Solanum seaforthianum Andrews

First published in Bot. Repos. 8: t. 504 (1808)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is Florida to Caribbean, Mexico to Venezuela, Brazil (Fernando de Noronha). It is a liana and grows primarily in the wet tropical biome. It is has environmental uses, as a poison and a medicine and for food.

Descriptions

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
guatemala, guatemalteca, manto de la Virgen
[UNAL]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 1500 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Trepadora, liana
Conservation
No Evaluada
[CPLC]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Type
Type: t. 504 of Andr. in loc. cit. (1808), proposed by Symon in loc. cit. (1981) as iconolectotype, based on a specimen sent by Lord Seaforth from the West Indies.
Morphology General Habit
Climbing or trailing shrub to 6 m, subglabrous or scarcely pubescent; hairs simple, few-celled, ± curved, usually ± appressed, with tiny glandular ones also Climbing or trailing shrub to 6 m, subglabrous or scarcely pubescent; hairs simple, few-celled, ± curved, usually ± appressed, with tiny glandular ones also.
Morphology Branches
Branches ± terete, slender, becoming somewhat woody Branches ± terete, slender, becoming somewhat woody.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves solitary; petiole 1–4.5 cm long; lamina membranous, 2.5–14 × 1. 5–10 cm, ovate to sometimes elliptic or obovate in outline, acute to truncate or cordate and somewhat unequal-sided at the base, subglabrous or pubescent at least along the margins and veins, and also with some glandular hairs often present beneath, mostly pinnatilobed to pinnatisect distally and pinnatisect proximally, with (3)5–7(9) lobes or segments, these 0.7–8.4 × 0.2–3.2 cm, the lowest often smaller and the upper ones mostly confluent with the rhachis, ovate to lanceolate, obovate to oblanceolate, elliptic or oblong, basally cuneate, truncate or sub-cordate and ± oblique, broadly attached to shortly stalked, apically obtuse to acute and often ± long-acuminate, entire or undulate, the sinuses broadly rounded to acute Leaves solitary; petiole 1–4.5 cm long; lamina membranous, 2.5–14 × 1.5–10 cm, ovate to sometimes elliptic or obovate in outline, acute to truncate or cordate and somewhat unequal-sided at the base, subglabrous or pubescent at least along the margins and veins, and also with some glandular hairs often present beneath, mostly pinnatilobed to pinnatisect distally and pinnatisect proximally, with (3)5–7(9) lobes or segments, these 0.7–8.4 × 0.2–3.2 cm, the lowest often smaller and the upper ones mostly confluent with the rhachis, ovate to lanceolate, obovate to oblanceolate, elliptic or oblong, basally cuneate, truncate or sub-cordate and ± oblique, broadly attached to shortly stalked, apically obtuse to acute and often ± long-acuminate, entire or undulate, the sinuses broadly rounded to acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes soon displaced laterally, showy, paniculiform or corymbiform, 4.5–17 cm long, ± lax, usually many-flowered, drooping, with the axes glabrous apart from a few glandular hairs; peduncle (0.5)1. 5–4.5(7.5) cm long, elongated to 9 cm in fruit Cymes soon displaced laterally, showy, paniculiform or corymbiform, 4.5–17 cm long, ± lax, usually many-flowered, drooping, with the axes glabrous apart from a few glandular hairs; peduncle (0.5)1.5–4.5(7.5) cm long, elongated to 9 cm in fruit.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers ± pendulous. Flowers ± pendulous; pedicels 5–16(19 in fruit) mm long, slender, slightly thickened upwards, abscissing near the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels 5–16(19 in fruit) mm long, slender, slightly thickened upwards, abscissing near the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx green to purplish upwards, 0.7–1. 2 mm long, campanulate or cupular, glabrous or glandular, apically truncate or with umbonate teeth to short, deltate, obtuse lobes tipped with a few hairs, in fruit not splitting at the sinuses Calyx green to purplish upwards, 0.7–1.2 mm long, campanulate or cupular, glabrous or glandular, apically truncate or with umbonate teeth to short, deltate, obtuse lobes tipped with a few hairs, in fruit not splitting at the sinuses.