Capsicum frutescens L.

First published in Sp. Pl.: 189 (1753)
This species is accepted
The native range of this species is S. Mexico to Tropical America. It is a subshrub or shrub and grows primarily in the seasonally dry tropical biome. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders, has environmental uses, as a poison and a medicine and for food.

Distribution

Native to:

Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Burundi, Cambodia, Canary Is., Caroline Is., Chad, Christmas I., Cook Is., East Himalaya, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Line Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Malawi, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Niue, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Samoa, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tunisia, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Wake I., West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Synonyms

Homotypic Synonyms

Heterotypic Synonyms

Classification

Kew's Tree of Life Explorer

Discover the flowering plant tree of life and the genomic data used to build it.

View the Tree of Life
PAFTOL

POWO follows these authorities in accepting this name:

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II. Boissiera 58: 1-401.
  • Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. in Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R. C. (1965). Flora of Java 2: 1-641. N.V.P. Noordhoff, Groningen, The Netherlands.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Baroza, G.E., Carrizo García, C., de Bem Bianchetti, L., Romero, M.V. & Scaldaferro, M. (2022). Monograph of wild and cultivated chili peppers (Capsicum L., Solanaceae). PhytoKeys 200: 1-423.
  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis. PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Renvoize, S.A. (1980). The Flora of Aldabra and neighbouring islands: 1-358. Crown, London.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist. Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2. Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • H?, P.-H. (1993). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam 2(2): 611-1191. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae). Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hợp, V.V. (2017). Thực Vật Chí Việt Nam. Flora of Vietnam 17: 1-324. Nhà xuất bản khoa học và kỹ thuật, Hà Nội.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Khan, M.S. & Mia, C. (2002). Flora of Bangladesh 53: 1-48. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands. Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée. Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh lục các loài thực vật Việt Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà Nội : Nhà xuất bản Nông nghiệp.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Nasir, Y.J. (1985). Flora of Pakistan 168: 1-61. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Plunkett, G.M., Ranker, T.A., Sam, C. & Balick, M.J. (2022). Towards a checklist of the vascular flora of Vanuatu. Candollea 77: 105-118.
  • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Sinha, G.P. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora of Mizoram 2: 1-649. Botanical Survey of India.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2020). Flore du Gabon 55: 1-137. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue. Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea). Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Whistler, W.A. (2022). Flora of Samoa Flowering Plants: 1-930. National Tropical Botanicl Garden. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.

An alternative taxonomy had been proposed by the following authorities:

  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne. [Cited as Capsicum annuum.]
  • Hul, S. & Dy Phon, P. (2014). Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-Nam 35: 1-93. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. [Cited as Capsicum annuum.]

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chev. Bot. 467.
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 251
  • Sp. Pl. 189 (1753)

