1-272. National Institute of Biological Resources, Korea.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thaman, R.R. & Tye, A. (2015). Flora of Kiritimari (Christmass) atoll, Northern Line islands, Republic of Kiribati. Atoll Research Bulletin 608: 1-73.

Not accepted by

  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis). [Cited as Lycopersicon esculentum.]

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • (1753) incl. var.

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Crop wild relative Inventory https://www.cwrdiversity.org/checklist/ in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Cuervo, S. (1999). Origen de las tecnologías agrícolas en el altiplano boyacense. Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia. Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Administrativas. Tunja. Colombia
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2020). http://media.bgbm.org/erez/erez?cmd=get&src=cypricola/Cypricola015%5FHand%5F2020%5FRecords%2D1996%2D2019.pdf. epublication.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Cameron, E.K. (2021). Updated vascular flora and vegitation of the Noises islands, Hauraki Gulf. Journal, Auckland Botanical Society 76: 51-81.
  • Chou, S., Chhnang, P. & Kim, Y. (2016). A Checklist for the Seed Plants of Cambodia: 1-272. National Institute of Biological Resources, Korea.
  • Delipavlov, D. & Cheshmedzhiev, I. (eds.) (2011). Opredelitel na rasteniiata v Bulgariia: 1-590. Akad. Isd. Agrar. Univers. Plovdiv.
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  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
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  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Ri͡abinina, Z.N. & Kni͡azev, M.S. (2009). Opredelitel sosudistykh rastenii Orenburgskoi oblasti: 1-757. Moskva: KMK.
  • Sarder, N.U. & Hassan, M.A. (eds.) (2018). Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Shevtsov, V. (2022). Personal Communication on South European Russia. 1.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • E.J. 54: 500 (1917)
  • F.Z. 8(4): 69 (2005)
  • P.O.A. C: 356 (1895)
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 185 (1753)
  • Syst. Bot. Monogr. 84 133 (2008).

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Castañeda, R.R. (1991). Frutas silvestres de Colombia. Instituto Colombiano de Cultura Hispánica.
  • Cámara-Leret, R., & Dennehy, Z. (2019). Information gaps in indigenous and local knowledge for science-policy assessments. Nature Sustainability 2:736-741.
  • Dempewolf, H., Eastwood, R. J., Guarino, L., Khoury, C. K., Müller, J. V. & Toll, J. (2014). Adapting agriculture to climate change: a global initiative to collect, conserve, and use crop wild relatives. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 38, 369-377.
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • GBIF.org (2021). GBIF species matching tool. https://www.gbif.org/tools/species-lookup
  • GRIN (2021). Germplasm Resources Information Network from the United States Department of Agriculture. https://www.ars-grin.gov/
  • Garcia, H. (1992). Flora Medicinal de Colombia. Botánica Médica. Segunda Edición. Tercer Mundo Editores. Tomo III.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

  • Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Flora of Somalia

    Flora of Somalia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Living Collection Database

    Common Names from Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Living Collection https://www.kew.org/

  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2022. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

  • Kew Science Photographs

    Copyright applied to individual images

  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/