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla blue to mauve, purple or lilacineous, elsewhere rarely white, ± deeply stelliform, 12–29 mm across; lobes 5–12 × 2–7 mm, oblong or lanceolate, acutish from a tapering apex, with eglandular hairs along the margins and on the tip Corolla blue to mauve, purple or lilacineous, elsewhere rarely white, ± deeply stelliform, 12–29 mm across; lobes 5–12 × 2–7 mm, oblong or lanceolate, acutish from a tapering apex, with eglandular hairs along the margins and on the tip.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary c.  1 mm in diameter, globose or globose-conical, glabrous or with a few glandular hairs.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 6–11 mm long, slender, straight but curved at the apex, much exceeding the stamens
Note
Chromosome number: 2n=24
Ecology
Common in tropical and subtropical Africa. Evergreen and riverine forest, thickets, various types of woodland (mainly riparian and miombo), mixed woodland, grassland, hedges and gardens, rocky places; up to 1525 m.
Distribution
Botswana. Zimbabwe Zambia Originally from around the Caribbean from Mexico to Nicaragua and the West Indies, now widely cultivated as a garden ornamental for its showy flowers and brilliant fruits, naturalized in a number of parts of the world. Malawi Mozambique BOT SE, ZAM W, ZAM C, ZAM S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E ZIM S, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ S, MOZ M
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamen filaments 1.5–3.5 mm long; anthers 2–4 mm long, stout, oblong in outline, not or slightly tapering towards the apex. Stamen filaments 1. 5–3.5 mm long; anthers 2–4 mm long, stout, oblong in outline, not or slightly tapering towards the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary c. 1 mm in diameter, globose or globose-conical, glabrous or with a few glandular hairs; style 6–11 mm long, slender, straight but curved at the apex, much exceeding the stamens.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit bright to deep shiny red, 7–11 mm in diameter, globose to ovoid, finally pulpy, poisonous. Fruit bright to deep shiny red, 7–11 mm in diameter, globose to ovoid, finally pulpy, poisonous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds numerous, creamy to reddish-brown, 2.6–4 × 2–3.5 mm, sub-reniform or circular to obovate in outline, appearing hirsute with the remains of cell walls projecting outwards. Seeds numerous, creamy to reddish-brown, 2.6–4 × 2–3.5 mm, sub-reniform or circular to obovate in outline, appearing hirsute with the remains of cell walls projecting outwards
Cytology
Chromosome number: 2n=24.
[FZ]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: cultivated in Britain from seed sent from West Indies by Lord Seaforth; no specimens known to exist, lectotype t. 504 of Andrews (1808) designated by Symon (in Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4: 67 (1981))
Morphology General Habit
Vine, creeper, or trailing to scrambling shrub reaching 7 m high, climbing by means of twining petioles;
Morphology Stem
Stems woody basally, often becoming brittle, light green to brown, sparsely pilose to glabrescent with short eglandular hairs mixed with short glands
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate to spirally arranged, membranaceous, light green, 4.5–13.5 × 3.3–11 cm, usually partially or completely imparipinnate with 2–4 pairs of lateral leaflets, upper pairs often confluent with rachis, lowers ones often small; leaflets lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 2–5.5 × 1–4 cm, bases cuneate to attenuate, margins entire, apices acute to obtuse, surfaces ± pilose to glabrescent, hairs as on stems when present but denser on rhachides, margins, veins and midribs, sessile or shortly petiolulate (when up to 3 mm long); petioles 1.5–4.5 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal or leaf-opposed to extra-axillary when lateral, lax, pendent, many-flowered (to 50+) showy panicles or corymbs, 4.5–13.5 × 4–10 cm, often