Flora Zambesiaca

  • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 413 (1852).
  • Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 594 (1974).
  • Bothalia 14: 845 (1983).
  • Brenan & Greenway, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 573 (1949).
  • Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1898: 77 (1898).
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 251 (1906).
  • Fl. Cabo Verde, fam. 71: 31 (2002). Described from India.
  • J. Williamson, Useful Pl. Nyasaland, ed. 2: 30 (1955).
  • Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 53: 123 (1986).
  • Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 56: 176 (1987).
  • Purseglove, Trop. Crops, Dictoyl. 2: 526, fig. 84/B (1969).
  • R.E. Fries, Wiss. Ergebn. Schwed. Rhod.-Kongo-Exped.: 287 (1916).
  • Robyns, Fl. Sperm. Parc Nat. Alb. 2: 205 (1947).
  • Sp. Pl.: 189 (1753) pro parte excl. cit. Hort. Cliff. et Hort. Malab.
  • T. & H. Durand, Syll. Fl. Congol.: 396 (1909).
  • Taxon 18: 278, 283, fig. 1 (1969).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2022). https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.539.2.3. epublication.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II. Boissiera 58: 1-401.
  • Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. in Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R. C. (1965). Flora of Java 2: 1-641. N.V.P. Noordhoff, Groningen, The Netherlands.
  • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
  • Baroza, G.E., Carrizo García, C., de Bem Bianchetti, L., Romero, M.V. & Scaldaferro, M. (2022). Monograph of wild and cultivated chili peppers (Capsicum L., Solanaceae). PhytoKeys 200: 1-423.
  • Bikandu, B., Lukoki, F. & Habari, J.P. (2020). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis. PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
  • Craib, W.G. (1954). Florae Siamensis enumeratio 3(2): 1-81. Siam society, Bangkok, Thailand.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1988). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 6: 1-424. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe. Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Renvoize, S.A. (1980). The Flora of Aldabra and neighbouring islands: 1-358. Crown, London.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist. Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae. Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2. Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • H?, P.-H. (1993). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam 2(2): 611-1191. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae). Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Khan, M.S. & Mia, C. (2002). Flora of Bangladesh 53: 1-48. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands. Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée. Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Merrill, E.D. (1923). An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants 3: 1-628. Bureau of Science, Manila.
  • Nasir, Y.J. (1985). Flora of Pakistan 168: 1-61. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Plunkett, G.M., Ranker, T.A., Sam, C. & Balick, M.J. (2022). Towards a checklist of the vascular flora of Vanuatu. Candollea 77: 105-118.
  • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2020). Flore du Gabon 55: 1-137. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue. Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Wilder, G. P. (1934). The flora of Makatea CNV. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 120: 1-49.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.

Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

  • Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R., & Celis, M. (eds.). (2020). Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia. v1.1. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dataset/Checklist. https://doi.org/10.15472/7avdhn
  • Diazgranados et al. (2021). Catalogue of plants of Colombia. Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia project. In prep.
  • Diazgranados, M., Allkin, B., Black N., Cámara-Leret, R., Canteiro C., Carretero J., Eastwood R., Hargreaves S., Hudson A., Milliken W., Nesbitt, M., Ondo, I., Patmore, K., Pironon, S., Turner, R., Ulian, T. (2020). World Checklist of Useful Plant Species. Produced by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity.
  • FPI (2021). Food Plants International. https://fms.cmsvr.com/fmi/webd/Food_Plants_World?homeurl=https://foodplantsinternational.com/plants/
  • IUCN (2021). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-2. https://www.iucnredlist.org.
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Jansen, P., Lemmens, R., Oyen, L., Siemonsma, J., Stavast, F. & Van Valkenburg, J. (1991) Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Basic list of species and commodity grouping. Final version. Pudoc, Wageningen.
  • Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) v.10 (2021); http://mpns.kew.org/
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • 9th Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard.: 65 (1898);
  • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 413 (1852)
  • DeWitt & Bosland, Peppers of the World: 17 (1996);
  • Durand & Durand, Syll. Fl. Cong.; 396 (1909);
  • E.P.A. 2: 860 (1963);
  • F.P.N.A. 2: 205 (1947);
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 251 (1906);
  • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2:328 (1963);
  • F.Z. 8(4): 60 (2005);
  • Fingerhuth, Monogr. gen. capsici: 17 (1832), as frutescens Willd.
  • Fl. Cabo Verde 71: 31 (2002)
  • Fl. Egypt 6: 75 (1998);
  • Fl. Eth. 5 : 148 (2006)
  • Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 3: 751 (1898)
  • Mill., Gard. Dict. Ed. 8, No. 9 (1768)
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 189 (1753)
  • T.T.C.L.: 573 (1949);
  • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 3: 360 (1985);
  • U.O.P.Z.: 170 (1949);

Other Data

Other Kew resources that provide information on this taxon:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status Has image?
Jun 14, 2007 Ellen, R. [1064] Indonesia K000224431 Yes
Jun 14, 2007 Ellen, R. [1237] Indonesia K000224426 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Higgins, J.; Paris, P. [5] Dominica K000809083 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Jansen-Jacobs, M.J.; Nic Lughadha, E.M.; ter Welle, B.J.H.; Gopaul, D. [1809] Guyana K000809087 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 McIlhenny, P. [s.n.] United States K000809081 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Hooker, J.D.(?) [s.n.] Cabo Verde K001134495 Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Kotschy [292] Sudan K000195146 Unknown Type Material Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Kotschy [292] Sudan K000195147 Unknown Type Material Yes
Jan 1, 2005 Vogel [s.n.] Cabo Verde K001134487 Yes
Jan 1, 2004 Spruce, R. [s.n.] Peru K000201916 Yes
Feb 1, 2002 Biye, E. [69] Cameroon K000109661 Yes
Feb 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1548] Cameroon K000109662 Yes
Feb 1, 2002 Biye, E. [57] Cameroon K000109663 Yes
Jan 1, 1992 Thomas, W.W.; Carvalho, A.; Sant'Ana, S.; Jardim J.G.; Gebhards F. [9080] Brazil K000809088 Yes
Jan 1, 1992 Beck, H.T.; Pires, M.J.; Amerigo, M.; Souza, R.J.; Silva, N.T., da; Costa, R.E.S. [87] Brazil K001073007 Yes
Jan 1, 1990 Balée, W.L.; Gely, A. [910] Brazil K001073005 Yes
Jan 1, 1989 Nee, M. [34412] Brazil K000809089 Yes
Jan 1, 1982 Harley, R.M. [22736] Brazil K000809090 Yes
Milliken, W. [1755] Brazil K001073006 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2642] K001116727 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2642] K001116728 Unknown Type Material Yes
Bourgeau, M. [2076] Mexico K000063179 Yes
Vázquez T., M.; colaboradores [673] Mexico K000063186 Yes
Gaumer, G.F. [70] Mexico K000063180 Yes
Thailand K:SPC-66138.000 No
Belcher, R.O; Juan, G.E. [52] India K000592616 Yes
Thailand K:SPC-66152.000 No
Hinton, G.B. [4336] Mexico K000063184 Yes
Palmer, E. [394] Mexico K000063182 Yes
Guyana K:SPC-66107.000 No
González, V. [975] Mexico K000063183 Type Yes
K:SPC-36743.000 No
Rich, H.H. [883] India K000592615 Yes
[Pavish] [s.n.] India K000592622 Yes
Chancellor, R.J. [279] Uganda K:SPC-02534.000 No
Gaumer, G.F. [1019] Mexico K000063177 Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2642] K001116726 Unknown Type Material Yes
Hinton, G.B.; et al. [8119] Mexico K000063185 Yes
Saint-Hilaire, A.F.C.P. [s.n.] Brazil K001073010 Yes
Gaumer, G.F. Mexico K000063181 Yes
Burchell, W.J. [3459] Brazil K001073009 Yes
s.coll. [39] Bangladesh K000592611 Yes
Thailand K:SPC-66129.000 No
Eiten, G.; Eiten, L.T. [10140] Brazil K001073008 Yes
India K:SPC-80227.000 No
Capsicum minimum K:SPC-17702.000 No
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2641] Capsicum minimum K001116724 Unknown Type Material Yes
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2641] Capsicum minimum K001116725 Unknown Type Material Yes

Sources

  • Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora Zambesiaca

    • Flora Zambesiaca
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

    • Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
  • IUCN Categories

    • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Kew Backbone Distributions

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Living Collection Database

    • Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
  • Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone

    • The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants 2024. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and https://powo.science.kew.org/
    • © Copyright 2023 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Vascular Plants. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
  • Kew Science Photographs

    • Copyright applied to individual images
  • Useful Plants and Fungi of Colombia

    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
  • Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

    • ColPlantA database
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    • http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/