pyramidal; peduncles erect becoming pendent, 1.5–6 cm long; pedicels erect, with basal abscission layer, 7–12 mm long in flower, 12–30 mm long in fruit when swollen beneath calyx; calyx cupulate, shallow, 1–1.5 mm long, glabrous externally; lobes indistinct, shallowly deltate to broadly triangular, obtuse, 0.5–0.6 × 1.2–2 mm with indistinct apical tufts of hairs, becoming shrivelled and reflexed in fruit. Corolla mauve, purple or blue, sometimes with yellow basal star, showy, stellate, 1.4–2.8 cm diameter, tube 0.5–1 mm long, lobes broadly ovate, 5–11 × 3–5.5 mm, with shortly pilose margins and apical tufts of hairs, spreading to reflexed after anthesis exposing erect androecium
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually equal; filaments free for 1.6–4 mm, glabrous; anthers yellow, blue, violet to brown, 2.5–3.5 × 1.5–2 mm, with large apical pores, connivent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary brown, 1.3–2 × ± 1.7 mm, glabrous; style coiled or curved above, sometimes straight, 7–9.5 × ± 0.2 mm, glabrous, exserted to 5 mm; stigma globose, inconspicuous, 0.25 × 0.25–0.4 mm. Fruit usually borne erect, red, globose, 6–10 mm diameter, smooth, surrounded basally by small adherent triangular calyx lobes, often deciduous from calyces. Seeds 21–23 per berry, pale yellow to cream, obovoid, elliptic or orbicular, 2.2–3.6 × 1.3–3 mm, usually encircled with distinct rim, densely covered with long silky hair-like strands of thickening; sclerotic granules absent.
Ecology
Semi-deciduous forest, groundwater forest, grassland, farmland, plantations, forest reserves and gardens; 750–1550 m
Note
Commonly known as St Vincent or Brazilian Lilac, Glycine, Italian Jasmine, Seaforth’s Nightshade or Potato Creeper, this species has been cultivated worldwide since its introduction from the West Indies. The berries are reportedly poisonous to poultry, pigs, cattle, sheep and children in Australia, and in Zambia. The leaves sometimes emit an offensive odour when crushed, and the species is commonly spread by birds in Africa, where it has become widely established (cf. White, F.F.N.R.: 377). The punctuation used for the citation of the syntypes of var. disjunctum by Schulz is confusing; none of the syntypes cited has been seen. Schulz (1909) thought this variety occurred in Cuba, Guatemala and Costa Rica. He described the lower leaves in S. seaforthianum sensu stricto as being tri- or bi-jugate with the upper ones being simple or subjugate. His variety disjunctum was differentiated through having both the upper and the lower leaves pinnate. Although most African specimens of this species exhibit the latter feature, leaf morphology in species belonging to the section Dulcamara is notoriously variable and insufficiently reliable to be used as a basis for formal infraspecific recognition.
Distribution
Flora districts: U 1 (fide Bukenya & Carasco, U 1995); K4 K7 T2 T3 T6 Range: Native of the West Indies and C America Range: Now widely cultivated and a common and often naturalised escape in Senegal, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Nigeria, Congo-Kinshasa, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa Range: Egypt, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion and the Comoro Islands, Australia, New Guinea
[FTEA]

Distribution
Biogeografic region: Andean, Caribbean. Elevation range: 100–1500 m a.s.l. Cultivated in Colombia. Native to Colombia. Colombian departments: Antioquia, Cundinamarca, Huila, Magdalena, Norte de Santander, Santander, Tolima, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Liana, Climbing.
Ecology
Habitat according IUCN Habitats Classification: forest and woodland, savanna, shrubland, artificial - terrestrial.
[UPFC]

Uses

Use Environmental
Environmental uses.
Use Food
Used for food.
Use Materials
Used as material.
Use Medicines
Medical uses.
Use Poisons
Poisons.
[UPFC]

Sources

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible

    • ColPlantA 2021. Published on the Internet at http://colplanta.org
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2023. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2022 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0